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mLearning (mobile learning) seminar Philip Uys


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mLearning (mobile learning) seminar by Philip Uys. June 2011. Applicable to both developing countries and developed countries.

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mLearning (mobile learning) seminar Philip Uys

  1. 1. Increasing options for student learning through the use of mobile devices Dr Philip Uys Director, Strategic Learning and Teaching Innovation Division of Learning and Teaching Services Charles Sturt University, Australia <>
  2. 3. Key tenets of mLearning <ul><li>mLearning deals with the mobility of the learner (anywhere, anytime) </li></ul><ul><li>It also integrates other uses of mobile devices (e.g. polls in the classroom) </li></ul><ul><li>Universities are using the students’ devices (not the university’s) , and we are moving into their world in a more direct and personal way </li></ul><ul><li>mLearning supports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personalised learning par excellence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports authentic, situated, contingent and contextualised learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports emergent learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports social constructivist learning via direct communication and social media. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is difficult to define mobile devices because of the greyness of such a definition, but here is an attempt: </li></ul><ul><li>A mobile device is typically a pocket-sized or handheld computing communication device having a display screen with touch input, keypad or keyboard. Mobile Devices are typically wireless enabled allowing access to the Internet and use mobile Web 2.0 tools to connect and engage with some computing capabilities. </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>mLearning within CSU’s online learning environment </li></ul>
  4. 5. (Buchan, 2010) Para-analysis
  5. 6. Synopsis <ul><li>The seminar aims to encourage discussion about new options for student learning through the use of mobile devices. </li></ul><ul><li>These new options relate to students accessing learning materials; accessing learning support materials; performing learning tasks; participating in learning interactions; performing assessment tasks; and evaluating teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>Typical personas , real life examples , issues espoused in the literature will be discussed and built upon. </li></ul>
  6. 7. The seminar aims to encourage discussion about new options for student learning through the use of mobile devices
  7. 8. Structure <ul><li>Introduction – with discussion </li></ul><ul><li>1. Students accessing learning materials </li></ul><ul><li>2. Performing learning tasks </li></ul><ul><li>3. Participating in learning interactions </li></ul><ul><li>4. Performing assessment tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Students accessing learning support </li></ul><ul><li>6. Evaluating teaching </li></ul><ul><li>7. Issues: Ethical; Educational; Technical; Other </li></ul><ul><li>Closing </li></ul><ul><li>Note: The six areas are not watertight and overlap, separated merely as a framework </li></ul>
  8. 9. Introduction <ul><li>Africa visit of seven universities plus workshop at eLearning Africa conference </li></ul><ul><li>2. Focus on student learning </li></ul><ul><li>Not student access to general administrative information e.g. time tables, maps </li></ul><ul><li>Not staff use (although implications and overlaps) </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>3. Some recent studies </li></ul><ul><li>Abilene Christian University (Tim Klapdor visited): initial findings from 2008 to 2009 were above 80% satisfaction and the last two years this has risen to over 90%. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Oklahoma State University reported 75% agreed or strongly agreed with the statement, “I think the iPad enhanced the learning experience of this course.” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>4. Some international developments </li></ul><ul><li>• The Horizon Project is a long-running qualitative research project that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, research, or creative expression within learning-focused organisations. For the last three years mobile learning has featured as the number one emerging technology both internationally and in Australasia </li></ul><ul><li>• Mobile devices (such as Phones, Smart phones, PDA’s, Tablets, Netbooks and Portable Gaming Platforms) are more common and we are seeing an increase in usage of handheld ‘mobile’ devices by staff, community members and students. Many of these are Internet capable , able to connect to the Internet via a wireless connection, or via the 3G mobile phone network.. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>• A changing trend in hardware towards mobile computing in a variety of forms. A multitude of Mobile Operating Systems are in development including Apple’s iPhone OS, Google’s Android, Microsoft’s Windows Mobile and various Linux based systems. These are being launched in conjunction with the next wave of Tablet hardware (See: Apple iPad ; Motorola Xoom and Samsung Galaxy Tab There is a considerable market push towards Tablets and Netbooks </li></ul><ul><li>A typical Smartphone has not only a wireless internet connection but a GPS, accelerometer, compass and multi-touch interface which can be developed to create a much more personal experience where content can be delivered, created and contextualized by a student’s physical location. </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Tremendous growth in the number of new mobile devices, specifically tablets , expected over the next few years. Gartner predicts word wide rollout of 54.8 million tablet units in 2011, 103.4 million in 2012 and 154.2 million in 2013 on top of the 11 million sold in 2010. Source . </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>In the 3 years (2006-2009) mobile web traffic on the AT&T network in the USA increased 50 times, up 4,932%. AT&T, Morgan Stanley Research </li></ul><ul><li>At the March 2011 introduction of iPad 2, Apple CEO Steve Jobs shared recent numbers on Apple's &quot;post-PC&quot; sales and market share. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>• Apple recently shipped their 100 millionth iPhone. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>• Apple has sold 15 million iPads - that's more than every tablet PC ever sold. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>• There are 65,000 apps specifically developed for the iPad. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>• There are more 350,000 apps available on the iPhone. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>• More than 10 Billion Apps have been downloaded from the App Store. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Relevant to CSU: the iPhone is the clear market leader in Australia with over 74% market share followed by Android with 13% ; in terms of tablets the iPad has a 92% share. iOS devices, which includes iPhones, iPods and iPads, account for more than 5% of the total web traffic in Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>In the final quarter of 2010 Fortune reported that Smartphones outsold PCs for the first time – a full two years before the prediction by Morgan Stanley – and according to the UN Telecommunications Agency 77% of the world’s population now has mobile devices . </li></ul><ul><li>99% of the students of the Catholic University of Mozambique has a cell phone , while less than 10% have computers </li></ul><ul><li>While mobile devices are often in developing contexts the primary device , these devices are often secondary devices in developed contexts. </li></ul><ul><li>The technology is here in both developing and developed contexts, ready, available and in wide spread use </li></ul><ul><li>right now. </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>5. mLearning at Charles Sturt University </li></ul><ul><li>CSU Educational Technology Survey among students (July 2010 ; n = 4000) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A large majority (87%) of students indicated that they wanted to revisit work from lectures on their handheld/mobile device. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students were evenly split (50/50) among those who wish to access on campus information; subject information; subject readings; assessments or notifications on a handheld/mobile device. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>42% of students already had Internet enabled mobile phones. (Note that this survey was done very shortly after the iPad was launched in Australia). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since 2005 we have surveyed our first year students in the School of Communication about a range of technology/media issues. Of the 207 surveyed in 2010 - 94% own a portable media player (e.g. iPod) and 80% use iTunes at least weekly.&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Investigation in 2010 identified need and options </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Podcasting tool in Interact </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>ePortfolio/PLE (Pebblepad) iPhone/iPod/iPad apps, as well as mobile web </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>CSU Replay (Echo360) which caters for lesson recording and vodcasts - access planned via iTunesU (second half of 2011) </li></ul><ul><li>proposed for 2011 and 2012: and awaiting funding by mid-June 2011 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile Interact (Sakai Open Academic Environment) – our LMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile device trials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile learning materials primarily for distance students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile subject evaluation at the end of each session </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>General mobile access available: mobile web available targeting iphones and android phones </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Mobile app this year will in addition have: </li></ul><ul><li>• campus maps </li></ul><ul><li>• contacts </li></ul><ul><li>• student news </li></ul><ul><li>• centralised messaging centre (up to 10 different sources ) </li></ul>
  20. 22. a. Learning Packages Kevin (20) is a student stuck in public transport in a regional location. While waiting to get home he uses his mobile device (an android tablet) to download information regarding his subject, including  the subject study guide. He is then able to make use of this time to read through the content. b. eResources Michael (23) is a final year Vet student. His study is based in Cape Town but he is going to do his 3rd clinical rotation in a dairy practice in Humansdorp. Cattle are not his strong point, so he uses his iPad to download some readings and journals about common procedures that he can review in the field, or listen in audio format on the drive to the farm.
  21. 23. c. eBooks Martha (28) is studying by distance. Whilst on the train she is able to browse books and resources in an online store on her iPad. Before she reaches her destination she has read a few samples and chosen to purchase an eBook of her prescribed text so she can avoid lugging the large volume print copy to and from work. d. Pod/Vodcasts Rachel (43) has two children and is enrolled in CSU through distance education. She uses mobile technology mostly to complete her readings while on the move. She would like to be able to access podcasts of her lectures while she is preparing dinner using iTunesU, and on her hands free mobile phone while travelling to work and socially
  22. 24. <ul><ul><li>e. Digital Object Management system (DOMS) Susan (35) is a student doing two Early Childhood subjects in Education. Susan is able to use her tablet to search for resources that other students and staff have created that are stored in the DOMS. She has found a couple of great resources and is able to quickly add them to her own collection for assessment and review purposes. Susan is able to quickly share the resource with other students by sending them links. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. Please email me <> other possibilities or personas
  24. 26. 3. Performing learning tasks
  25. 27. a. In the Learning Management System Andre (42) is a 4th year education student on practicum in a small country town teaching year 2 children. He uses an iPad to access his Learning Management System modules, and have a sense of it being a personal and personalised experience, and communicate with other students in the class using the chat tool. b. ePortfolio/Personal Learning System Liz (24) is a final year student in B. Information Studies (DE only), currently studying Social Networking in Info Studies subject. She is able to update her ePortfolio using her smart phone to keep a record of any meetings that she will have in regards to work or study. She also uses the Pebble Pad application on her smart phone to document emergent/unintentional learning.
  26. 28. c. Mobile Capture Mick (44) is a mature age student, family man and farming outside Putsonderwater. He is in his second year of study doing an joint agricultural /health science diploma by DE. Out in the field, where there is no network connection, Mick is still able to use his phone to take photos of examples from his study guide which are also geo-tagged. When he is back at the homestead he is able to upload them to the forums for discussion with his peers. This supports contingent learning (reacting to the environment and changing experiences), situated learning (learning takes place in the surroundings that make learning meaningful). send x-ray with comments to academic for upload/upload in LMS send x-ray with comments to academic for upload/upload in LMS send x-ray with comments to academic for upload/upload in LMS Mick also sends x-rays from outstations with comments to the academic for upload in the LMS, or sometimes upload it himself at the homestead.
  27. 29. e. Mobile Publishing Hannah (25) is a second year Graphic Design student on campus in Cape Town. She is doing a group assignment which is due after the Easter break when most people seem to be heading home. Before the group heads off they decided that while they are all away to collect cool signage examples they see. Using her smart phone Hannah is able to take photos of things when she sees them (which are also geo-tagged) and upload them straight to a Flickr album the group are sharing. Others can view the album and make comments immediately and vice-versa. The group is able to choose their favourites and decide what direction they will be going with before the break is over. This supports  context aware learning (learning is informed by the surroundings and environment of the learner).
  28. 30. f. Educational games Joseph (19) is a first year Mathematics student on campus in Johannesburg. He travels regularly by train to the campus. He often access educational games that his academic created to introduce complex issues on his quite basic cell phone. He enjoys the playfulness of this way of studying and it helps to remove the stress that he used to feel about this subject. These interactions are commercially sponsored. g. Note taking/making Joseph also uses his cell phone – but some of his class mates use their tablets - to take cryptic notes in class that he then reviews while travelling.
  29. 31. Please email me <> other possibilities or personas
  30. 32. 4. Participating in learning interactions
  31. 33. a. Classroom Interaction Tiffany (18) is an school leaver and full time first year student living on-campus in Pretoria student accommodation. She is studying a Bachelor of Communication. During a class, Tiffany is asked to respond to a poll on which TV channel offers the most trusted news. She is able to answer using her smart phone while others in the class use their laptops and tablet computers. The next slide shows the results of the poll which leads into a conversation over why one news sources is perceived to be more trustworthy than another. Tiffany feels engaged with the class which is animated and lively. b. CHAT Andre (42) is a 4th year education student on practicum in a small country town teaching year 2 children. He uses an iPad to access his Learning Management System modules and communicates with other students in the class using the chat tool. In addition, he belongs to a Mixit study group where he also participates actively in chats. He is also a bof on using his mobile phone to participate in Twitter discussions.
  32. 34. c. Learning Management System Forums George (22) is on practicum for his nursing subject. He uses his mobile device to to access the online forums to see how his peers are going and to share his experiences. During his rounds he has had to deal with a particularly difficult patient and during his break post how he and his supervisor dealt with the situation. This stimulates a long thread of other students sharing stories and techniques that they have picked up. He also loads it up to his blog. Other students are able to read these and feel more prepared if they are placed in similar circumstances. This supports authentic learning (meaningful learning tasks are related to immediate learning goals). <ul><ul><li>d. Messaging System – Organic/socialisation Matt (19) is from Sydney and is new student recruit in School of Policing, Goulburn.  He’s into music, videos, online gaming and footy and quite a sociable person. Matt is able to contact and make new friends with his peers from a number of different subjects through a Facebook group that was setup for first year students. They are able to keep in touch about their study as well as share information about the area - where to go and what to do using his mobile phone (a Blackberry which allows free calls and SMS to other Blackberry phones). He’s also joined a couple of other groups since and even set one up to get together for one of the difficult law subjects so they can plan to meet and test each other before the exam. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 35. e. Messaging System  - the Learning Management System Pete (41) is an academic teaching a distance education cohort in the deep Karoo, with only two residential schools per session per year. His students in the region have intermittent Internet access at best and the mobile networks are far more robust. Pete sends notifications to students (using SMS) regarding the availability of new Internet resources as they are posted so students know when they need to get online. f. Web Application Client Liz (24) is a final year student in Bachelor of Information Studies currently studying a Social Networking subject. The class is immersed and engaged with variety of Web 2.0 tools. Using a web application client, the class is able to aggregate and share content on their Galaxy Tablet from a variety of sites and applications in one central location. For Liz this is a great time saver. She can also use tools she is already using and familiar with. This supports personalised learning (learning is customised for the preferences, history and abilities of individual learners or groups of learners).
  34. 36. Please email me <> other possibilities or personas
  35. 37. 5. Performing assessment tasks
  36. 38. a. Self Assessment Tools James (29) is studying a health science degree. James is about to undertake a multiple choice test on the train as part of his subject revision. To access this, James uses his tablet and an environment specifically designed for mobile use.  Once complete, James will get instantaneous feedback from the test and see where he may need to focus his studies for the exam b. Individual and Group assessment The academic upload x-rays in the LMS. James and other students,are then requested to comment on the x-rays. They access the LMS from their mobile phones and submit their comments for feedback by other students and the academic.
  37. 39. c. OLE Access – online assignment submission Sam (28) is a trainee parks manager completing a Bachelor of Environmental Sciences. Sam is struggling to connect to anything because of his location (very remote). Sam struggles with a poor internet connection on his homestead but is able to get mobile reception in some locations with higher elevation. Sam is able to take his tablet computer and submit his assessments using his mobile connection saving a long trek into town. Mobile learning thus addresses geographical or spatial distance.
  38. 40. Please email me <> other possibilities or personas
  39. 42. a. Subject Outline/Syllabus Patrick (37) is a post grad MBA student part time that works in the city with a 45min commute each way. During his commute he remembers that one of his assessments is due next week but can’t remember the exact date. Using his smart phone he logs into the Learning Management System, checks his subject outline and then marks it into his calendar with a reminder for the weekend. b. Learning Skills Toolkit Said (22) is an international student studying Bachelor of Business on the Cape Town Campus. He often finds he needs to translate and get the definitions of words used in his lectures. He also struggles with APA referencing having used the Harvard format previously. By accessing his Toolkit from his smart phone he is able to find words and meanings during the lecture and follow the lecture better. He is also able to convert his references from Harvard to APA for his assessments.
  40. 43. c. Learning Support Tools Robyn (58) is a mature age student returning to study after 25 years in the workforce. She is struggling with the Learning Management System and with the DE materials that are so different from when she got her degree. Fortunately she is able to access a range of resources and tools to help her, including interactive tutorials so she is able to see how things work. She has to contribute to a Wiki in one of her subjects and after watching a video showing how wiki formatting is done she feels more confident. She has downloaded a cheat sheet to her mobile that lists all the codes so she can refer to it quickly whenever and wherever she needs to. d. Mobile Device Library Grace (19) is a first year undergraduate student and has just borrowed a Kindle from the library. The Kindle is preloaded with the textbook she needs, as well as guides to Academic writing, referencing, successful database searching, evaluating information and a campus map to help her find her way around the campus. Grace has the Kindle for a two week loan period and can take it with her on practicum if she needs to.
  41. 44. e. Personal Learning Support Robyn (58) (the mature age student returning to study after 25 years in the workforce) periodically SMS and phone her academic about her personal struggles with this transition.
  42. 45. Please email me <> other possibilities or personas
  43. 46. 6. Evaluating teaching
  44. 47. a. Classroom Feedback Leanne (31) - first year academic teaching Accounting. It’s her first full time teaching position and she is nervous about her performance and she will be in charge of reviewing and updating the subject next session. Leanne wants to ensure that she is engaging with the students, that they are finding the subject information useful and the assessments beneficial so she has deployed a range of feedback tools to her subject materials. Students can “like” sections of the online modules as well as make comments, which are recorded anonymously. Students have already commented on a number of areas that are difficult to understand and she now knows that they need further development. Students are able to update their comments simultaneously, using a their smart phone. b. Clickers Don (19) studies on-campus and is invited during lessons to provided feedback by using his mobile phone. There is no cost to the student in using this system. It is replacing clickers in the classroom which they used last year.
  45. 48. c. Mobile Subject Evaluation Archna (23) is a third year communications student. She is sitting in a café when a notification comes through that it is time to review her subject. Using her mobile device Archna is able to expedite a very concise subject evaluation of her Com 340 subject. The review takes Archna seven minutes and is then able to go back to her conversation.
  46. 49. Please email me <> other possibilities or personas
  47. 51. Ethical issues <ul><li>Inequity across different socio-economic groups and ability to use the technology – organisation could provide; alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation: disputes around tumour creation, impact on fertility - appropriate risk reduction strategies (e.g. Cancer Foundation of SA) </li></ul><ul><li>Negative impact on sight and hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile use in class, and in assessment contexts </li></ul>
  48. 53. Ethical issues <ul><li>Privacy issue of being able to identify cell identification numbers when “anonymous” participation is required </li></ul><ul><li>Fuelling addiction? </li></ul>
  49. 54. Please email me <> with other issues
  50. 55. Educational issues <ul><li>Integrated within blended and flexible learning </li></ul>
  51. 57. Educational issues <ul><li>Deep space learning versus shallow learning </li></ul><ul><li>Real communication vs mediated </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciate varied learning preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Respect cognitive load (“head space”) </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations of multi-tasking </li></ul><ul><li>Redefined role of the teacher/educator? </li></ul>
  52. 58. Educational issues <ul><li>Informal/mobile language acceptable? </li></ul><ul><li>Netiquette </li></ul>
  53. 59. Please email me <> with other issues
  54. 60. Technical issues <ul><li>Variable access (also regional and rural Australia – National Broadband Network) </li></ul>
  55. 61. Technical issues <ul><li>Variable platforms (apps against open “web” philosophy) </li></ul>
  56. 62. Please email me <> with other issues
  57. 63. General issues <ul><li>Is it a fad? </li></ul>Gartner’s Hype cycle
  58. 64. General issues <ul><li>Spaces are not neutral e.g. in assessment and evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Security (“mobile crime”!) </li></ul><ul><li>Political, socio-economic factors and impact </li></ul><ul><li>Understand mLearning within an educational change management framework </li></ul>
  59. 65. Four key change management variables <ul><li>1. P eople 2. T asks 3. Organisational Structure/design 4. Technology </li></ul>
  60. 66. LASO model (Uys, P.M., 2007): top down and bottom up strategies need to work in unison
  61. 67. In a time of drastic change it is the learners who survive, the ‘learned’ find themselves fully equipped to live in a world that no longer exists Eric Hoffer
  62. 68. Please email me <> other issues
  63. 69. Conclusion <ul><li>Take-home messages (next steps) </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of seminar </li></ul>
  64. 70. <ul><ul><li>The future is not some place we are going to, but one we are creating; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The paths to it are not found but made, and the activity of making them changes both the maker and the destination. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peter Ellyard as cited by Hogan 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Hogan, C. (2003) Practical Facilitation. A toolkit of Techniques . Kogan Page, London and Sterling, VA. </li></ul>
  65. 71. Ownership, initiative, ingenuity, responsibility
  66. 72. Thank you Dr Philip Uys Director, Strategic Learning and Teaching Innovation Division of Learning and Teaching Services Charles Sturt University, Australia <>
  67. 73. Links <ul><li>Personal mLearning collection (growing – please email me links!) </li></ul><ul><li>(Slideshare presentation of this seminar is accessible from this collection) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>2010 CSU Mobile Learning Investigation: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Uys, P. M. (2010, December). Implementing an open source learning management system: A critical analysis of change strategies. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 26(7), 980-995. </li></ul><ul><li>Uys, P.M. (2007). Enterprise-Wide Technological Transformation in Higher Education: The LASO Model. International Journal of Educational Management (ISSN: 0951-354X), Emerald, UK. 08 uysLASOmodel.htm </li></ul><ul><li>CSU Educational Technology Dashboard </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>CSU Educational Technology Framework </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>