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English paper assigment/tugas makalah bahasa inggris lengkap dengan contoh soal dan jawaban + daftar pustaka

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READING, GRAMMAR,DIALOGUE lengkap dengan contoh soal dan jawaban + daftar pustaka. report text, necessity, conditional if, causative have and get, and many more. totally 37 topics

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English paper assigment/tugas makalah bahasa inggris lengkap dengan contoh soal dan jawaban + daftar pustaka

  1. 1. ENGLISH PAPER ASSIGNMENT CREATED BY : PUTRI SAGITA UTAMI CLASS : XII MIA 2 SMA N 36 JAKARTA 1
  2. 2. PREFACE Thank to Almighty God who has given His bless to the writer for finishing the English paper assignment. The writer also wish to express his deep and sincere gratitude for those who have guided in completing this paper, especially to Mrs.Nurintan Tarigan,M.Pd as the english teacher that always teaches us and give much knowledge about how to practice English well. This English paper contains some question of understanding reading, dialogue, and grammar that can help to improve the skill. I realized this assighment is not perfect. But I hope it can be useful for us. Critics and suggestion is needed here to make this assignment be better. Jakarta, December 30th, 2015 Putri Sagita Utami NIS : 25313 2
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface.......................................................................................................................................2 Table of contents........................................................................................................................3 CHAPTER I : Reading (text).....................................................................................................4 Narrative..................................................................................................................................5- 8 Report (VIDEO)....................................................................................................................9-14 Spoof...................................................................................................................................15-18 Descriptive..........................................................................................................................19-22 News Item (VIDEO)...........................................................................................................23-28 Hortatory Exposition...........................................................................................................29-32 Procedure (VIDEO)............................................................................................................33-37 Recount...............................................................................................................................38-41 Analitical Expotition...........................................................................................................42-46 Discussion...........................................................................................................................47-52 Advertisments.....................................................................................................................53-56 Brocures..............................................................................................................................57-61 Poster/Phamplets.................................................................................................................62-64 Aplication Letter.................................................................................................................65-70 Formal/Informal Invitation Card.........................................................................................71-78 Caption................................................................................................................................79-83 CHAPTER II : Dialogue..........................................................................................................84 Giving Advice.....................................................................................................................85-89 Asking Information.............................................................................................................90-93 Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction..........................................................................................94-99 Agree and Disagree.........................................................................................................100-104 Offering and Asking for Help (VIDEO).........................................................................105-108 Surprising........................................................................................................................109-113 Giving Sympathy............................................................................................................114-118 Like and Dislike..............................................................................................................119-123 Asking, Giving, and Refusing Permission......................................................................124-130 Apologizing.....................................................................................................................131-136 Ability and Inability (VIDEO)........................................................................................137-140 Giving Opinion...............................................................................................................141-144 Inviting (VIDEO)............................................................................................................145-150 Wish and Hopes..............................................................................................................151-157 Expressing Necessity......................................................................................................158-162 CHAPTER III : Grammar......................................................................................................163 Active and Passive..........................................................................................................164-169 Direct and Indirect..........................................................................................................170-178 Conditional If (VIDEO)..................................................................................................179-182 Subjunctive wish (VIDEO).............................................................................................183-185 Causative have and get (VIDEO)....................................................................................186-189 Noun Phrase and Adjective Phrase.................................................................................190-197 Closing....................................................................................................................................19 8 Reference................................................................................................................................202 3
  4. 4. CHAPTER I READING (TEXT) 4
  5. 5. NARRATIVE TEXT A. The definition of narrative text Narrative text is a story with complication or problematic events and it tries to find the resolutions to solve the problems. An important part of narrative text is the narrative mode, the set of methods used to communicate the narrative through a process narration. B. The purpose of narrative text The Purpose of Narrative Text is to amuse or to entertain the reader with a story. C. Generic Structures of Narrative Text 1) Orientation Sets the scene: where and when the story happened and introduces the participants of the story: who and what is involved in the story. 2) Complication Tells the beginning of the problems which leads to the crisis (climax) of the main participants. 3) Resolution The problem (the crisis) is resolved, either in a happy ending or in a sad (tragic) ending 4) Re-orientation/Coda This is a closing remark to the story and it is optional. It consists of a moral lesson, advice or teaching from the writer 5
  6. 6. Here the generic structure of Snow White After we discuss about the definition, social function, and generic structure of narrative, now we will learn about language features of narrative. LANGUAGE FEATURES OF NARRATIVE TEXT • Past tense (killed, drunk,etc) • Adverb of time (Once upun a time, one day, etc) • Time conjunction (when, then, suddenly, etc) • Specific character. The character of the story is specific, not general. (Cinderella, Snow White, Alibaba, etc) • Action verbs. A verb that shows an action. (killed, dug, walked, etc) • Direct speech. It is to make the story lively. (Snow White said,”My name is Snow White). The direct speech uses present tense. 6
  7. 7. EXAMPLE OF QUESTION The Rats and The Elephants Once upon a time their lived a group of mice under a tree in peace. However, a group of elephants crossing the jungle unknowingly destroyed the homes of all the rats. Many of them were even crushed to death. Then taking of rats decided to approach the elephant's chief and request him to guide his herd through another route. On hearing the sad story, the elephant's king apologized and agreed to take another route. And so the lives of the rats were saved. One day elephant-hunters came to the jungle and trapped a group of elephants in huge nets. Then the elephant king suddenly remembered the king of the rats. He summoned on of the elephants of his herd, which had not been trapped, to go seek help from the king and told him about the trapped elephants. The rat's king immediately took his entire group of rats and they cut open the nets which had trapped the elephant's herd. The elephant herd was totally set free. They danced with joy and thank the rats. 1. What type of text is the above text? It is … A. a narrative text B. a description text C. a recount text D. an anecdote text E. an expository text 2. What destroyed the homes of all rats? A. a group of mice did B. the hunter did C. elephant-hunter did D. a group of elephant did E. elephant's herd 3. What helped the elephant's herd free? A. the elephant-hunter did B. the hunters did C. the trapped elephants did D. a group of king did E. entire group of rats did 4. What is generic structure of "once upon a time there lived a group of mice under a tree in peace"? A. Identification B. Orientation C. Complication D. Resolution E. Description 5. At the end of the story, how was the elephant's herd? 7
  8. 8. A. angry B. sad C. happy D. dead E. disappointed 8
  9. 9. REPORT TEXT In general, report text is one type of text that include into "factual texts" category. This text also have purpose, generic structure commonly. This text is often called a "twin brother" as descriptive text so there's a lot of students are "confused" about how to distinguish between thoose texts. DEFINITION The report text often also known as informational report. "Report", the Concise Oxford Dictionary 10th Edition, is defined as : 1) An account is given of a matter after investigation or consideration. 2) A piece of information about an event or situation. So we can conclude, in a language view, a report text is used to serves to provide information about an event or situation, after the investigation and through the multi consideration. Definition of text report is also fairly similar to what is often mentioned in various books in English at the intermediate level, "Report is a text roomates present information about something, as it is. It is as a result of systematic observation and analyzes." GENERIC STRUCTURE As same as descriptive text, A report text also has two common structures [generic structure], there are : 1) General Clasification » statements that describe the common subject of the report, common description, and classification. 2) Description » Tells what the phenomenon under discussion; in terms of parts, qualities, habits or behaviors; This section gives us an overview of commonly occurring phenomenon, either of its parts, its properties, habit, or behavior. The point is, presenting elaboration of scientific classification. There is also some information on the generic text structure report, which includes : 1) General information, is the part that mentions the general information of the theme of writing. 2) Bundles of Specific Information, give us the elaboration of general information. 9
  10. 10. PURPOSE / SOCIAL FUNCTION Everyone knows that each article certainly have a purpose why the article was written. As well as a report text. Some experts say that the purpose of the report is the text is : Its social purpose is presenting information about something. They generally describe an entire class of things, Whether natural or made: Mammals, the planets, rocks, plants, countries of region, culture, transportation, and so on. So we can concluded, the purpose of the report is to convey information text observations and systematic analysis. The information described in the report text is usually general in nature, be it natural or artificial like a mammals, planets, rocks, plants, state, cultural, transportation, etc. LANGUAGE CHARACTERISTICS Here is a common grammar patterns used in the text report, which includes : 1) Use of general nouns, that is, an object (be it alive or dead) of a general nature. Just compare beetwen "Hunting dogs" and "My dog". Hunting dogs are common, while my dog is more spesific. 2) Use of Relating verbs to describe features, the grammar is also called linking verbs. As to be [is, am, are: present], seem, look, taste, etc. 3) Some use of action verbs when describing behavior, eg Emus can not fly; 4) Use of timeless present tense to indicate usualness, is one time in the simple present markers such as "often, Usually, always" and others. eg Tropical cyclonesalways begin over the sea; 5) Use of technical terms, eg "Isobars" are lines drawn on a weather map; For example, on "music" then, the terms of the music should be there. 10
  11. 11. 6) Use of paragraphs with topic sentences to organize bundles of information; repeated naming of the topic as the beginning focus of the clause. EXAMPLE OF REPORT TEXT KOMODO DRAGON Do you know what is the largest lizard? This lizard is called komodo. It lives in the scrub and woodland of a few Indonesian islands. Komodo dragon is the world’s heaviest lizard, weighing 150 pounds or more. The largest Komodo ever measured was more than 10 feet (3 meters) long and weighed 366 pounds (166 kg) but the average size of komodo in the wild is about 8 feet (2.5 meters) long and 200 pounds (91 kg) Komodo has gray scaly skin, a pointed snout, powerful limbs and a muscular tail. They use their keen sense of smell to locate decaying animal remains from several miles away. They also hunt other lizards as well as large mammals and are sometimes cannibalistic. The Komodo dragon’s teeth are almost completely covered by its gums. When it feeds, the gums bleed, creating an ideal culture for virulent bacteria. The bacteria that live in the Komodo dragon’s saliva causes septicemia, or blood poisoning, in its victims. A dragon will bite its prey, then follow it until the animal is too weak to carry on. This lizard species is threatened by hunting, loss of prey species and habitat loss. Note on Generic Structure of Report Text about Komodo : Here are the important details from the generic structure of report text about komodo. Remember you can make by yourself. The quotation is the guide to show the element of structure. 1. General classification: It is stating classification of general aspect of thing; animal, public place, plant, etc which will be discussed in generals. Today we have a topic in animal. 11
  12. 12. This lizard is called komodo. 2. Description: It is describing the thing which will be discussed in detail; part per part , customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials. What komodo looks like is described below: • Komodo dragon is the world’s heaviest lizard • Komodo has gray scaly skin, a pointed snout, powerful limbs and a muscular tail. 12
  13. 13. EXAMPLE OF QUESTION According to the video, please answer 5 question below by choosing the right answer ! 1. What is the text about ? a. sea-living mammals b. the description of mammals c. the difference between dolphin and whale d. dolphin e. how dolphin survive themselves 2. Dolphin breathe with.... a. gill b. lungs c. skin d. air bag e. mouth 3. Which one of the following sentences is NOT TRUE according to the video? a. dolphin are parts of whale family b. dolphin eat up to 20 pounds per day c. dolphin are mammals d. dolphin can breath underwater e. dolphin are very intelligence 4. From the text we can conclude that both whale and dolphin are ……. a. the part of family (mammals) b. herbivor c. they used gill to breath d. have scales e. fish 13
  14. 14. 5. Dolphins are warm blooded The word “warm blooded” means.... a. they eat the warm blood b. have body temperatures that usually not the same c. take on the temperature of their surroundings d. They are hot when their environment is hot and cold when their environment is cold. e. they can make their own body heat even when it is cold outside. Answer : e. they can make their own body heat even when it is cold outside. Because warm-blooded animals have body temperatures that usually 14
  15. 15. SPOOF TEXT Definition There are two meanings of spoof text. First, as a noun, the meaning is, "a funny and silly piece of writing, music, theater, etc.. Spoof of the second meaning above, it can be concluded that the definition of spoof text is a text which tells factual story, happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. Language Characteristiccs There are several linguistic characteristics that can distinguish Spoof Text with English Text types (Types of Text) the other, there are : 1. Using the Past Tense; was, were, did, etc. 2. Using action verbs (action verb), did, went, walked, etc. 3. Using adverb of time and place adverbs. 4. Told chronologically. The Generic Structure Generic Structure (general arrangement) in a spoof text are : » Orientation, provides an introduction to the characters, setting, settings etc.. » Events, provides even or events » Twist, ending the story (the ending is considered funny, sometimes unexpected) A description of the orientation and the event is oftenly discussed, especially on the subject narrative text and recount text. In any spoof text, orientation and the event was not much different from the one in the narrative and recount. Looking for a twist, for those not used to writing a humorous story may be very difficult to understand the twist was hard enough, let alone making up their own. Yes, to understand the twist, we need a sense of humor until we are able to digest what's behind the humor contained in this twist. Because usually very difficult to predict, "what's the punchline?" Let's see the examples : 15
  16. 16. Private Conversation Last week I went to the theatre. I had a very good seat. The play was very interesting.I did not enjoy it. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me. They were talking very loudly.I got very angry. I could not hear the actors. I turned around. I looked at the man and the young woman angrily. They did not pay any attention.In the end, I could not bear it. I turned around again. “I could not hear a word” I said angrily.“It’s none of your business” the young man said rudely. “This is a private conversation” (From: English New Concept) Note on Generic Structure Every spoof texts must have a twist ending. If the text is absent of such element, it can not be called a spoof story. Due to the twisting element of the plot, the story brings an image of funny impression for the readers. Here is the generic structure of the above story. This story is very short but keeping clear elements of the generic structure which belongs to a twisting story. Then the story is called a spoof text. 16
  17. 17. EXAMPLE OF QUESTION The Blonde and the Lawyer A blonde and a lawyer are seated next to each other on a flight from LA to NY. The lawyer asks if she would like to play a fun game. The blonde, tired, just wants to take a nap, politely declines and rolls over to the window to catch a few winks. The lawyer persists and explains that the game is easy and a lot of fun. He explains, "I ask you a question, and if you don't know the answer, you pay me $5.00, and vise versa." Again, she declines and tries to get some sleep. The lawyer, now agitated, says, "Okay, if you don't know the answer you pay me $5.00, and if I don't know the answer, I will pay you $500.00." This catches the blonde's attention and, figuring there will be no end to this torment unless she plays, agrees to the game. The lawyer asks the first question. "What's the distance from the earth to the moon?" The blonde doesn't say a word, reaches into her purse, pulls out a $5.00 bill and hands it to the lawyer. "Okay" says the lawyer, "your turn." She asks the lawyer, "What goes up a hill with three legs and comes down with four legs?" The lawyer, puzzled, takes out his laptop computer and searches all his references, no answer. He taps into the air phone with his modem and searches the net and the library of congress, no answer. Frustrated, he sends e-mails to all his friends and coworkers, to no avail. After an hour, he wakes the blonde, and hands her $500.00. The blonde says, "Thank you", and turns back to get some more sleep. The lawyer, who is more than a little miffed, wakes the blonde and asks, "Well, what's the answer?" Without a word, the blonde reaches into her purse, hands the lawyer $5.00, and goes back to sleep. 1. The story tells us about … a. A plane which a blonde and a lawyer took. b. A lawyer who played a game with a blonde. c. A lawyer who bet on something with a blonde. d. A blonde who was tricked by a lawyer. e. A blonde who lost her money. 2. What did the lawyer want to play with the blonde? a. hide and seek b. chicken limbo c. jump rope d. guessing game e. scrabble 3. What was the rule of the game finally? a. If the blonde could not answer the lawyer’s question, she paid him $5.00, and vise versa. b. If the blonde could not answer the question, she should pay $5.00. If the lawyer could not answer her question, he should pay $500.00. c. If the blonde could not answer the lawyer’s question, she paid him $500.00, and vise versa. d. If the blonde could not answer the lawyer’s question, she paid him $500.00. If the lawyer could not answer her question, he paid her $5.00. e. If the lawyer could not answer her question, he paid her $500.00. If the blonde could not 17
  18. 18. answer his question, she did not have to pay him. 4. How much money did the blonde benefit from the game? a. $5.00 b. $50.00 c. $500.00 d. $510.00 e. $490.00 5. The word “miffed’ in the last paragraph has the similar meaning to… a. shy b. happy c. generous d. doubt e. angry 18
  19. 19. DESCRIPTIVE TEXT 1. Definition Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person, place, or thing. 2. Generic Structure Descriptive text has structure as below: • Identification; identifying the phenomenon to be described. • Description; describing the phenomenon in parts, qualities, or/and characteristics. 3. The Language Feature of Descriptive Text • The use of adjectives and compound adjectives. example: - a five hundred seated football stadium. - a beautiful ancient Roman opera house. • The use of Linking Verbs/ relating verbs. example : - The temple is so magnificent. - The temple consists of five terraces. • The use of Simple Present Tense example. : - The museum houses hundreds of Greek Statues. - The hotel provides 450 rooms and a large swimming pool 19
  20. 20. • The use of degree of comparison example : - The weather in Jakarta is hotter than Bandung. - Bogor has the same weather as Ungaran. 4. Examples and structures of the text MacQuarie University Identification Macquarie University is one of the largest universities in Australia. This year, in 2004, it celebrates its 40th anniversary. Description The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt, Sydney, where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. In 1964, Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe, but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university.Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe, Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor, a grass amphitheatre, and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles, native plants and eucalypts. Today, a railway station is under construction. In three years1 time, Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in 20
  21. 21. Sydney region by rail and motorway, yet retaining its beautiful site. 21
  22. 22. EXAMPLE OF QUESTION This text is for no.1-3 Petruk Cave Petruk cave is one of the leading tourist attractions in Kebumen, Central Java. The cave is located in the dukuh Mandayana Candirenggo Village, Ayah District, Kebumen regency. In the petruk cave there is no lighting that illuminates the cave. It is still very natural cave so that petruk cave is very dark to be entered. Petruk cave’s name is taken from the punokawan of puppet characters that is Petruk. The cave Named Petruk cave because the length of cave is as long as petruk’s nose. In the cave there are 3 floors that are the first is a basic cave, Hindu caves and Petruk cave. The base cave is a short cave which is just 100 meters away. The cave is used for tourist attractions. Hindu cave is part of the cave that is usually used to put offerings to the ancestor. Inside Petruk cave there are so many stalactites and stalagmites which are really awesome. If you want to explore this cave, you must be led by guides who are ready to take you through the cave. After arriving at the end of the cave, you can see the beach or waterfall located near at the end of the cave 1. What is the text purpose? a. To inform readers about tourism in Kebumen b. To entertain reader about Petruk Cave c. To explain the reader about floors in Petruk Cave d. To Introduce The Local tourism in Kebumen e. To describe Petruk Cave 2. Why did Petruk cave named as one of character in Punokawan puppet? a. Because the cave is belong to Petruk b. Because Petruk is the first explorer of the cave c. Because Petruk is buried at the cave d. Because the cave’s length is as long as Petruk’s nose e. Because the cave’s depth is as deep as Petruk’s hair 3. Which part of Petruk Cave which used for place to put foods for ancestor? a. In the basic cave b. In petruk cave c. In Hindu cave 22
  23. 23. d. In front of the cave e. Inside the cave This text is for no. 4-5 Orchard Road Orchard Road is a Boulevard which becomes business and entertainment center in Singapore. Orchard Road is surrounded by a lush tropical and flower gardens which are beautiful. At first, Orchard Road is just a suburban street lined with orchards, plantations nutmeg, and pepper farming. However, in the 1970s, it turned into a shopping center in Singapore. In 1960 and 1970 entertainment industries began to enter this road. Shopping centers such as mall and Plaza was built in 1974. Orchard Road runs along about 2.2 km. This road is one-way street flanked by a variety of shopping malls, hotels and restaurants. The shopping area which is nearly 800,000 square meters provides a wide range of Things, food, and entertainment. In this area there are many options that can satisfy visitors from all walks of life starting from the luxury branded things to the Popular branded, from exclusive restaurants to fast food. There are so many ways that can be accessed to get to Orchard road such as: by taxi, bus or drive your own car. For those who are driving to Orchard Road can be entered from the west through the Napier Road. Vehicles from Dunearn Road can turn to left at the intersection of the Marriott Hotel junction. Vehicles that come from Paterson can turn right onto Orchard Road. Orchard is always crowded so you have to be careful in order not to get lost. 4. The text mainly focuses on a. Singapore b. Orchard Plantation c. Plaza and Mall d. Orchard road as business and entertainment center e. Shopping Center 5. Which statement is TRUE? a. At first Orchard Road is a crowded settlement b. Orchard road became business and entertainment center since 1974 c. Vehicles from Dunrean road turn to the left at intersection of the Marriott Hotel junction d. Orchard road is infamous place at Singapore e. Orchard road is not surrounded by flower garden 23
  24. 24. NEWS ITEM DEFINITION • News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. The events are considered newsworthy or important. The way to get news is by reading or listening to the news. PURPOSE • The purpose of news item text is to inform the readers about newsworthy or important events of the day. GENERIC STRUCTURE • Newsworthy event (Main event) The main topic of the news. • Background event (Elaboration) Additional information related to the news. • Source The resource of the news. FEATURES • Use of Headlines: short words, involve word play, and sometimes ambiguous. • Straight forward language: direct, not beat around the bush. • Passive voice: emphasizes the event or the action instead of the doer. • Action verbs: verbs that expresses something that a person, animal, thing, or process can do. 24
  25. 25. For example: a. The government proposed a new program. b. The ministry claimed to be the one who is responsible. • Reported/ Indirect speech: used to report what someone said. For Example : a. The authority said that the last night event was very unfortunate for the local residents. b. One of the visitors exclaimed that the show was the best one she had ever seen. c. “We are not in crisis and we will be able to improve our economy condition soon enough,” the minister argued. • Adverb: used to add more detailed information about the event reported. Adverb of time (recently, currently, yesterday, today) is used to report the time it actually happened. Adverb of place (here, there, inside, outside) is used to report the location where it happened. Adverb of manner (clearly, frankly, quickly) is also commonly used in a news item. 25
  26. 26. Now, let’s take a look at how a news text is written. 26
  27. 27. For another example: In your daily life, you will also hear some news when you watch television or listen to the radio. Even if you avoid the news program, there will be times when your favorite television show is interrupted by a breaking news program. Here is the example to help you get familiar to news item. 27
  28. 28. EXAMPLE OF QUESTIONS According to the video, please answer 5 questions below : 1. What is the code of the airplane which has fallen? A. WD1050 B. QZ8501 C. 107WS2 D. QZ8571 E. AS6789 2. Which airport of departure and destination of the lost contacted airplane? A. Soekarno Hatta Airport to Changi Airport B. Djuanda Airport to Soekarno Hatta Airport C. Djuanda Airport to Changi Airport 28
  29. 29. D. Changi Airport to Djuanda Airport E. Halim Airport to Changi Airport Answer : C. Djuanda Airport to Changi Airport airport of departure is Djuanda airport (Surabaya) and destination of the lost contacted airplane is Changi airport (Singapore). 3. When did the incident happen? A. December 29th 2014 B. December 30th 2014 C. December 28th 2014 D. November 6th 2014 E. November 28th 2014 4. What time did the airplane lose contact? A. 7.30 am, December 29th 2014 B. 7.24 pm, December 28th 2014 C. 7.24 am, December 28th 2014 D. 8.10 am, December 30th 2014 E. 7.45 am, December 28th 2014 5. Which the other countries have got involved in rescuing the lose airplane? A. Malaysia and Brunei Darussalam B. Malaysia and Indonesia C. Timor Leste and New Guinea D. Malaysia and Singapore E. Singapore and Thailand 29
  30. 30. HORTATORY EXPOSITION Definition : A text that explain an arguments or reasons to support the writer opinion. Purpose : To persuade the reader or listener that something should or should not be the case. Generic Structure:  Thesis (announcement of issue concern)  Arguments (reasons for concern, leading to recommendation)  Recommendation (statement of what ought or ought not to happen) Language features : • Focus on generic human and non human participants, except for speaker or write referring to self. • The use of mental processes : to state what writer thinks or feels about issue, e.g. realize, feel, appreciate. • The use of material processes : to state what happens, e.g., is polluting, drive, travel, spend, should be treated. • The use of relational processes : to state what is or should be, e.g., doesn't seem to have been, is. • The use of simple present tense. • The use of emotive words (ex : alarmed, worried) • The use of words that qualify statements (ex : usual, probably) • The use of words that link arguments (ex : firstly, however, on the other hand, therefore) • The use of compound and complex sentences. • The use of modals and adverbs (ex : can, may, certainly, get, stop) • The use of subjective opinions using pronoun I and we. Types : • Letters to the editor • Plead in a trial case • Speeches • Advertising Examples of hortatory Exposition : Country Concern Thesis In all the discussion over the removal of lead from petrol (and the atmosphere) there doesn't seem to have been any mention of the difference between driving in the city and in the country. 30
  31. 31. Argument 1 While I realize my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive, I feel that when you travel throught the country, where you only see another car every five to ten minutes, the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads. Argument 2 Those who want to penalize older, leaded petrol vehicles and their owners don't seem to appreciate that, in the country, there is no public transport to fall back upon and one's own vehicle is the only way to get about. Recommendation I feel that country people, who often have to travel huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend get deal of money on petrol, should be treated differently to the people who lives in the city. 31
  32. 32. EXAMPLE OF QUESTION The following passage is for questions 1 to 3. Keeping Dogs There are many reasons for keeping dogs as pets in the city area, but many people feel that keeping pet dogs should not be allowed in the city. Dogs are often not taken care properly. They are kept in small backyards and rarely taken for walks. They are left in the yard all day by themselves while the family is at work. Very little attention is given to the dog and it is not a very good life for it. It is no wonder why these dogs bark and disturb the neighbours and become a nuisance to the community. On the other hand, not all people treat their dogs this way and why should the people receive a lot of pleasure and enjoyment from dog's suffer? Dogs can make a lonely person's life happy or make wonderful playmate. It can also teach a child responsibility as they not only get to lay with the dog, but also need to exercise, feed, and care for the dog. I feel that we should be allowed to keep dogs in the city, because if it is taken care of properly, dogs can be a great source of pleasure. As a child I used to enjoy playing and taking care of my pet. There is not greater loyalty a person can get than from a well-cared dog. 1. Some people do not like the presence of pet dogs in their surroundings because .... A. the dogs are left in the yards B. the dogs are often neglected C. the dogs often bark and disturb the neighbours D. the dogs play with the owner's child E. the dogs guard the security of the environment 2. The main idea of the last paragraph is .... A. pet dogs are loyal animals B. pet dogs are more loyal than humans C. dogs can be a great source of pleasure D. the writer has no objection to keeping dogs in the city E. the writer used to play and took care of his pet when he was a child 3. We can infer from the text that keeping pet dogs in the city will not cause any problem as long as .... A. the dogs are amusing B. the neighbours like having pet dogs C. the dogs do not bark at the neighbours D. the writer has succeeded in persuading the neighbours E. its presence does not disturb the neighbourhood 32
  33. 33. The following passage is for questions 4 to 5. Faster Planes and Cheaper Flights Faster planes and cheaper flights are making it easier than ever before for people to travel. In the most 'developed' societies, visiting exotic places is a sought-after status symbol. The tourism industries of both developed and developing countries have recognised this fact and are learning to take advantage of it. There are, however, some problems associated with this new industry.Firstly, there is the increasing crime rate. Some local's tourists as an easy prey because, not only are they in unfamiliar territory and therefore less able to take care of themselves, but also they carry visible items of wealth, such as cameras and jewelery which can be disposed of quickly for profit. Another major problem is health. With greater mobility comes greater danger of spreading contagious diseases around the world. One carrier returning home could easily start an epidemic before their illness was diagnosed. Moreover, the emergence of many diseases which resist antibiotics is causing scientists to be increasingly concerned about this issue. Also to be considered is the natural environment, which can be seriously threatened by too many visitors. Australia's Great Barrier Reef, for example, is in danger of being destroyed by tourists and there are plans to restrict visitors to some of the more delicate coral cays. These are just three of the reasons why any country should be wary of committing itself to an extensive tourism development program. 4. Why does the natural environment become one of the serious problem associated with the faster planes ail cheaper flight? Because .... A. it easily started an epidemic before their illness was diagnosed B. it can be destroyed by too many visitors C. the health problem will increase D. they carry visible items of wealth E. it can increase crime rate 5. Why is the crime rate increasing due to the new industry? A. Some tourists carry visible items of wealth. B. The tourists are spreading contagious diseases. C. The government is planning to restrict visitors to some coral cays. D. The new industry makes the number of unemployment increase. E. The tourists come by plane. 33
  34. 34. PROCEDURAL TEXT DEFINITION Procedural text is a text which is written to show how to do something, such as recipe. It designed to describe how something is achieved through a sequence of actions or steps. It explains how people perform different processes in a sequence of steps. PURPOSE The text is intended to tell the reader how to do something through steps. Similar to other type of texts, procedural text also has generic structure. GENERIC STRUCTURE The generic structures of procedure text are : 1. Goal/aim ( or title) : The goal of the text gives the writer’s purpose of explaining what to do in the text. The goal of the text is the title of the text itself. 2. Materials (not required for all procedural texts) : This part explains what things are required. It maybe tools, spices or ingredients 3. Steps (the actions that must be taken) : These are the points on the process of doing something in a sequence order. LANGUAGE FEATURES In the Procedure Text, we use : • SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE. And: • Use of imperatives (e.g.: cut, don’t mix) • Use of action verbs (e.g.: turn, put, mix) • Use of connectives (e.g. : first, then, finally, …) • Use of adverbial phrases (e.g. : for five minutes, 2 centimeters from the top) 34
  35. 35. 35
  36. 36. The example of of procedure How to Create A Twitter Account Twitter is a famous social media that allows you to share what you feel or what you do to other people. It allows you to keep in touch with other people ( other twitter users ) in all over the world. Now, you can be the part of social media users by signing up to make your own twitter account. Here are the steps. Steps: 1. Visit the official website twitter page at http://www.twitter.com 2. Register yourself by filling in the form, fill in your name, email and password and click the Sign up for twitter button. 3. Twitter registration form will appear directly, fill in your data completely and do not forget to choose your username. Look at this picture given! 4. Click the Create my account for the next stage. And fill in the captcha correctly. Look at this picture! 5. Click the Create my account. Wait until the process is complete, if successful welcome page will appear. 6. Do the confirmation on your registered email that you fill on twitter and you have successfully created a twitter account. 36
  37. 37. EXAMPLE OF QUESTION According to the video, please answer 5 question below by choosing the right answer ! 1. How many banana do we need to cook banana cake? A. 1 kilogram B. 2 pcs C. 5 pcs D. 200 grams E. 1 pack 2. First, put .....,.....,.....,....., and ...... then mix it. A. Flour, sugar, baking soda, baking powder, salt B. Flour, vanila extract, butter, salt, sugar C. Sugar, salt, butter, egg, flour D. Sugar, flour, salt, egg, baking soda E. Flour, sugar, baking powder, butter, egg 3. Bake the mixture at ..... o C A. 165 37
  38. 38. B. 200 C. 350 D. 180 E. 185 4. Materials which are not required to make a banana cake is... A. vanila extract B. butter C. flour D. salt E. milk powder 5. How many pan of cake that can be served? A. 2 B. 3 C. 1 D. 5 E. ½ 38
  39. 39. RECOUNT TEXT 1. Definition of Recount Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. The purpose or the social function of Recount text is to retell or to inform the reader about what was happened to the writer with series of events. 2. Generic Structure of Recount 1. Orientation: Introducing the participants, place and time 2. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past 3. Reorientation: It is optional. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story 3. Language Feature of Recount • Introducing personal participant; I, my group, etc • Using chronological connection; then, first, etc • Using linking verb; was, were, saw, heard, etc • Using action verb; look, go, change, etc • Using simple past tense 4. Examples and structures of the text Our trip to the Blue Mountain Orientation On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. We stayed at David and Della’s house. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court. Events On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. It was scary. Then, Mummy and I went shopping with Della. We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats. On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. We saw cockatoos having a shower. Reorientation In the afternoon we went home. 39
  40. 40. My Horrible Experience Let me remind you my experience during an earthquake last week. When the earthquake happened, I was on my car. I was driving home from my vocation to Bali. Suddenly my car lunched to one side, to the left. I thought I got flat tire. I did not know that it was an earthquake. I knew it was an earthquake when I saw some telephone and electricity poles falling down to the ground, like matchsticks. Then I saw a lot of rocks tumbling across the road. I was trapped by the rock. Even I could not move my car at all. There were rocks everywhere. There was nothing I could do but left the car and walked along way to my house, in the town. When I reached my town, I was so surprised that there was almost nothing left. The earthquake made a lot of damage to my town. Although nothing was left, I thanked God that nobody was seriously injured. Generic Structure Analysis • Orientation; introducing the participant, using first person point of view, I was on the car las week. • Events; describing a series of event which happened. The car lunched to one side. Telephone and electricity poles was falling down, etc. • Re-orientation; stating the writer’s personal note. Thanking God because nobody was seriously injured. Language Feature Analysis • Using personal participant; I • Using chronological connectives; then, and, suddenly • Using linking verb; was, were • Using action verb; moved, left, walked, made, etc • Using simple past tense pattern; earthquake happened, I was on the car, my car lunched on one side, etc Notes: A recount text is a text that tells you a part of experience. A recount text has an orientation, a series of events in chronological order, personal remarks on the events and a reorientation that “rounds off” the sequence of events. In the text, you find words and phrases used to start, connect a sentence with the next one, and end your composition. Those words and phrases are: First, Then, After that, Finally, 40
  41. 41. Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. In writer’s point of view, the thing is an experience. It can be what the writer has done, hear, read, and felt. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place; what happened on Sunday, then on Monday, the on Tuesday. In simple way, recount describes series of events in detail. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. The event happened smoothly. On the other hand, narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant’s past experience. It reveals the conflict among the participants. Cinderella’s conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. 41
  42. 42. EXAMPLE OF QUESTION Last holiday my students and I went to Jogjakarta. We stayed at Morison Hotel which is not a long way from Malioboro. On Friday, we went to the sanctuaries in Prambanan. There are three major sanctuaries, the Brahmana, Syiwa and Wisnu sanctuaries. They are truly stunning. We went by just Brahmana and Syiwa sanctuaries, on the grounds that Wisnu sanctuary is being remodeled. On Saturday morning we went to Yogya Kraton. We spent around two hours there. We were fortunate on the grounds that we were driven by a brilliant and amicable aide. At that point we proceeded with our adventure to Borobudur. We touched base there at four p.m. At 6 p.m. we heard the declaration that Borobudur entryway would be closed. In the evening we left Jogjakarta by bus. 1. The content above basically talks about …….. a. the writer’s trip to Yogyakarta b. the writer’s first visit to Prambanan c. the writer’s impression about the guide d. the writer’s experience at Yogya Kraton e. the writer’s impression about Borobudur 2. What is purpose of the text………. a. tell past events b. entertain readers c. describe the smugglers d. report an event to the police e. inform readers about events of the day 3. What else the big temples in Prambanan? a. angkor wat, syiwa, and sudra temples b. paria, brahmana, and temples c. brahmana, syiwa, and wisnu temples d. wisnu, syiwa, and borobudur temples e. borobudur, syiwa, and brahmana temples 4. When did they go home? a. On Saturday morning b. On Friday evening c. On Thursday evening d. On Friday afternoon e. On Saturday evening 5. Why did they just visit Brahmana and Syiwa sanctuaries? a. because there was no wisnu temple b. because wisnu temple was amazing c. because wisnu temple was too small d. because wisnu temple was being repaired e. because wisnu temple was being destroyed 42
  43. 43. ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION Analytical Exposition Definition Analytical exposition text is a text that elaborates the writer’s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. Purpose: • To persuade the reader or listener that there is something that, certainly, needs to get attention • To analyze a topic and to persuade the reader that this opinion is correct and supported by arguments Examples: argumentative essay, exploratory essay Generic Structure: 1. Thesis : Introduces the topic and shows speaker or writer’s position; Outlines of the arguments to be presented. 2. Arguments : It consists about Point and Elaboration Point, states the main argument. Elaboration: develops and supports each point of argument 3. Conclusion : Reiteration (restatement), restates speaker or writer’s position Language Features: • Focus on generic human and non human participants. • Use mental processes. It is used to state what the writer or speaker thinks or feels about something, for example: realize, feel, etc. • Need material processes. It is used to state what happens, for example: has polluted, etc. • Use of simple present tense. • Use of relational processes. • Use of internal conjunction to state argument. • Reasoning through casual conjunction or nominalization. The example of Analytical Exposition: Cars should be banned in the city Cars should be banned in the city. As we all know, cars create pollution, and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. Firstly, cars, as we all know, contribute to most of the pollution in the world.Carsemit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis, lung cancer, and ‘triggers’ off asthma. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them.Secondly, the city is very busy. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city, which causes them to die. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. Thirdly, cars are very noisy. If you live in the city, you may find it hard to sleep at night, or concentrate on your homework, and especially talk to someone. In conclusion, cars should be banned from the city for the reasons listed. 43
  44. 44. Cars should be banned in the city Thesis Cars should be banned in the city. As we all know, cars create pollution, and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. Arguments Firstly, cars, as we all know, contribute to most of the pollution in the world. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis, lung cancer, and ‘triggers’ off asthma. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them. Secondly, the city is very busy. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city, which causes them to die. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. Thirdly, cars are very noisy. If you live in the city, you may find it hard to sleep at night, or concentrate on your homework, and especially talk to someone. Reiteration In conclusion, cars should be banned from the city for the reasons listed. 44
  45. 45. EXAMPLE OF QUESTION Answer the question based on the following text. Illegal Mining The activities of illegal mining must become our concern. It is undeniable that illegal mining activities can be a livelihood for the people near the site. However, these activities bring harmful effects to our environment, especially the impact on the quality of human life. Therefore, illegal mining activities must be banned and stopped. If we take a deeper look, illegal mining activities bring negative impacts to the environment (i.e. soil and water), ecology (i.e. plants and animals), and the miners. Firstly, Illegal mining activities produce toxic waste and harmful chemicals. These toxic and chemicals are dumped into the river and the land. When the river gets polluted, the ecosystem in the river gets disturbed. The fish will be poisoned yet the water quality is no longer safe to be consumed. Secondly, if the toxic waste and harmful chemicals are released into the land, it will also get spoiled. The plants cannot grow because the soil water get intoxicated. The area of the illegal mining activities will also be in great damage. Without recovery, these areas will turn into useless wastelands. Moreover, an illegal mining activity is harmful for the miners. Those illegal miners are mostly not a skillful labor. Yet, they are not equipped with proper safety tools. Their safety during mining activities is in a great risk. It surely endangers their health in the future. The fact that illegal mining activities bring harmful impact to the environment must be our consideration to ban and to stop it as soon as possible. 1. From the first paragraph of the passage, we can predict the the purpose of the text which is .... A. persuading people to involve in the legal mining activities that is not harmful for our environment B. persuading people to support the idea that illegal mining should be stopped 45
  46. 46. C. informing readers the harmful effect of illegal mining to environment and human life and activities D. persuading people to support the idea that illegal mining has a great economic value E. enganging people in the story of illegal mining activities and risk Answer : B. persuading people to support the idea that illegal mining should be stopped Look at the last sentence of the first paragraph. It says: Therefore, illegal mining activities must be banned and stopped. 2. It is undeniable that illegal mining activities can be a livelihood for the people near the site. However, these activities bring harmful effects to our environment, especially the impact on the quality of human life. The statement above concludes that... A. llegal mining activities have greater harmful effects compared to the positive effect. B. Illegal mining activities is harmful for the livelihood of the people near the mining site. C. The illegal mining activities give a good income for the people near the site. D. The harmful effects of illegal mining can be overcome by the economic value that it brings. E. Illegal mining activities bring negative and positive impacts equally. Answer : A. llegal mining activities have greater harmful effects compared to the positive effect. From the passage we can conclude that illegal mining activities have greater harmful effects compared to the positive effect. It can be seen from the first and the second sentences repeatedly. 3. We can see the argument part of the text in paragraph ... A. 2, 3, 4 B. 1, 3, 5 C. 1, 2, 3 D. 3, 4, 5 46
  47. 47. E. 4, 5, 6 Answer : D. 3, 4, 5 In analytical exposition, the writer arranges the ideas in sequential order. Therefore the arguments are usually started with connectives. From the third, fourth, and fifth paragraphs, we can see the arguments conveyed by the writer. 4. The following information are correct based on the fifth paragraph, except.... A. Most of illegal miners are well-trained and fully-equipped. B. Illegal miners risk their safety whey they are doing the illegal activities C. Illegal mining endangers the miners. D. Most of illegal miners are lack of skill and equipment. E. Illegal miners might have serious health problem in the future. Answer : A. Most of illegal miners are well-trained and fully-equipped. The statement above is not in line with the paragraph. 5. The word consideration in the last paragraph has a similar meaning with .... A. Belief B. Restriction C. Interference D. Attention E. decision Answer : D. Attention In this context, the word consideration has a similar meaning with attention. 47
  48. 48. DISCUSSION TEXT 1. Definition of Discussion Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical, historic, and social text. 2. Generic Structure of Discussion 1. Statement of issue; stating the issue which is to discussed 2. List of supporting points; presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue 3. List of contrastive point; presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point 4. Recommendation; stating the writer’ recommendation of the discourse 3. Language Feature of Discussion • Introducing category or generic participant • Using thinking verb; feel, hope, believe, etc • Using additive, contrastive, and causal connection; similarly, on the hand, however, etc • Using modalities; must, should, could, may, etc • Using adverbial of manner; deliberately, hopefully, etc 4. Examples and structures of the text Homework Issue I have been wondering if homework is necessary. Statement of issue and Preview I think we should have homework because it helps us to learn and revise our work. Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to remember what they have learned. Homework is really good because it helps with our education. Statement of various viewpoints But, many times, doing homework is not a great idea. I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. Sometimes homework is boring and not important. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family. Example of Discussion Text A. Example of Discussion Text on Nuclear Power The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power 48
  49. 49. Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part of the world. The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria, England in 1956. Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine. Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world’s energy needed, and produces huge amounts of energy. It cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil fuels. The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow: • It costs about the same coal, so it is not expansive to make. • It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide, so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. • It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium. • It produces small amount of waste. • It is reliable. On the other hand, nuclear power is very, very dangerous. It must be sealed up and buried for many years to allow the radioactivity to die away. Furthermore, although it is reliable, a lot of money has to be spent on safety because if it does go wrong, a nuclear accident ca be a major accident. People are increasingly concerned about this matter. In the 1990’s nuclear power was the fastest growing source of power in many parts of the world. Note on the Generic Structure of Discussion Text Discussion is a process to find the meet point between two different ideas. It is important to to get the understanding between the two differences. In many social activities, discussion is the effective way to calm down any friction and difference in thought, perception and recommendation. This example of discussion text present the two poles, between the advantage and disadvantage of using nuclear plant to fulfill the energy needed. It is a case which need to be talked and discussed from two points. They are represented in the generic structure which is used: • Stating the Issue: In the first paragraph, it is stated that using nuclear power can be the choice in fulfilling the needed energy. • Supporting Point: In the second paragraph, it is presented the advantages of nuclear power plant to be used as the source of the world’s energy needed • Contrastive Point: The third paragraph shows the balance. It gives the contradictory idea in using nuclear power plant as the resource of energy. • Recommendation: This text is ended with a similar recommendation on how people should concern in the matter of nuclear energy. B. Hunting Fox 49
  50. 50. Foxhunting is a subject that provokes very strong feelings. Many people believe that it is cruel to hunt a fox with dogs and totally agree with its ban. Many farmer and even conservationists, however, have always argue that the fox is a pest which attacks livestock and must be controlled. (Taken from: www.bbc.co.uk) Generic Structure Analysis • Stating the issue; hunting fox. • Supporting point; farmers and conservationists agree to hunt fox because they attack livestok. • Contrastive point; many people disagree hunting fox with dog because it is cruel. • Recommendation; Do not be cruel in hunting fox just control it in safe way. Language Feature Analysis • Introducing category participant; farmer, conservationists. • Using thinking verb; believe. • Using connectives; however • Using modalities; must, always 50
  51. 51. EXAMPLE OF QUESTION The government has just published a report which suggest that television is partly responsible for the serious increase in crime over the last ten years. The exposure of violence or pornography harmfully effects on children. Many people who are alive today know what it is like to live in a world without television. Television as we know is only about forty years old. Yet it is so much a part of our lives that it seems as if it had always existed. Some people think that the years before the invention of television were a better time. They claim that families talked more and did more things together. More books were read. People used their imaginations more fully. People got more outdoor exercises. But others disagree. They claim that television is a powerful educational tool. It informs us of what is going on in the world, from a famine in Africa to a local politics and fashion. It helps us understand how people live, work, and struggle. In 1961, Newton Minow, a government official, called prime-time schedules “ a vast wasteland.” Television is credited with being a great teacher, but it is also blamed for the poor reading and writing skills of our population. Television gets praised for helping us understand the people of the world. But it has been accused of helping to destroy family life. Television keeps us informed about the political issues of the day. Experts will probably continue to argue about television’s value. But everyone agrees that it is one of the most significant inventions of the twentieth century. 1. The writer wants to tell ….. a. the development of television b. the advantages of television program c. how television destroys people’s life d. how television improves people’s knowledge e. the influence of television on people’s daily life 2. Which of the following is good for children in watching TV? a. The children should watch the violence on TV b. Children may watch TV whenever they like c. There shouldn’t be government censorship of TV program d. Children should spend all their time to watch TV program e. Children should be accompanied by their parents in watching TV 3. “ ….. what is going on in the world, from famine Africa …” (Paragraph 4) The underlined word means lack of …. a. food b. water c. nutrient d. education e. entertainment 51
  52. 52. The following text is for questions 4 to 5. Vegetarians, about 3.2% of the US population, do not eat meat. The US Department of Agriculture does not only include meat as part of a balanced diet, but it also states that a vegetarian diet can meet “the recommended dietary allowances for nutrients” Many proponents of vegetarianism say that eating meat harms health, wastes resources, causes deforestation and creates pollution. They often argue that killing animals for food is cruel and unethical since non-animal food sources are plentiful. Humans evolved to be primarily vegetarians. Humans do not have the large mouth or long, pointed teeth of carnivores. Human teeth are short and flat for chewing fibrous food. The liver of a carnivore can detoxify the excess vitamin A absorbed from a meat-based diet. The human liver cannot exceed vitamin A. It is unnecessary to take an animal’s life when vegetarian options are available. In the US about 35 million cows, 115 million pigs and 9 billion birds are killed for food each year. These animals should not have to die to satisfy an unnecessary dietary preference. On the other hand, many opponents of a vegetarian diet say that moderate meat consumption is healthy, humane and that producing vegetables causes many of the same environmental problems as producing meat. Eating meat is not cruel or unethical. Every organism on earth dies, at some point, so others can live. There is nothing wrong with this cycle; it is how nature works. Humans have been eating meat in their ancestral diet provided a dense form of nutrients and protein that, when combined with high-calorie low nutrient carbohydrates such as roots, allowed us to develop our large brains and intelligence. Meat is the most convenient protein sources since it provides all 10 essential proteins (amino acids), as well as essential nutrients such as iron, zinc and the B vitamins, in one serving. Most individual plant foods do not provide adequate levels of all 100 essential proteins in a single serving. In my opinion, meat eaters don’t need to feel guilty. Everything we consume, including vegetables or meat has environmental, ethical and health consequences. 3. The proponents of vegetarianism believe that... a. Moderate meat consumption is healthful b. Killing animals for food is cruel ad unethical c. Animals can only be killed in an appropriate way d. The liver of a carnivore cannot exceed vitamin A e. Humans do not need met to develop their brain 5. All in all, the writer seems to disagree with the arguments stated by... a. The US Department of Agriculture b. Proponents of vegetarianism c. Opponents of vegetarianism 52
  53. 53. d. Animal lovers e. Meat eaters 53
  54. 54. ADVERTISEMENT DEFINITION Text advertisement is a text that has the objective to announce a something that appeals to many people and that adds a well-known product in all public. According to many experts, advertisement text is a public announcement commonly found in a newspaper, television, or internet advertising. Sometimes it is about a product, services, or an event for sale. PURPOSE To announce about a case or a product to the public, or in other words to introduce a product to the public in order to buy and attracted to the product being advertised GENERIC STRUTURE 1. Purpose: What is the purpose of the writer to compose the advertisement text? 2. Name of product: This is about name and brand. What product, service or events to sell? 3. User: Who need the product? What ares the product and service for? LANGUAGE FEATURES • Hyperbole - exaggeration, often by use of adjectives and adverbs. • Long noun phrases, frequent use of pre and post modifiers for descriptions. • Short sentences for impact on the reader. This impact is especially clear at the beginning of a text, often using bold or large type for the "Headline" or "slogan" to capture the attention of the reader. • Ambiguity is common. This may make a phrase memorable and re-readable. Ambiguity may be syntactic (the grammatical structure) or semantic (puns for example). • Weasel words are often used. These are words which suggest a meaning without actually being specific. • Use of Imperatives • Avoidance of negatives. Advertising normally emphasises the positive side of a product. • Simple and Colloquial language. • Familiar language: use of second person pronouns to address an audience and suggest a friendly attitude. • Present tense is used most commonly. • Simple vocabulary is most common. 54
  55. 55. EXAMPLE : Vianesia Hotel Kramatwatu 31-39 road nursepi phone: 421465 Room rate: Economy: Rp 150.000.00 Standard: USD 200.000.00 Suite: Rp 490.000.00 For a card that has a vianesia hotel, rental prices can be discounted by 20%, vianesia hotel card can be purchased for RP. 150.000.00 facilities: Air conditioning, swimming pool, restaurant, children's playground, a computer room, a bookstore, a golf course, and much more. for a 85% discount Monday check out time: 13 noon Sale Blackberry mobile phone Q10, black 100% intact and complete. Stillnew, official Match Price SCM 4.3 million. 2 Year. Preferably COD's,Locations in Sedayu Bantul Yogyakarta. Serious interest please contact us, Phone 081328886002, Thank you. EXAMPLE OF QUESTION 55
  56. 56. This text is for questions number 1-3 Sylla Pizza Authentic Italian Pizza by True-blue Neapolitan Chef A cozy little restaurant with creamy sand-colored walls, deep-toned wood counters and furnishings and natural grey stone. Food and Beverage : • Italian Cuisine • Italian Pizza and Pasta • Various Kinds of juice • Best Italian Wine Business Hour Details : Sunday to Thursday : 11.30 AM to 2.30 PM Friday to Saturday : 11.30 AM to 5.30 PM Address : 30 Robertson Quay Riverside View #01-14 Singapore 277798 Tel : +659484938 1. What does Sylla Pizza Offer ?.. a. Chef b. Pizza c. Food and drink d. Biscuit e. Cake 2. “Authentic Italian Pizza by True-blue Neapolitan Chef”. What does the underlined word mean?.. a. A special cook b. An original recipe c. An inherited recipe d. A professional cook e. A diner waitress 3. When does Sylla Pizza open?.. a. Every day b. Six days in a week c. Five days in a week d. Four days in a week e. Two days in a week This text is for questions number 4-5 56
  57. 57. 4.What is the focus of the study at the course? A.Teaching B.Reading C.Writing D.Speaking E. Watching 5.What does the advertisement offer? A.We will get our money back if we can’t speak English. B.We will learn the best mmethod to teach English. C.We will find Jalan Cukang jati 11 as the right place. D.We would be a qualified English teacher in this place. E. We can’t speak English well 57
  58. 58. BROCHURE Definition: brochure is a promotional tool made of paper in which there is some informations and offers about products or services. Generic structure: 1. Title: the name of products or service offered in brochure. 2. Contain: the information given about the products or service offered in brochure. 3. Contact person: name, address, or phone number person to find out more information about something that’s offered in brochure. Specific text: brochure usually succinct in languange and eye-catching in design, and usually using a headlines. Purpose: the purpose of brochure is to inform about products or services to a target audience. Example: Tittle: Yum Yummy Cafe Contain : in this cafe are available a variety of ice creams, that is: · Happy ice cream · Sweet ice cream · And many more Contact Person : Information and reservation: 081908858536 Cempaka 7 street, tangerang 58
  59. 59. 59
  60. 60. EXAMPLE OF QUESTIONS 60
  61. 61. Read the following text to answer question number 1 and 2. COLD BREAKER LIKE YOU NEVER FEEL ANY COLD Fast relief for: Congestion 100 tablets Runny nose USP Coughs 200 mg Headache Fever AVAILABLE IN EVERY STORE INDONESIA 1. Which of the following sickness cannot be relieved by this medicine? A. Headache. B. Coughs. C. Cancer. D. Fever. E. Runny nose 2. What's the writer's purpose to write the text above? A. To inform the process of making Cold Breaker. B. To persuade people to use the product. C. To explain the ingredients of the product. D. To describe the illnesses that can be cured. E. To entertain people about the product Read the following text to answer question number 3-5. 61 Orchid Hotel · -106 ocean drive · -Enjoy the privacy of a small family style hotel · -Only 15 minutes from the airport & right next to the beach · -Only 40 rooms ( TV, AC, Bath) -Outdoor restaurant beside the pool, room from Rp 240.000,00 to Rp. 550.000,00 • Phone : 985.-3344
  62. 62. 3. The brochure is about….. A. Outdoor restaurant B. The hotel’s location C. The list price of the room D. Orchid hotel and it’s facilities E. The facilities offered by the hotel. 4. It is called “a small family style” hotel because…. A. Is not expensive B. Is near the city C. Is located near the beach D. Provider outdoor restaurant E. Has only a small number of rooms 5. “Only 15 minutes from the airport and right next to the beach. The underline word is similar is meaning to… A. Correctly B. Precisely C. Certainly D. Factually E. Perfectly 62
  63. 63. POSTER/PAMPHLETS Definition : A poster is any piece of printed paper designed to be attached to a wall or vertical surface. Typically posters include both textual and graphic elements, although a poster may be either wholly graphical or wholly text. Posters are designed to be both eye-catching and informative. The function of poster : Posters may be used for many purposes. They are a frequent tool of advertisers (particularly of events, musicians and films), propagandists, protestors and other groups trying to communicate a message. The characteristic of the poster: o Using a simple statement o There are some pictures that can describe the content of the message of the poster o It made a simple depend on the theme. Examples: o Theme: drug Theme: Environment 63
  64. 64. A pamphlet is an unbound booklet (that is, without a hard cover or binding). It may consist of a single sheet of paper that is printed on both sides and folded in half, in thirds, or in fourths (called a leaflet), or it may consist of a few pages that are folded in half and saddle stapled at the crease to make a simple book. The characteristic of pamphlet: o There are more detail about the information o Usually it made from a piece of paper o It shows the message about something completely. Example of pamphlet: 64
  65. 65. EXAMPLE OF QUESTIONS Read the following poster then answer the question number 1 and 2 1. Based on the above poster, people must ... their speed on the street. a. diminish b. improve c. increase d. enhance e. boost 2. The poster warns ... not to speed up their vehicles on the street. a. pedestrians b. passengers c. employers d. spectators e. drivers Read the following pamphlet then answer the question number 3-5 3. What is the pamphlet about? a. Importance of septic tank system b. Tank car c. Soil absorption d. air pollution e. health hazard 4. What’s the function of septic tank in rural area? a. provide the functions of both sewers and treatment facilities b. municiple wastewater treatment facilities c. carry household d. make essential to public and private health e. make a good health and environment 5. How many questions must we answer to know enough about septic tank system? a. 2 b. 4 c. 6 d. 5 e. 7 65
  66. 66. APPLICATION LETTER Application letter is written to apply for a job. We use it to let the company know about our skills and our track record, and all information they need about us. Writing an English application letter is quite simple, but we have to make it as interesting as we can to get the attention from the company. The first thing we have to do is by knowing the text structure or parts of application letter. Parts of the Application letters are: 1. Sender address : You can put your address in the left side or in the right side 2. Date : the date you make the application letter 3. Company address : put the address of the company you want to apply 4. Salutation : Dear Sir, Dear Madam, Dear Sir or Madam, Dear Mr. Agus, etc. 5. Opening paragraph : tell the job or position you want to apply for. You can also mention from where you get the information 6. Body : tell about your past experience (if you have already had the job experience) or any activities or skills that matches or similar with the job. Give a strong/ convincing statement that you are qualified and the right one to get the job. 7. Closing paragraph : write the closing paragraph to ask the possibility to have an interview. You can put your contact number or email address to make the company easier to follow up. Don’t forget to thank to them. 8. Closing : Sincerely, Yours faithfully, sincerely Yours, Best Regards, etc. 66
  67. 67. 67
  68. 68. We can use more variations in how to open and express our interest on filling certain position in opening paragraph. Look at some examples here: • I am writing to you in response to your advertisement for a tour guide position. • In response to your advertisement in the local newspaper, I hereby submit my application for a marketing manager position. • I am writing to express my interest in a graphic designer position in your company. • I am applying for the position of a fashion designer. • I wish to apply for the job of a flight attendant advertised in the Jakarta Post. • I am writing to apply for the secretary position. • I would like to apply for the position. Furthermore, there are some ways on how to close our application letter: • Thank you for your time and consideration. • Please give my application strong consideration. • Thank you for considering my request. • I am available for an interview at your convenience. • I am available for an interview scheduled at your convenience. • I look forward to hearing from you at your convenience. There are some characteristics we have to know in composing the application letter if we want the company pays attention to our letter: 1. Use short words and short sentences. 2. Avoid using informal words and sentences. 3. Use active voice to emphasize our skills. 4. Use action verb. 68
  69. 69. EXAMPLE OF QUESTION 1. Rearrange these jumbled sentences into a good text. • Thank you for considering my request 1 • Dear Mr Gerrard, 2 • In addition, I can control the target given to my team, good at creating the atmosphere among my workers so everything run smoothly. 3 • Sincerely, 4 • I would like to apply for the supervisor position advertised to SUARA MERDEKA in August 25, 2015. 5 • Ardian Manurung 6 • I have been working for 2 years as supervisor for Delta Mart and having some skills during the time in managing and monitoring my workers team. 7 The correct arrangement of the jumbled sentences above is …. A. 1 – 5 – 7 – 3 – 6 – 4 – 2 B. 2 – 5 – 7 – 3 – 1 – 6 – 4 C. 2 – 5 – 7 – 3 – 1 – 4 – 6 D. 2 – 5 – 3 – 7 – 1 – 4 – 6 E. 5 – 2 – 7 – 3 – 1 – 4 – 6 Answer : C. 2 – 5 – 7 – 3 – 1 – 4 – 6 Parts of the Application letters are: sender address, date, company address, salutation, opening paragraph, body, closing paragraph and closing. The correct order of the jumbled sentences above is “2 – 5 – 7 – 3 – 1 – 4 – 6” 2. Arrange these jumbled words into a good sentence. the1 – nurse2 – apply3 – position4– I5 – for6 – writing7 – to8 – am9 The best arrangement for the jumbled words above is …. A. 1 – 2 – 4 – 5 – 9 – 7 – 8 – 3 – 6 69
  70. 70. B. 5 – 9 – 3 – 6 – 1 – 2 – 4 – 7 – 8 C. 1 – 2 – 4 – 5 – 9 – 7 – 6 – 3 – 8 D. 5 – 9 – 7 – 6 – 3 – 8 – 1 – 2 – 4 E. 5 – 9 – 7 – 8 – 3 – 6 – 1 – 2 – 4 Answers : E. 5 – 9 – 7 – 8 – 3 – 6 – 1 – 2 – 4 The correct expression is “I am writing to apply for the nurse position” This text is for questions number 3-5 3. Who is the sender of the letter.... A. Mr. Adam Smith B. Mr. Adam C. Mrs. Lia Aulia 70 December, 1st 2015 Mr. Adam Smith Manager HRD Gudang Garam Company Cempaka Putih, East Jakarta Dear Mr. Smith, In response to the November 28th advertisement in the Jakarta Post, i have enclosed my resume for the Accounting staff in your company. My name is Ria Aulia, I’m 21 years old. I am fresh graduated from Indonesia University, Accounting Major. My GPA is 3.7. I have capability in English actively. I studied in English First for three years. I am always eager to seek new responibilities and learn new skills in the workplace. I am self- motivated and enjoy taking initiative to achieve better results for the bussines. I also can work in team. I would love the opportunity ti discuss my application with you in further detail, and look forward to hearing from you. Yours sincerely, Ria Aulia
  71. 71. D. Mrs. Ria Aulia E. Mrs. Ria Maulia Answer : D. Mrs Ria Ulia writer's position is located at the end of the letter 4. When was Mrs. Ria Aulia born... A. 1995 B. 1996 C. 1993 D. 1994 E. 1992 Answer : D. 1994 Because he is 21 years old and she wrote a letter in 2015 5. This is the writer’s personality, Except.... A. Responsibilities B. Can learn new skills in the workplace C. Self-motivated D. Can work in team E. Can work under pressure Answer : E. Can work under pressure it is not written in the letter. 71
  72. 72. FORMAL AND INFORMAL INVITATION DEFINITION An invitation is a document written or printed or spoken words, conveying the message by which one is invited PURPOSE It is used to invite someone to come, to invite people to join, to ask someone to attend, and to ask people to take part in something GENERIC STRUCTURE : 1. Title or type of event : including the purpose or type of event will be held 2. Orientation : inform about what will or who will come 3. Date and time : including when or where the event will be held 4. Closing : including hope of the writter to the reader to come to his/her event LANGUAGE FEATURES How To Express Invitation? 1. Address Heading : this is the writter’s full addrres. An address Heading is optional for informal letters 2. Date : this is day, month, and year that the letter is written on 3. Inside Address : the recipient’s full name and address. Generally informal letters do not include an inside address 4. Greeting : also known salutation. This is the introductory phrase. Ex: dear.... 5. Subject line : a word phrase to indicate the main subject of the letter. This is located direcrtly after the “inside address” 6. Body : the complete text of the letter 7. Closing : this is the farewell phrase or word that precedes the signature and is followed by a comma. Ex : yours truly, regards, sincerely yours 8. Signature : the signed name of the writer. 9. Postscript : is a brief sentence or paragraph introduced by the initials. 10. Notation : part of a formal letter consisting of brief words or abbreviations as notations. 72
  73. 73. There are 2 types of invitation : • Formal Invitation Usually originate from institues companies and a kind of it, normally formal invitation is written invitation. • Informal Invitation Personal invitation given to friends, family, etc. Informal invitation can be written and verbal invitation. A. FORMAL INVITATION Formal invitation is an invitation which follows a dignified form, tone or style in agreement with an establish norm, custom or values. (Websters, 2012). For example : - An invitation to a wedding - An Invitation to the graduation ceremony The initials R.S.V.P. are often found at the end of an invitation. These initials stand for the French phrase "repondez s'il vous plait," which means "please respond." the person sending the invitation would like you to tell him or whether you accept or decline the invitation. That is, will you be coming to the event or not. 73
  74. 74. Formal Invitation are written on a cards. The text is written in calligraphy stlye. B. INFORMAL INVITATION In Formal Invitations date and time are written in words not in numbers.  Informal invitations is personal invitation given to a friend, family, etc.  For example; - Invitation to a birthday party - Invitation to dinner 74
  75. 75. POINTS TO BE REMEMBERED 1. Formal reply should always be written in third person 2. Informal reply is written in first person 3. Only body must be there in formal reply 4. Informal reply is like an informal invitation in the format FORMAL REPLY (ACCEPTANCE) FORMAL REPLY (REFUSAL) 75
  76. 76. INFORMAL REPLY (ACCEPTANCE) INFORMAL REPLY (REFUSAL) 76
  77. 77. EXAMPLE OF QUESTION Question number 1 to 3 is based on the following invitation. Bandung, 2nd September 2014 We are honored to invite you to attend our 10th wedding anniversary at: Place : Ballroom Hotel Savoy Homan Date : Sunday, September 6th 2014 Dress code : party dress for ladies, tuxedo for gentlemen It is a great expectation for us to have you as our guests. Sincerely Yours, Ronny and Astri 1. Question: What kind of invitation is the text above? A. Wedding anniversary party B. Graduation party C. Wedding party invitation D. Garden party E. Birthday party invitation Answer : A. Wedding anniversary party it is said in the text. 2. Where will be the party held? A. In a restaurant B. In the hotel C. In the house D. In the garden E. At school Answer: B. In the hotel it is said in the text. 77
  78. 78. 3. What does dress code mean? A. All party guests must wear formal clothes B. All party guests must wear different costumes C. All party guests must wear same costumes D. All party guests must wear dress E. All party guests can wear whatever they want, as long as it is in the theme Answer : E. All party guests can wear whatever they want, as long as it is in the theme “dress code” means a certain way of dressing that required by the host of some events. For example: heroic costume or traditional costume in commemorating Independence Day. 4. From the invitation, we know that Jessica Pearson is. A. the guest B. the one who deliver the invitation C. the invitation designers D. the host E. the employee 78
  79. 79. Answer : D. the host “Expression of Our Appreciation” shows that the event is held as employee appreciation event. This is usually hosted by the CEO or the boss of the company where all employees are invited. In the above invitation the name of the leader of the corporation is Jessica Pearson. She will be the host of the dinner party. 5. The number of person can come with one invitation is …. A. 1 person only B. 1 person who work for the firm C. 2 persons who work for the firm D. 1 person who doesn’t work for the firm E. 2 people Answer : E. 2 people The invitation says “you and a guest are invited to attend a barbeque party hosted by Specter Law Firm”. It means that the invitation is valid for 2 people. One person who works for the firm and a guest. By a guest it means that it can be anyone outside the company’s employees. 79
  80. 80. CAPTION DEFINITION: a caption refers to the text that appears under a photo in a newspaper. A caption can be as short as one sentence or consist of several sentences. PURPOSE : describes the scene in the photo (name of person or persons photographed, location, date (sometimes), what they are doing in the photo, etc.) GENERIC STRUCTURE : • Attention getter, a mini headline that makes a direct link from the caption to the photo • Basic information, the first sentence that tells who and what is happening in the photo. It uses present tense • Complementary information, a past tense sentence that adds information that is not readily obvious in the photo. Usually contains information that indicates the outcome or consequence of the action in the photo • Direct quote, a quote from someone in the photo discussing an aspect of the event captured in the picture. Quotes capture the thoughts of those who were part of the event. Sometimes the quote swaps positions with the complimentary information CONTENT : Every caption should contain the 5 W’s and H – Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How. CAPTION CHECKLIST : o Caption contains an Attention-Grabber (one to three words). o The Attention-Grabber makes sense with the photo. o Action verbs are used. o First sentence identifies who is in the photo and describes the action. o All subjects in the photo are identified. o Following information is past tense and gives additional information. o Caption lists the Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How. o Active voice used, as opposed to passive. o Meaningful direct quote used. o Spelling, grammar, and punctuation are all correct 80
  81. 81. EXAMPLE • Attention Getter : MUSICAL CHAIRS • Basic Information : Juniors Jessica Peterson (left) and Mary Lopez (right). Participate in blindfolded musical chairs at the first pep rally of the year on Sept 6th 2014 at their High School. • Complementary Information : This was a competition between the classes. It was 97 degrees outside and two people suffered from heat exhaustion, the seniors won this event. • Direct quotes : “I couldn’t see so I sat really quickly on someone and when I looked, it was Mary [my best friend], so it was the perfect person to sit on. It just stunk I was still out,” Peterson said. “The music ended so quickly. I just sat as quickly as I could. I thought it was so funny that Jessica ended up on my lap,” Lopez said.  Who : Jessica Peterson and Mary Lopez.  What : Participate in blindfolded musical chairs at the first pep rally of the year  When : on Sept 6th 2014  Where : at their High School.  Why : This was a competition between the classes.  How : It was 97 degrees outside and two people suffered from heat exhaustion, the seniors won this event. 81 MUSICAL CHAIRS : Juniors Jessica Peterson (left) and Mary Lopez (right). Participate in blindfolded musical chairs at the first pep rally of the year on Sept 6th 2014 at their High School . This was a competition between the classes. It was 97 degrees outside and two people suffered from heat exhaustion, the seniors won this event. “I couldn’t see so I sat really quickly on someone and when I looked, it was Mary [my best friend], so it was the perfect person to sit on. It just stunk I was still out,” Peterson said. “The music ended so quickly. I just sat as quickly as I could. I thought it was so funny that Jessica ended up on my lap,” Lopez said.
  82. 82. EXAMPLE OF QUESTIONS 1. Pay attention to the situation in the picture. The followings are suitable captions for the picture, except …. A. Fortunately, the traffic is not busy. B. Waiting for the traffic light to turn green C. The road is busy but the heaven remains calm. D. Such a lovely evening on the street E. car-free road Answer B. Waiting for the traffic light to turn green. Waiting for the traffic light to turn green is not a good caption since the picture does not represent so. 2. Decide the most appropriate caption that is relevant to the picture as well the article…. A. Due to the deserted situation, tons of carrots turned rotten. B. My rabbit is the only believer in health-carroty food. C. Market deserted, tons of carrot unsold. D. Carrot price currently reached forty thousand rupiah per kg. E. The carroty carrots could be found in traditional market. Answer : D. Carrot price currently reached forty thousand rupiah per kg. the most appropriate caption that is suitable with the picture and also the headline of article is "Carrot price currently reached forty thousand rupiah per kg". 82
  83. 83. Please pay attention. This picture is for questions number 3 and 4. 3. The following is not the meaning behind the caption…. A. The content of the media is just for adult. B. The media does not allow people under the age of 15 to watch TV. C. The media might provide scenes that are not appropriate for children to view. D. The viewers are asked to be more aware with their children when watching TV. E. The content of the media may be harmful for people under the age of 15. Answer : B. The media does not allow people under the age of 15 to watch TV. The caption is only provided for the show being presented, not for all TV program, so the caption does not mean to prohibit people under age to watch TV. 4. What issue that might cause misunderstanding among the viewers that the show program is supposed to be watched by all ages? A. The caption at the beginning of the show B. The title of the show program, Happy Together C. The national hosts of the show D. The animations as the opening scene E. The TV station that broadcast the show Answer : D. The animations as the opening scene The misunderstanding might be occurred when the viewers see the animations in the scene and assume that the show is also for children, but then the caption says otherwise. 83
  84. 84. Indonesia is a tropical country, so we only experience two seasons, namely rainy season and summer. We almost never get ... (5) since we do not experience winter. We also hardly experience a windy periods of time which usually come in fall and spring. In our country the windy weather usually comes in a short period when the season changes from rainy season to summer on February or March. The wind direction strongly influences weather and we never have it hit too hard. So we almost never experience an extreme weather due to the wind direction in summer or even in our rainy season. A. windy weather B. rainy season C. windy and rainy season D. summer E. snowy or icy weather Answer : E. snowy or icy weather We almost never get ... since we do not experience winter. The most logical answer is snowy or icy weather. It is related to the next sentence. 84
  85. 85. CHAPTER II : Dialogue 85
  86. 86. GIVING ADVICE Asking For Advice : • What do you think I should do? • What do you recommend we do about ... ? • What should I do? • What do you suggest? • What would you advice us to do? • What do you advise me to do? • If you were me what would you do? • What ought I to do? • Do you think that I should…? • Do you have any suggestions? • What would you do about ...? Giving Advice : • If I were you I would/wouldn’t…. • If I were in your shoes/position I would… • You had better/ you’d better….. • You should… • Maybe you should… • Your only option is to…. • Why don’t you…. • Have you thought about…. • Have you tried… • I would recommend that you ... • My advice would be to ... • May I suggest that we ... • If I were you, I would ... Accepting Advice • Yes, I agree with that. • That sounds like a good idea! • I don't think that's a good idea. • OK, why don't we do that. • That's very interesting. Rejecting Advice • I'm sorry, i can't agree with that. 86
  87. 87. • I don't think we should do that. • That's very interesting, but ... • I don't know what to advise, I'm afraid. • I wish I could suggest something, but I can't. • I wish I could help. • I'm afraid I can't really help you. EXAMPLE Student : I'm terrible at English and I think I should do something about it. What do you advise me to do? Teacher : I think you should try this website. It's a fantastic website for beginners. Student : I've heard about it, but what do you think I should start with? Teacher : You'd better start with the lessons.Then, try the exercises. Student : I would like to improve my speaking. What should I do? Teacher : You should watch English channels and listen English musics. Student : Thank you sir. Teacher : Don’t mention it. This conversation taking place at Iqbal’s bedroom Mother : Iqbal…bal...oh my god. Wake up my dear. It’s Monday morning, don't you go to school. Iqbal : Mom, I have got a headache. Mother : Let me check. You have got a high temperature. You should stay at home. Iqba : That sounds like a good idea! Mother : Just a moment, I will call your daddy. You should go to a doctor. Iqbal : No...Mom, I don't think that's a good idea. 87
  88. 88. This conversation taking place at the park Aufa : I have a serious problem today. I have just lost my wallet. Tami : Don't be so sad my friend, let us search it around the park. Aufa : I have looked for it for hours but I do not find it, do you have some ideas? Tami : You had better tell the securities to announce it to other students. Aufa : Yeah, that sounds good. I do hope it helps. Tami : Let’s go.. ! 88
  89. 89. EXAMPLE OF QUESTION Read the conversation below. Then answer questions number 1-4. Gifta: Dyah, do you know that the selection of English debate team of our school will be closed soon? Dyah: Really? I don’t know about that. I am still confused if I am able to be the in Englis debate team for competition. Gifta: I think you are good in English debate. If you do not register for the selection, you will have no chance at all. Dyah: Yeah, you’re right. Gifta: Don’t worry. You can do it. Just keep practicing. Unless you stop practicing, (........)4 1. The word register in the conversation has a close meaning to.... A. Wait B. Enroll C. Hold D. Drop E. Refuse Answer : B. enroll Register means that we put our name on a list, especially for an official event. Enroll also means that we put our name on an official list. So, the correct answer is ‘enroll’. 2. The selection for English debate will be.... A. Opened soon B. Lengthened C. Opened in short period D. Held soon E. soon closed Answer : E. soon closed In the conversation, we can find statement “the selection of English debate team of our school will be closed soon”. So, the correct answer is “soon closed”. 3. “If you do not register for the selection, you will have no chance at all.” The statement above can be replaced by.... A. Unless you do not register for the selection, you will have no chance at all. B. You will have many chances unless you register for the selection. C. You will have not many chances unless you do not register for the selection. D. Unless you register for the selection, you will have no chance at all. 89
  90. 90. E. Unless you register for the selection, you will have a chance. Answer : D. Unless you register for the selection, you will have no chance at all. The statement means that by registering for the selection, the chance is possible. Therefore, the most appropriate answer is “Unless you register for the selection, you will have no chance at all.” 4. Don’t worry. You can do it. Just keep practicing. Unless you stop practicing, ....10 The most appropriate statement to complete the sentence is.... A. you will be selected as the instructor of English debate competition of our school B. you will be selected as the time keeper of English debate competition of our school C. you will be selected as the representation of English debate competition squad of our school D. you will never be selected as the representation of English debate competition squad of our school E. you will not be selected as the representation of English debate competition squad of our school Answer : C. you will be selected as the representation of English debate competition squad of our school. An advice is meant to prevent bad situation or to open good chance. Moreover, the topic is about to be in English debate team. Therefore, it is the most appropriate and logical answer. 5. Amir : I am not good at English. Budi : .......................... a. I should practise English every day. b. Why don’t you take an English course and practise every day ? c. Do you like English ? d. I must take an English course. e. You don’t learn English course 90

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