OriginsWhat is the origin of manga? The word itself was popularized by the famous woodblock printartist Hokusai, but, contrary to a popular myth, it was not invented by him.A millennium before Hokusai applied the term to a collection of his less serious works, therewere "cartoonish" drawings to be found in Japan, but whether or not pictures drawn in such a styleconstitute manga is a tricky question. The first clear examples of such sequential art are the picturescrolls of medieval Japan, which combine pictures and text to tell stories or describe events. Thesescrolls look and work like modern manga or comics in many ways.These type of manga was in theEdo Period(1600 to 1868)Like modern-day manga, they dealt with a variety of subjects, including humor, drama,fantasy, and even pornography. the ancestor of the modern manga, believe it or not, is theEuropean/American-style political cartoon of the latter 19th Century, and the multi-panel comicstrips that flowered in American newspapers in the last years of the 19th Century and the first yearsof the 20th Century.Some suggest that the Japanese have a historically-rooted affinity for such visual media asmanga, but for the first half of the twentieth century, American comics were more popular anddiverse than were Japanese manga. So why have manga flourished while American comics havefloundered?Perhaps the single most important factor in the creation of the modern manga industry wasthe work of one artist, the late Osamu Tezuka, known in Japan as the "god of manga.OSAMU TEZUCA:(The God of Manga)“Until that time, most manga were drawn from a two-dimensional perspective. Theinteractions of actors appearing from stage left and stage right were composed as if from theviewpoint of someone seated in the audience. I began to introduce cinematic techniques intomy composition. I thought the potential of manga was more than getting a laugh; usingthemes of tears and sorrow, anger and hatred, I made stories that didnt always have happyendings”.
Publishers responded immediately and enthusiastically, and had no trouble finding youngartists eager to emulate Tezukas revolutionary style. Most of these artists--Shohtaroh Ishimori (laterIshinomori), Fujiko Fujio, Fujio Akatsuka, Hideko Mizuno--went on to become giants of thepostwar manga industry.Tezukas innovations led the children to dont stop reading manga when they were raised.It is important to note, though, that Tezuka was able to exert so much influence because hehappened to be in the right place at the right time. Some prewar cartoonists, such as Noboru Oh-shiro, were using many of the "cinematic techniques" said to be invented by Tezuka when Tezukawas a still a child, and were also more technically skilled than Tezuka. But they were confined bythe standards of Tokyo publishers (who felt that manga for children should be entertaining andeducational, but not too "stimulating") and also by government censors.The Manga BoomAfter seven or eight years of talking with what must amount to hundreds of Japanese readers ofmanga ("comic books"), they finally came to a certain realization: there is a surprisingly clear linethat separates the "pre-manga generation" from the "manga generation," and that line can drawnsomewhere around 1950. Ive met a handful of Japanese born prior to 1950 who love manga, andIve met many born after 1950 who have no interest in manga, but for the most part, the formergeneration considers manga to be "kids stuff," and stopped reading manga by the time they enteredmiddle school, while the latter generation has always taken manga for granted as just anothermedium that can be enjoyed by adults as well as children.Why 1950? Although Tezuka helped transform manga from a simple form of childrensentertainment into a sophisticated medium that children were reluctant to abandon as they grewolder. Japan that was undergoing rapid economic development, and the other media followed suit.In 1956, Japans first weekly magazine appeared, setting off a boom in weeklies. Initially, thesemagazines were conceived of as general education and entertainment magazines, with mangausually occupying no more than forty percent of each issue. But circulations were low, as werethose of the traditional monthly childrens magazines. It didnt take long for publishers to figure outthat they could raise sales by increasing the space dedicated to manga.In terms of content, adventure and science-fiction stories of the kind pioneered by Tezukacontinued to dominate the shônen ("boys) magazines, yet the readership for manga was growingolder. Teenagers, young laborers and college students began to turn to the then-popular "rental bookshops," where a new genre of sophisticated and serious manga (known as gekiga, meaning"theatrical pictures") had been developing since the late 1950s. These rental manga emphasizedrealism, in both drawing style and content, and were often grim, pensive, or violent."Girls Stuff"Considering that in most of the English-speaking world comic books are generally seen as"boys stuff," it is only natural that the genre of shôjo manga, or "girls comics," should be met bythat world. English girls just as foreigners are surprised to hear that Japanese girls and women aresuch good consumers of comics.In the 1950s and early 1960s, the majority of shôjo manga were created by male artists,most of whom also worked in the shônen genre. The number of professional women artists workingin shôjo manga prior to 1960, they could almost be counted on the fingers of one hand. The storiesfeatured primary school girls, and generally fell into one of three categories: humor, horror, or tear-jerker.
By the end of the 1970s, shôjo manga had ceased to be a monolithic and homogenous genre.A number of subgenres, such as fantasy and science fiction, or stories focusing on homosexualromance between boys (known as "boys love," or sometimes "yaoi"), had become firmlyestablished, distinct from the "mainstream" of (heterosexual) love-comedies that themselves hadbecome more sophisticated and less governed by taboo.The History of manga:The first view emphasizes events occurring during and after the U.S. Occupation ofJapan(1945–1952), and stresses that manga was strongly shaped by United States culturalinfluences, including U.S. comics brought to Japan by television, film,and cartoons (especially Disney).For Murakami and Tatsumi, trans-nationalism (or globalization) refers specifically to theflow of cultural and subcultural material from one nation to another. In their usage, the term doesnot refer to international corporate expansion, nor to international tourism, nor to cross-borderinternational personal friendships, but to ways in which artistic, aesthetic, and intellectual traditionsinfluence each other across national boundaries.Firsts examples of MangaJapanese wood block illustration from 19th centuryHowever, other writers stress continuity of Japanese cultural and aesthetic traditions ascentral to the history of manga.Similarly, Inoue sees manga as being a mixture of image- and word-centered elements. Inhis view, Japanese image-centered or "pictocentric" art ultimately derives from Japans long historyof engagement with Chinese graphic art, whereas word-centered or "logocentric" art, like the novel,was stimulated by social and economic needs of Meiji and pre-War Japanese nationalism for apopulace unified by a common written language. Both fuse in what Inoue sees as a symbiosis inmanga.Thus, these scholars see the history of manga as involving historical continuities anddiscontinuities between the aesthetic and cultural past as it interacts with post-World War IIinnovation and trans-nationalism.
Paper Warriors and Propaganda MessengersWith Japan’s entry in to World War II in 1937, government officials cracked down on dissidentartists and artwork that was counter to the party line. Cartoonists were required to join agovernment-supported trade organization,Manga that appeared in this period included gentle, family-style humor making light of theshortages and ‘make-do’ inventiveness of wartime housewives or images demonizing the enemyand glorifying bravery on the battlefield.Manga’s ability to transcend language and cultural barriers also made it a perfect medium forpropaganda. As Tokyo Rose’s radio broadcasts encouraged allies to give up the fight, illustratedleaflets created by Japanese cartoonists were also used to undermine the morale of the Alliedsoldiers in the Pacific arena.But the Allied forces also fought this war of images with manga, thanks in part to Taro Yashima, adissident artist who left Japan and resettled in America. The comic was often found on the corpsesof Japanese soldiers in the battlefield, a testament to its ability to affect the fighting spirit of itsreaders.After World War IIIn the forefront of this period are two manga series and characters that influenced much ofthe future history of manga. These are Osamu Tezukas Mighty Atom (Astro Boy in theUnitedStates; begun in 1951) and Machiko Hasegawas Sazae-san (begun in 1946).
ASTRO BOY:was both a superpowered robot and a naive little boy. Tezuka never explained whyAstro Boy had such a highly developed social conscience nor what kind of robot programmingcould make him so deeply affiliative. Both seem innate to Astro Boy, and represent a Japanesesociality and community-oriented masculinity differing very much from the Emperor-worship andmilitaristic obedience enforced during the previous period of Japanese imperialism. AstroBoy quickly became (and remains) immensely popular in Japan and elsewhere as an icon and heroof a new world of peace and the renunciation of war.
By contrast, SAZAE-SAN (meaning "Ms. Sazae") was drawn starting in 1946 by MachikoHasegawa, a young woman artist who made her heroine a stand-in for millions of Japanese men andespecially women rendered homeless by the war. Sazae-san does not face an easy or simple life,but, like Astro Boy, she too is highly affiliative and is deeply involved with her immediate andextended family. She is also a very strong character, in striking contrast to the officially sanctionedNeo-Confucianist principles of feminine meekness and obedience to the "good wife, wisemother"ideal taught by the previous military regime.
Tezuka and Hasegawa were also both stylistic innovators. In Tezukas "cinematographic"technique, the panels are like a motion picture that reveals details of action bordering on slowmotion as well as rapid zooms from distance to close-up shots. More critically, Tezuka synchronisedthe placement of panel with the readers viewing speed to simulate moving pictures. Hence inmanga production as in film production, the person who decide the allocation of panels (Komawari)is credited as the author while most drawing are done by assistants. This kind of visual dynamismwas widely adopted by later manga artists. Hasegawas focus on daily life and on womensexperience also came to characterize latershōjo manga.With the relaxation of censorship in Japan after the early 1990s, a wide variety of explicitly drawnsexual themes appeared in manga intended for male readers that correspondingly occur in Englishtranslations. These depictions range from mild partial nudity through implied and explicit sexualintercourse through bondage and sadomasochism (SM), zoophilia (bestiality), incest, and rape.Post-War Manga: Red Books and Rental LibrariesThe years immediately following the war were filled with hardship, many restrictions on artisticexpression were lifted and manga artists found themselves free to tell a variety of stories once more.Humorous four-panel comic strips about family life such as Sazae-san were a welcome reprievefrom the harshness of post-war life. Created by Machiko Hasegawa,The shortages and economic hardships of the post-war years made purchasing toys and comic booksa luxury that was out of reach for many children. However, manga was still enjoyed by the massesthrough kami-shibai (paper plays). Traveling storytellers would bring their mini-theater toneighborhoods, along with traditional sweets that they’d sell to their young audience and narratestories based on the images drawn on cardboard.Sampei Shirato (creator of Kamui Den) and Shigeru Mizuki (creator of the Ge Ge Ge no Kitaro)made their mark as kami-shibai illustrators. The heyday of kami-shibai slowly came to an end withthe arrival of television in the 1950’s.Another affordable option for readers were kashibonya or rental libraries. For a small fee, readerscould enjoy a variety of titles without having to pay full-price for their own copy. In the typicallytight-quarters of most urban Japanese homes, this was doubly convenient, since it allowed readersto enjoy their favorite comics without taking up extra storage space.25 Manga Milestones: 2000 - 2009Call it the "Aughts," the "00s," or "the decade from hell" -- the first decade of the 21st century waspretty momentous for manga . It was a time of incredible growth, as more manga was published andsold in America than ever before. Many comics fans learned how to "read backwards" and wereintroduced to gekiga , yaoi manga and mahwGekigaGekiga literally means "drama pictures" and refers to a form of aesthetic realism in manga. Gekigastyle drawing is emotionally dark, often realistic, sometimes very violent, and focuses on the day-in,day-out grim realities of life, often drawn in gritty and unpretty fashions. Gekiga arose in the late1950s and 1960s..
From Manga to AnimeThe popularity of anime television shows in the mid-1960s led to increasing opportunities foranimators to work in the film industry. In the 1970s, animation studios primarily produced filmsbased on anime television shows, but with the 1980s and 1990s, more original material found itsway onto Japanese and, eventually, Western movie screens.Common Genres and ThemesInitial anime series like "Astro Boy" were aimed at children, principally boys. For instance,"shoujo," anime and manga focused around a young female character. "Hentai" anime deals witherotic and/or pornographic themes, while the "yaoi" genre deals with homoerotic themes and is apopular genre with young women.Anime in AmericaMany contend that anime made its first introduction to American audience with the popular,although briefly broadcast, series "Speed Racer," which ran from 1967 to 1968. In the 1990s, theoverwhelming popularity of series such as "Pokemon," "Dragon Ball Z" and "Naruto" cementedanime in the mainstream American mindset. Anime films such as "Akira" (made in Japan in 1988but released in American in 1990) introduced adult audiences to the distinct style and complexthemes of Japanese animation. Today, legendary Japanese anime director Hiyao Miyazaki hasachieved huge critical and financial success in the West with films such as "Princess Mononoke(1997)," "Howls Moving Castle (2004)," and "Spirited Away," for which he won the 2002 AcademyAward for Best Animated Feature.History of AnimeThe History of Anime begins in the early 19th Century. The common assumption made by people of
western original is that anime came way, way after C19th, but infact it is true that anime has itsroots in Manga. Manga is the common term for Japanese Comic.The modern style manga saw the first birth of manga animation, which today is commonly knownas anime.Animation became popular in Japan very quickly in the 1980s, there was a rapid increase in theproduction of anime and began to accept anime more readily.In the 2000s the influence of Japans anime spread overseas, a prime example of this being theincredibly popular Dragon Ball series, which currently broadcasts all over Canada, America,Australia, Europe and South Africa.As you probably know there is a manga and an anime about Naruto. Although the anime stays verytrue to the manga, there are some small differences between them.Because the anime is based on the manga, the story is a lot more ahead in the manga comparedto the animes. The anime only picked the main storyline back up with thesecond Naruto installment, called: "Naruto Shippuuden". The manga is still running, so who knowshow long the series will continue?Nejis mark on his forehead looks a little different from the one shown in the manga. In themanga the mark looks more like a swastika.The symbol is most famous as "The Nazi Symbol" afterall.Starting off, a simple explanation is in order for this report. Manga is Japanese for comic, and animeis Japanese for animation. Every anime will have several million images in it, sometimes reachingbillions depending on the length of the episode or show. Cels are created in batches to formcomplete sequences or actions in a movie. In contrary, manga have relatively few images. Instead ofcreating frames, manga are drawn in panels. Each page is laid out and separated, then each picture isdrawn to create a storyboard. Even more space is used as rectangular and balloon shapes arereserved in order to place words into the story. So manga has much less space and immensely lesspages than an anime. Manga have variably little space to convey images. However, often there is afront cover, back cover and inside cover to exhibit the characters, in full color, over the entire page.This is the source for almost all colors in manga. Without the covers most the looks and colors ofmost manga characters would be debatable. Pin-ups and specials also offer another chance toexpose the manga in full color. Anime are always in full color. The colors are sharper, less detailedand not as soft as colors in a manga. People in anime are often less concentrated on, while thebackgrounds can range from intensely beautiful to very plain. In long series single frames are
concentrated on less, leaving the characters and their surroundings sometimes appearing strange orcontorted in favor of creating a smooth scene.Needless to say, manga cannot afford to have unsatisfactory images. Having one sloppy picturecan ruin a panel. A ruined panel is an entire page less appealing than the rest of the manga. Itsessential in manga to keep the pictures as lovely as possible or else risk diminishing the value of themanga. In anime its very common for several frames to appear odd individually. Many comedicaspects are lost in the anime, leaving only a few of the more outstanding pieces to sprinkle through.Background is another important feature. Anime must have a background. Any anime that has acharacter pacing back and forth on a pure white screen will be discontinued quickly. Each scenerequires a background to show the place of action. Manga can easily get away without abackground. A panel showing only a picture of a character menacingly observing his foes will easilypass without having to add a potted plant next to him. Since manga must show what appearsattractive, the motto "Less is more" applies. All he needs to do is pose with an impish smirk etchedon his face, with his name shouted in large lettering next to him. It can be automatically assumed hehas swooped into the scene without having to draw everything around him.Theres a huge difference between anime and manga, despite the fact that most manga aredeveloped into anime. The differences range from small to large: obvious to subtle. No matter howhard a manga tries it can never be an anime, or the other way around. They journey hand in hand,influencing each other heavily and never quite attaining every characteristic the other has. Mostwould like it to stay as it is, as well. After all, if manga and anime became the same thing onecouldnt delight in two versions of their favorite series.
Early DaysIn 1914, cartoonists were among the first Japanese artists to experiment with animated motionpictures. Japans first world-wide success was Kitayama Seitaros short film Momotaro(1918).Although the Japanese animation industry continued to grow slowly, its one, last pre-war milestonewas Chikara To Onna No Yononaka. Appearing in 1932, the short film was the first animated"talkie" in Japanese.The undisputed leaders in the field were Walt Disney and the Fleisher Brothers. People now forgotwhat a shock it was for Disney to even consider producing a full-length animated feature. But, whenSnow White and the Seven Dwarfs appeared in 1937 to overwhelming popular acclaim, Disneydemonstrated that animation could be just as expressive and viable a medium as live-action film.
The Sophisticated 70sJapanese animated television series seemed in the 1960s, most were created strictly for childen.This all changed in the 1970s, when a mangaka named Monkey Punch had a program with all kindof animations. Lupin Sansei had as main character a man who was a master thief. Inspired bysatyrical mysteries, the show was part comedy and part adventure, having adult humor and slapstickviolence too. That serie had an older audience.It was in the science fiction genre where televised animation started to make incredible leapsforward. Although programs thrilled audiences with their stylish robot and spaceship designs, it wasStar Blazers that really captured the imagination of Japanese television viewers. The series followedthe crew of the Space Battleship Yamato as they tried to save humanity from destruction whilefighting off an alien invasion.
The "giant robot" show had been a mainstay of Japanese animation since come shows. This sciencefiction sub-genre became important when Mobile Suit Gundam was premiered in 1979. Combiningthe epic story elements and humanoid mecha, MS Gundam was an intelligent and exciting spaceshow. The story-line detailed a future space war in which the opposing forced fought withmechanized battlesuits. Human pilots "wore" the giant robots as a protective shell.ExplosionIn the 1980s, television and film producers began to do more sophisticated and exciting animatedprogramming because of the demand. The home video market exploded onto the scene a few yearslater. Now Japanese fans could actually buy copies of their favorite animated TV shows and movies.To keep up with the ever-expanding marketplace, anime producers worked in manga field formaterial to adapt. One of the first artists to benefit was Akira Toriyama who’s quirky comedy seriesDr. Slump became an instant hit. In 1986, an animated adaptation of his fantasy series Dragon Ballwent on to become Japans most popular animated TV show.Employing as deft at light comedy and fantasy as Toriyama, Rumiko Takahashi dominatedtelevision and video throughout the 80s and 90s. First with the insane alien comedy UruseiYatsura, then with the gender-bending of Ranma ½ and later with some demons in an alternativeworld in Inu-yasha.On the opposite side from Takahashi was Go Nagain, an artist with a reputation for creating"naughty" manga. Anime adaptations of his work began in 1972 with the Devilman TV series. Nowthat the direct-to-video market had been established, anime created strictly for adults could bypassthe usual restrictions imposed by TV and film sensors.
It was during the 1980s that mainstream science fiction literature received a powerful jolt oftechnological reality. Japanese manga and anime artists were among the first to really grab this newlexicon of imagery and run with it. The first and best was artist/director Katsuhiro Otamo. Hecreated an anime film, Akira, a huge international hit and it influenced a new style of anime. A lot ofnew animes began to born, where the lines between technology and humanity began to blur. Theywere sci-fi films and shows talking about the man versus the machine.Not all new anime was like that. Keiji Nakazawa wrote of his experiences as a Hiroshima survivorin the heartrending manga saga Barefoot Gen. Nakazawa adapted his novels into a frank andpowerful 1983 film. Exploring similar territory, Hotaru No Haka (Grave of the Fireflies) followedthe struggle of two orphans who survived the fire-bombing of Tokyo. Few live action films haveever come as close to capturing the true horrors of war as this animated film did.Audiences were now becoming more receptive to animation that wasnt strictly action or comedyoriented. In response, anime producers turned to Japanese literature for inspiration. The success ofsuch films showed that anime had finally broken free from the restraints of its earlier "kids-only"label to enter the realm of high-brow acceptance.The New StudiosOut of the 80s anime explosion, two production companies emerged that would lead the industryinto the 21st Century: Gainax and Studio Ghibli. Founded by Toshio Okada, Gainax broughttogether a group of creators who were part of the first generation raised on Japanese animation.Gainax produced some of the most significant and popular works of the 80s and 90s.Studio Ghibli grew out of the association of two long-time anime creators, Isao Takahata and HayaoMiyazaki. Both worked on various projects during the 1960s. In 1971FutureAs the 90s wind down, optimism comes easily to the anime fan. In Japan, there are celebrations ofthe anniversaries of a lot of animes, famous authors keep making and drawing their stories and theystill make films based on those old shows.International audiences are enjoying a growing influx of popular anime. Pokémon, Sailor Moon andDragon Ball have delighted children wherever theyve been shown. Most significant is the deal thatDisney Studios and Studio Ghibli inked to bring all of Miyazakis masterpieces to Americanaudiences. Entertainment Weekly picked the first release under this agreement, Kikis DeliveryService, as its 1998 Video of the Year. Some years later, look for Mononoke Hime to appear intheaters across the country.
Animes success can be credited to the dedication of many Japanese artists to fully exploit thepossibilities of animation as a creative medium. These gifted artists understood that they could domore with moving pictures than just entertain children. This keeps anime as a vital artistic optionfor filmmakers in the 21st Century.Bibliography:http://www.slideshare.net/reedsterscience/the-history-of-anime-mangahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animehttp://www.corneredangel.com/amwess/papers/history.htmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mangahttp://www.ehow.com/about_6507604_history-manga-anime.htmlhttp://www.articledashboard.com/Article/The-History-of-Anime-and-Manga/228774http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_manga