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It is simple Project for environment study for all the students studied in 11th and a12th standerd. It can be used to college project given for Environment Study Subject on Recycling.

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  1. 1. Material Extraction Material Processing Manufacturing Use Waste Management Recycle Remanufacture Reuse Repair Reduce Reduce Reuse Recycle Rethink
  2. 2.  Waste Recycling ○ Goals ○ Terminology ○ Recycling Advantage ○ Recycling Challenges ○ Examples of Recycling - Aluminum Recycling - Glass Recycling - Paper Recycling - Plastic Recycling - Steel Recycling
  3. 3. Goals Define terms related to waste reduction Hazardous waste recycling Discuss advantages associated with waste reduction and recycling. Discuss recycling of specific MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) components Discuss ways to increase recycling
  4. 4. TERMINOLOGY  Reduction: Reduction in generation, reduction in amount of material, increase lifetime, or eliminate the need  Recycle - used, reused, or reclaimed, use of the material as a source raw material, involves physical transformation  Reused: The direct use or reuse of a secondary material without prior reclamation  Reclaimed: regeneration of wastes or recovery of usable materials from wastes (e.g., regenerating spent solvents in a solvent still). Wastes are regenerated when they are processed to remove contaminants in a way that restores them to their usable condition materials that must be reclaimed/recycled prior to use or reuse  Recovery - Process to recover useful material from mixed waste (energy is an example)
  5. 5. Recycling Advantages  Prevents the emission of many greenhouse gases and water pollutants,  Saves energy,  Supplies valuable raw materials to industry,  Creates jobs,  Stimulates the development of greener technologies,  Conserves resources for our children’s future, and  Reduces the need for new landfills and combustors.
  6. 6. Recycling Challenges  Location of wastes (9000 curbside programs)  Uncertainty of supply  Administrative and institutional constraints  Legal restrictions  Uncertain markets  Technical challenges to recycling  Changes in materials (i.e. light weighting)  Too many items in waste  Actually encourages waste production (because recycling will take care of it)
  7. 7. Examples of Recycling  Aluminum Recycling  Steel Recycling  Glass Recycling  Paper Recycling  Plastic Recycling
  8. 8. Aluminum Recycling  About 51 percent of aluminum cans is being recycled  Twenty years ago it took 19 aluminum cans to make one pound, but today, aluminum beverage cans are lighter and it takes 29 cans to make a pound.  Americans throw away enough aluminum every three months to rebuild our entire commercial air fleet.  Making new aluminum cans from used cans takes 95 percent less energy and 20 recycled cans can be made with the energy needed to produce one can using virgin ore.  Domestic recycling has declined recently, collection is expensive
  9. 9. Glass Recycling  Glass always lags other recyclables  Alternative markets needed – grind for construction fill, “glassphalt,” fiberglass  Transportation of heavy glass is expensive  Raw materials are inexpensive  Contamination is an issue  Reuse used to be common practice; however as manufacturing plants became larger and decreased in number, bottles had to be carried further for refilling.  More colored glass is imported than used domestically
  10. 10. Paper Recycling  Problems  Chlorination produces dioxins/furans  Inks are petrochemical based  Acid used to break fibers shortens life  Coating of high gloss paper  Demand for high quality paper  Glues, laminates, plastics, inks not water soluble  Paper can only be reused 4-12 times, always need a virgin source
  11. 11. Plastic Recycling  Problems  Light weight, bulky, low density  Wide variety of polymers  Concerns over contamination for reuse  Difficult to differentiate among types PET(Polyethylene terephthalate) and HDPE(High- density polyethylene) have high prices due to domestic and international demand Curbside recycling is down, driving prices up More expensive oil prices makes virgin plastic more expensive
  12. 12. Steel Recycling  Expanding economy – increased steel demands; China and India biggest markets  36.4% of steel is recycled  Use of plastic for automobiles is a problem  One ton steel recycled saves 2500 lb of iron ore, 1000 lb of coal, 40 lb of limestone, and significant energy savings