Part1 Over View


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Part1 Over View

  1. 1. I NATURE OF PLANNED CHANGE & PRACTITIONER ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Introduction to Organization Development The Nature of Planned Change
  2. 2. Introduction to Organization Development
  3. 3. Burke’s Definition of OD <ul><li>OD is a planned process of change in an organization’s culture through the utilization of behavioral science technology, research, and theory. </li></ul>
  4. 4. French’s Definition of OD <ul><li>OD refers to a long-range effort to improve an organization’s problem-solving capabilities and its ability to cope with changes in its external environment with the help of external or internal behavioral-scientist consultants. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Beckhard’s Definition of OD <ul><li>OD is an effort (1) planned, (2) organization-wide, and (3) managed from the top, to (4) increase organization effectiveness and health through (5) planned interventions in the organization’s “processes,” using behavioral science knowledge. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Beer’s Definition of OD <ul><li>OD is a system-wide process of data collection, diagnosis, action planning, intervention, and evaluation aimed at: (1) enhancing congruence between organizational structure, process, strategy, people, and culture; (2) developing new and creative organizational solutions; and (3) developing the organization’s self-renewing capacity. It occurs through collaboration of organizational members working with a change agent using behavioral science theory, research, and technology. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Organization Development is... <ul><li>a systemwide application and transfer of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development, improvement, and reinforcement of the strategies, structures, and processes that lead to organization effectiveness. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Five Stems of OD Practice 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Today Current Practice Laboratory Training Action Research/Survey Feedback Normative Approaches Quality of Work Life Strategic Change
  9. 9. Part I: Overview of the Book The Nature of Planned Change The OD Practitioner (Chapter 2) (Chapter 3) Part II: The Process of Organization Development Entering & Diagnosing Diagnosing Collecting Contracting Organizations Groups & Jobs Diagnostic (Chapter 4) (Chapter 5) (Chapter 6) Information (Chapter 7) Feeding Back Designing OD Leading and Evaluating & Diagnostic Data Interventions Managing Institutionalizing (Chapter 8) (Chapter 9) Change Change (Chapter 10) (Chapter 11)
  10. 10. Part III: Human Process Interventions Individual, Interpersonal, & Group Process Approaches (Chapter 12) Organization Process Approaches (Chapter 13) Part IV: Techno-structural Interventions Restructuring Organizations (Chapter 14) Employee Involvement (Chapter 15) Work Design (Chapter 16) Part V: Human Resources Management Interventions Performance Management (Chapter 17) Developing and Assisting Members (Chapter 18) Part VI: Strategic Interventions Competitive and Collaborative Strategies (Chapter 19) Organization Transformation (Chapter 20) Part VII: Special Topics in Organization Development Organization Development OD in Nonindustrial Future Directions in Global Settings Settings in OD (Chapter 21) (Chapter 22) (Chapter 23)
  11. 11. The Nature of Planned Change
  12. 12. Lewin’s Change Model Unfreezing Movement Refreezing
  13. 13. Action Research Model Feedback to Client Data gathering after action Problem Identification Joint action planning Consultation with a behavioral scientist Data gathering & preliminary diagnosis Joint diagnosis Action
  14. 14. Initiate the Inquiry Inquire into Best Practices Discover Themes Envision a Preferred Future Design and Deliver Ways to Create the Future Positive Model
  15. 15. Comparison of Planned Change Models <ul><li>Similarities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change preceded by diagnosis or preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply behavioral science knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress involvement of organization members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize the role of a consultant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General vs. specific activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centrality of consultant role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem-solving vs. social constructionism </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. General Model of Planned Change Evaluating and Institutionalizing Change Planning and Implementing Change Diagnosing Entering and Contracting
  17. 17. Different Types of Planned Change <ul><li>Magnitude of Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incremental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Degree of Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overorganized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underorganized </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Domestic vs. International Settings </li></ul>
  18. 18. Critique of Planned Change <ul><li>Conceptualization of Planned Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in not linear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change is not rational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The relationship between change and performance is unclear </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Practice of Planned Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited consulting skills and focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick fixes vs. development approaches </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The Organization Development Practitioner <ul><li>Internal and External Consultants </li></ul><ul><li>Professionals from other disciplines who apply OD practices (e.g., TQM managers, IT/IS managers, compensation and benefits managers) </li></ul><ul><li>Managers and Administrators who apply OD from their line or staff positions </li></ul>
  20. 20. Competencies of an OD Practitioner <ul><li>Intrapersonal skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to work with others and groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General consultation skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to manage consulting process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organization development theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of change processes </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Role Demands on OD Practitioners <ul><li>Position </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal vs. External </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marginality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to straddle boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emotional Demands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional Intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use of Knowledge and Experience </li></ul>
  22. 22. Client vs. Consultant Knowledge Plans Implementation Recommends/prescribes Proposes criteria Feeds back data Probes and gathers data Clarifies and interprets Listens and reflects Refuses to become involved Use of Consultant’s Knowledge and Experience Use of Client’s Knowledge and Experience
  23. 23. Professional Ethics <ul><li>Ethical Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical Dilemmas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Misrepresentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Misuse of Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coercion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value and Goal Conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical Ineptness </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. A Model of Ethical Dilemmas Antecedents Process Consequences Ethical Dilemmas <ul><li>Misrepresentation </li></ul><ul><li>Misuse of data </li></ul><ul><li>Coercion </li></ul><ul><li>Value and goal </li></ul><ul><li>conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Technical </li></ul><ul><li>ineptness </li></ul>Role Episode <ul><li>Role conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Role ambiguity </li></ul>Role of the Change Agent Role of the Client System Values Goals Needs Abilities