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  1. 1. <ul><li>COMPUTER AND BASIC </li></ul><ul><li>APPLICATION </li></ul><ul><li>PRESENTED BY: </li></ul><ul><li>PURTI SHARMA </li></ul>
  2. 2. INDEX <ul><li>An introduction to computer </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of computer </li></ul><ul><li>Generations of computer </li></ul><ul><li>Basic computer organization </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>The word computer comes from the word “ compute ” which means to calculate, so a computer is normally considered to be a computing device. </li></ul><ul><li>More accurately , a computer may be defined as a device that operates upon information or data. </li></ul><ul><li>So we can say that a computer is a device that accepts input, process it and convert it into output. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Characteristics of computer <ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Diligence </li></ul><ul><li>Versatility </li></ul><ul><li>Power of remembering </li></ul><ul><li>No i.q </li></ul><ul><li>No feelings </li></ul><ul><li>speed </li></ul>
  5. 5. GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER <ul><li>First generation(1942-1955)- these machines and other of their time were made possible by the invention of “vacuum tube” , which was a fragile glass device that could control and amplify electronic signals. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Second generation(1955-1964)- </li></ul><ul><li>the transistor , a smaller and more </li></ul><ul><li>reliable successor to the vacuum tube </li></ul><ul><li>was invented in 1947. </li></ul><ul><li>However computers that used transistor </li></ul><ul><li>were not produced in quantity until over </li></ul><ul><li>a decade later. </li></ul><ul><li>These were smaller in size and generates less </li></ul><ul><li>heat. </li></ul><ul><li>Speed was also faster than firs generation </li></ul><ul><li>computers. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Third generation(1964-1975)- </li></ul><ul><li>Advances in electronic technology continued and the advent of “microelectronics” technology made it possible to integrate large numbers of circuit elements into very small (less than 5 mm square) surface of silicon known as chips. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Fourth generation(1975 onwards)- Initially the integrated circuits contained only about ten to twenty components. </li></ul><ul><li>This technology was named small scale integration (ssi). Later with the advancement in technology for manufacturing ic , it became possible </li></ul><ul><li>to integrate upto a hundred components on a single chip. This came to be known as medium scale integration. Then came the era of large scale integration when it was possible to integrate over 30,000 components onto a single chip. </li></ul>
  9. 9. BASIC COMPUTER ORGANIZATION <ul><li>INPUT UNIT— Data and instructions must enter the computer system before any computations can be performed on the supplied data. This task is performed by the input unit that </li></ul><ul><li>links the external environment with </li></ul><ul><li>computer system. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Output unit – The job of an output unit is just the reverse of that of input unit. </li></ul><ul><li>It supplies the information and results to </li></ul><ul><li>the outside world. </li></ul><ul><li>Arithmetic and logic unit- The arithmetic </li></ul><ul><li>logic unit is the place where the actual </li></ul><ul><li>execution of the instructions take </li></ul><ul><li>place during the processing </li></ul><ul><li>Operation .To be more precise all </li></ul><ul><li>calculations are performed and </li></ul><ul><li>decisions are made in the ALU. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Control unit – By selecting , interpreting and seeing to the execution of program instructions , the control unit is able to maintain , order and direct the operation of the entire system. </li></ul><ul><li>Central processing unit – The control unit and ALU of a computer system are jointly known as central processing unit. The c.p.u is the brain of any system. </li></ul>
  12. 12. i/p unit Storage unit o/p unit Control unit ALU Results Central processing unit data