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Online Communities - why do consumers participate - why should marketers care - Julie Walker October 2004

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Online Communities - why do consumers participate - why should marketers care - Julie Walker October 2004

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igure 2 - History of Online Communities >CCC: D 1+ D 1 + D " " 2> D ) 2 > 5 "
  9. 9. 0 # " ( 1 P? ?% !""# $ % !! - 0BB;' " F " $ " $ 0% $ D H$ " " $ ) ) $ %I % $ D H ! ( ) ! $ %I 4% $$ D H ! ) ' %I % $ D $ H $ ( $ ) $ $ %I # 0BB; ; ' ) ) ' " ! ' $ ' " ' $ ! ! ! $ $ % # ' ! ' ) " $ ! ) ) $ $$ " ' ' ' ' ' $ ) ' ! $ $ " F " ' 0BB;' "" " % - $ ! $ " F " :' @0BB;A " % + !! ' $$ $ ' ' " $! ! "" " !' &"% 0 0 8 > ! -? !! ! + " !! • C • L ! !! • + • Q • 2 ( $! ! , . > • 1 % . ! !! • / % • F F ! 0 . > • F • . " % % @ ! # ! A • ) !! , • " ) D # $$ • C D " ) N ! !! • , > • "! % # !! • 1 • • + " + 0 > !! • & % % • F F 6 !! • F + ) • ,) & - ! !! • & • CC " -?> !! • # Q • . #
  10. 10. 00 , / " @ !! • , - • 8 • > ) C !! • J & • F $ ' $ $$ " "" " @ A $ ! ! + " !! *! A 2 @ A' L : " ) ! ! " ' L : % L ) $ $ ) ! ' ) ! ) ' ! ) ) ! $ ) ! ) ' ! " L ) ! ! $ H I ! 3 # 9 ! " L : ) ) ! ( D ) ! ' ! $$ ! $ ! " % " L ) 9 ! " ' ! $ ! ) L ! ) ) " ) % -6 - " ( " ' 8C ' ! ! ! 8C ) ! ' ! ! ) " $ ' % ) ! 8C ( " D ) " $ ! ) ! ) ! $ $ $ $ " % # $ $ ' ) " $ ! $ % C ) ! ) $ " " $ ) ' ! ) ) " ! " $ ' " " % $ % & ! !! # > + ! ) " ! + 9 ' + ) ) ' " $ " ' ' " $ + ) % + ) ! ) $ $ ' 5 $ ! " !
  11. 11. 0 $ ( $ % - ' " + ' %"% " " ' 9 ' $" " ! ' ! ( $ ) ' " ! % # $ $ ) + ! ) $ ! " $ $ 9 " $ % % % $+ ) ! $ ) $ $ % ' & ( !""! B ! Q ' $! ) ! $ $ ! : $ > :' ) ) ) $ ! ! $ $ ' ) ; ) ! % & ( ) $$ $ ) % # $ ' ! ) % # Q ) ) ' " $$ ) % > $' ! " ) $ $ $ " $ % # ! " ) % - ' & ( !""! $ % & ) ! , . > 2 * 1 ' ! ! ! ! " " ) $1 ) $ 0% # : 1 ! ! !!!% % " 1 " ) " $ $ ) " ) $ % " ) ) ) ! " ( ) ! " ) " ) ! $ D " ) $ " ' " ) ) $ " $ % # " " ) ' $ $ " ) ! D 5 ) " ' ) %
  12. 12. 04 ' & ( !""! $ ) . ! !! 3 3 F ( $ " ' ! " ! H " ) " I% # " " F $ ' " ) " ' ' " " " % F $ ( ) ! $ $ ) ! % # " ' ' ) ' ! ' ! $ R $ ) $ ' $ ) "% F " ) " $F " % > ' + ! & F F ' ) ! ! ! ! $ ) ! ' ) $ ! ) % # " " ! " " ) !% + ! ! $ & % *!""#+ $ % ) , - C ! 0 . > 2 ) " ! $ $ " $$ $ 1 !!!% ) % % $; ' 17 ! ) " % . $$ ) " " % $ " 9 ' ! $ 9 " $ % # ) " " " 9 " ! " ' ! $ " $ % # $ $ $ ! 9 ) % ( . $( $ / 0 12 $ 3 ! @ $ $ 2' $ " ' F 1 ) H ) I $4 ' ! ' ) ! $
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
  15. 15. 0; 8 ! $ $ ) $ " " 17 ) % 8 " $ " ) $ 17" ) $ " $ % 8 ( $ $ $ " " " ! ) ) " " $ ! " ! % - ) ) " $ % $ % ; ) - % ! !! , . , ) " ) $ $ " # # % # ) ( " $ ) ! ,> " ) % # ) " ! ) $ % # # # ( " $ $ " ' , > % , A ' " L $ " ! $ 5 $ ' @!!!% % % A $ ) 17 $ ! ' ( " 6 $ " ) " " ! ! 5 "% # " L $ ' H I ) ! ' " ! ( ) ! $ $ % $ " " $ ' ) " ! ) ) $$ % ) $ % ) - ' # !! 2 1 " ' ! $ $ ! $ 5 " ' " $ $04 $$ ' ) " " $ $ % 1 ! $
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
  17. 17. 0= & ) - ) 6 !! 3 # # F + ) ! / @F /A' ' 9 ! ; ' " $ ' " $ F + ) ( % # F / ( ' :' " " % H# F + ) 0 ( %I 2 > ' " @ A% # ( % C ) ) ) ' ' $ ( % # " ) ! $ $ $ " % $ ' ! ! ) ! % $ % ) - 0 8 !! J $ $ ! ) $ " ) % # ) ' ' ) ' " " $ $ ) $ % F " $ $ ! ) $ $ " $ ) ( ) ! " % $ ) -?> !! 8 ! A !!!%# L % ' $ $ ! ' ! # L % # $ $ ( 2 (' - " % $ ! ' ! ) ! " ! $ % ' 2 E " ' @ 0A $ # L ! # L ! " ! 0 % - = !""3 1 . # ) ) $ $ ) ' !!!%) % @.#A% .# " $ $ " ! " ) ' ! ( "
  18. 18. 0B ) ! ! ) % # ) ' ) $ ) $ ' ! ) $ ' ! " " $ D ! " $$ ! " ) $ " $ .# ! ( $ ' $$ ) D ' ' " % # ) ) " ! $ 9 ) $ " D ) ) $ ) $ $ ' ! ) ) ) " ! .# " ) % $ % & ) - , / " @ !! - ! 8 ! " $ ! ! ) ! $ ! H I ! ! $ ) % 8 $ 5 ! " $ ) ' ) $ ! " ) H ! ! I ! ) % 8 " $$ ) $ % C ! " ) $ 5 $ ! " ) % # $$ ! ) " " % /5-# ,-*78+- ! ' ! ) ' ( " ) 5 ' " 9 " ! ' 5 " " ) " $H I' ! " " % ,-*78+- " $$ ! " ) % $ < % ) - - ! !! 66 # CC ) 4 " " $ 5 " $ #. 2 " ' " " 17 $ % # " ) " ) !
  19. 19. ! $ ' " $ ! " " " ) ! " % !!!% % % 1 ,) " #. ! $ ) #. " $ " % # $ $ " ! ) #. " ! $ ) ( ! ) #.% # $ " ) ! ! " ) ! $ ! ) ) ! !% !!!% ) " )% % $ % )
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
  21. 21. 6 1 8 ! F + ) ' # $$ ' C ' 8 ' 8 ' !! , # $$ ' C ' 8 ' 8 ' " !! F F ' # $$ ' 8 ' 1 ' ' 8 ' ,-*78+- ' > !! J $ ' # $$ ' ! * F ! !> + ' Q ' 1 % ! 0 @ ) ' F ' -) " ' J ' 8 ' ! ! 1 " ' 8C ' L ' + ' Q ' F F ' # $$ ' C ' 8 ' , > ' > ' 1 ' ' & ' F + ) ' # L ' . # ' 8 ' ,-*78+- ' CC ' ,-.-*/ ) ! " ' 8C ' L ' + ' Q ' 1 ' F F ' # $$ ' C ' 8 ' , > ' > ' 1 ' ' & ' F + ) ' # L ' . # ' # L ' 8 ' ,-*78+- ' CC ' ,-.-*/ ) ! , + " L ! + ' Q ' 1 ' ! + " 8C ! >> G + ' Q ' # L ' . # ' ! 1 , > ' > ' 1 ' ' & ' + ' Q ' CC ' ,-.-*/ ) # L ' 8C ' # $$ ' C ' + ' Q ' - F F ' # $$ ' C ' 8 ' 8 ' -!> @ " ! # $$ ' C ' -!> @ " > # $$ ' C ' -!> @ " !! ! > # $$ -! 6 F F ' F + ) ' 8 ' ,-*78+- ' -? ?> F F ' 8 ' ,-*78+- ' CC ' ,-.-*/ ) ! " D > @ " E + ' Q ' F F ' 1 ' ' & ' 8 ' ,-*78+- ' ! ) ' F ' -) " ' J ' , > ' > ' # L ' . # ' 8 ' ,-*78+- ' ! -? # $$ ' C ' 8 ' 8 ' ,-*78+- ' ! @ F F ' 8 ' ,-*78+- ' CC ' ,-.-*/ ) 5 " # $$ ' C ' 8 ' 8 ' ,-*78+- '
  22. 22. 4 -?> F + ) ' . # ' 8 ' ,-*78+- ' " ) @ - F F ' @ + ) ' F ' -) " ' J ' CC ' ,-.-*/ ) D! ! E 8C ' L ' 1 ' ' & ' 8 ' ,-*78+- ' ! > ! ! 8C ' L ' 8 ' ,-*78+- ' ! ! ! ! F " ' 8C ' L ' 8 ' , - ' F F ' # $$ ' 8 ' , > ' > ' 1 ' ' & ' F + ) ' # L ' . # ' 8 ' ,-*78+- ' CC ' ,-.-*/ ) / " , # >! + ' Q ' . # ' / " , F F ' C ' F ' -) " ' J ' , , !! , * + ' Q ' , # 1 ' ' & ' , -? >> F F ' # L ' . # ' 8 ' ,-*78+- ' + > > >> 1 ' ' & ' F + ) ' + ' Q ' . # ' # L ' + > F + ) ' ,> / ' > ' . # ' # L ' + . > L ' 8C ' F + ) + . 8C ' L ' & ' 8 ' F F ' 8 ' ,-*78+- ' ! F F ' F + ) ' , > ' > ' 1 ' ' & ' 8 ' ,-*78+- ' CC ' ,-.-*/ ) # + ' Q ' F + ) ' ! ! 2> ! ! >> F F ' 8C ' L ' 8 ' ,-*78+- ' 1 @ 4 " ' F F ' 8C ' L ' + ' Q ' 1 ' # $$ ' C ' 8 ' , > ' > ' 1 ' ' & ' # L ' . # ' 8 ' ,-*78+- ' CC ' ,-.-*/ ) # " " ) $ " $ " $ ! " % # $ " $ $ ! ( " ! ) ' !
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
  24. 24. ? !! >! @ # ) ) $ $ $ % # $ ) ! "' ' ' ! " " % # " 5 ! ' ( " $ ) ' " " " $ % + > @ 8 > ! 2 " " 0BB : 5 " ! $ ' / @0BB A' $ $ " $ "' ! ) $ " " "' " " " " % / @0BB A' $ " $$ >: " ( " " " " % / @0BB ' ;A 8 >? ! ) ! " ! $ "% ' % ? / @0BB A # $ $ " $ ! ' ! ) $ % # ) $ ! ) " ) % C " ? / @0BB A 9 $$ $ $ " ' $$ ! ) $ ) ) % - ) ) ) % - ) ' / ) ! " ' $ " ( " $ ! " ( % 2 " @ 2 A ) ) " ) / ' ! " ' " ! ) $$ $ $$ ) % # 2 ) " " 3 ! + > @ ! # " $ $ " @ 2 A ' " " $ % 2 ! " % 2 E7 ( @ 0A' & @B=A% 2 7 ( @ 0A' ! " $ " 2 ) $ D 2 " $ $! ( " ) $ $ ) ' " " ! " % 2 " " " % 2 7 ( $ $ 2
  25. 25. ; 3 ! @ 1 * + # A $ B C D 0 4 ? # " $ D $ $ $ D ! ) " ! $ ) " ' " ) " 2 7 ( @ 0A' ) $ 2 ' ! $ " D ) 9 D H! $ I - ' 8 , ( $ ( *5 ;, EF+ " " ! 2 D B G? & ' " ! " ' 9 ! ! " D ! $ D ' " ) ' ! 2 " ) " $ " " ' " $ ! $ D ! % & 2 ) " ! " ! ! " ' " ) ) $ % ' ) ! ! ) " ) $ % # !' " " ) ' ' ! ) ' ! " ! " $ " ) ' $ " % # " " $ ! % + > @ > @ ! " " " " $ " 9 $ ! " 6 ' ) ' % @ A% @ A' $) $ $$ " ' ) " $ $ " : " % - $) $ ' ! " ) $ " % : $ ' $ ' N ' ' $ % $ )
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
  27. 27. = ! $ ! " $ ! ' ! ! ! % & 6 !! L :/ @ 0A ) ! ' & @0BB=A% # " $ ! C % C $ " % & ! $ ' ) ) !% L :/ @ 0A' $ B ? ! H ? L :/ @ 0A' 4 ' & C ' @ A $ " ' ! ) ' $$ " D " ! " % L :/ @ 0A' H ? L :/ @ 0A $ $ ! " ' $ ' $ " ! " " $ ! ( $ ! ( $ ) % # ! $ ( ' @ A' ! " ) ) ) " " $ % # ! C & 1 ' ! ! $ " " " ) ' 5 " ) % ( :' @ A' ! ' ) H $ I ) ) ) $$ ! $ % # $ ' $H $ I H ( I " % # ! " ) ) ' $" ?%
  28. 28. B ( ' %F' % ' 7 " F%&' @ A D C " C D 5 $ ' . %;; C ) $ ) " ' " 9 F + ) ! / @F /A% @ A' ! " $ F + ) ! / " ! " % $ $ " " 6 $ " $ $ " $ " " " ! $ ! $ " " % % 6 !! D 6 E ) " " ' % - ! : " % ) ! ' ) ) % - ' ! $ % # " $ " % C : ) " ! ' $% - 2 ' @!!!%! % % 'A $" ;' C " $ "' ' ) ) % # ) $ " ' ' ! " $ ) $ ! " ( ' ) $$ ' ' % Brand Figure 5 - Customer Centric Model of Brand Community Product Customer Marketer Focal Customer
  29. 29. 4 0 & 8 ! 4 4 9 + > > ! + > > ! ( 43*+ / 3 0 3 2.3 ,+ , -# -= -/ / 0 +- * / 3 , ,- +2 1 ( + > , > > !! C " " " + " ! + ) $ ( ! " " !! # " " $ * " # " " $ $ ) 8( ) " $ $ $ 8( " $ 7 ! " ) $ ( > " ) " N ) 7 " , ! " ! > " - " > ! " $$ ) " ( + ) . ( L $ ) ) " ) " - ! " + ) $ ! " ( !! + 8 > $ " " E C C 2 " @ 2 A - " 2 ' " NN %! % % N " " N " N ! N4 - ' $ " ' " ' ! ) $ " " ' " " 2 ' % - " ( ' $ " % C : ) ) ) $ ! ' ) " ' $ @ C A ) ) ) " $" ) " " ! $ ( " %
  30. 30. 40 # " ' ) $ ' ! " ! ) " $ $ C % C 0% ' " " ! ( " $ ) $$ " % ) 4% " ) " ) ( " ! D % H $ ) I ?% " ! " ' 5 H $!I ;% 9 . ) " $ ' ! " $ " $ % # " ! ) $ ! " 9 ! ! ) % 2 ' @ A' " ) $ ' " ) $ C : ! L : ) ! % 8 ) $ % - 5 $ % # ( "' ! $ $ D ! 5 ! $ " % # $ " ) $ ) $ $ ) % % $ " ' ! 0 $ " ' " ? ' % @ L% ' A F ! ) ) ' " ! " ' " ) $ ! " ! ! ! % # " $ $ " ) ' " : ! " " ! ) % ( $ # L % ' ! ' " $ ( " ! " ( ' " ' ! ! 0 % @2 E " ' 0A - ! " " ! $ ' $ ( ) $ ! " 9 ! ! $ " " " " C ? $ *3EED+ ' !! ! " $ ' ! % ) ! ' ! ' " ) $ ! $ $ " % ! ' " F " ' @0BB;A' $ ' 1 F
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
  35. 35. 4; # $ " " H! $ 9 " " " %I & % ! $ ) ' $ " $ ! ) $ ! " " % Maximise share Of wallet Attract Prospects Attention Activate Customers To purchase Convert Prospects Potential Customers Create affinity to Company And Brand Reactivate Customers Convert customer To become A brand advocate Retain Customer Over Lifetime need For product/service Develop Interdependent Relationship with customer E V O L U T I O N O F C U S T O M E R R E L A T I O N S H I P S FIGURE 3: EVOLUTION OF A SUCCESSFUL CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP STRATEGY – diagram derived from review of literature by author
  36. 36. 4< 0 ! " @ + # $ ) ! ' ! $ ' " ) $$ $ % # $ $ ) $ % # " ) ! $ ' ! ) ) $ ) $ " " ' " ' ' ' ) ! " ! " ! $ 6 " ) $ ) $ " % - "" $ " " " ! ! ) " ) ( $ % - " ! ) $ ) $ ! " ( " ! $$ ) $ % - ) ! " "' ' ) $ ) • 2 " " ) " ' " " $ ! " " ! ! ' " $ " % • ' " " " " ) $ " ) $ $ ) ( $ ) $ % • ) $ ' $ " " $ " % - 5 ) $ ! $ " " ' ! ! ! 9 0% - ) ! $ ) % - ) ! ( ) '
  37. 37. 4= 4% - ) ! ) $ " $ ! ) $ ! 6 H+ $ I " ' 1 ' C ' H 7 ! " " ) I 7 E 7 @ A ' 1 ' C : @ A' $ ! $" = ! $$ $ ! " ) % # ! 0% ) " $ $$ ! % > ) " $ ( " $ 4% " ' )" ' ' ) " $ $ % D ( ' ( $$ ?% # " ) ! ! ' ) % # $ ! !' $" B' $ : H $ ! I ! " : + % @ A # ! $ ! $ ) % # $ ! ! ' ! ! ' ) $ ! 6 ! ( ) ! ) % # 0; $ =0 $ ! % # $ ! $ $ > $# @ #- *A C ) - Figure 8 - Sultan, Urban, Shankar, Bart 2002 $ $ > - $ Community Replaces web site Participation Replaces Trust Members Replaces Consumer Hypothesis 1 Hypothesis 2 Figure 9 – first stage of concept development
  38. 38. 4B 9 $ % # ? ( ) 0? % 3 > # >! J # $ 9 $ ) ! : : ) G0 - ) ! $ ) # $ ! ) $ ! ! $ ' ' ) $$ ) 4 ) ! ' 4 $ "" $ $ % # $ ) $ " 4 $ ) H $ ) I $ " F ' C % 1 !! ( ! J / ! > # " - ) ! " - $ ( - ! < = B 0 - $ - $ ! $ - 5 " ! - ) $ " 00 0 04 0; , # # $ # " ! 0 0? 0< - - $ - ) $ $ - $ $ ) " # " 0= 0B 0 8 $ ) ! " ? , ' 0 T " + " ? T " " % # ) $ 9 0 F0 # ) ! F # ) ! ) F4 # ) ! F # ) ! $$ ) J # 9 $ ) ! : ( ) ) G - ) ! ( ) % # ) )
  39. 39. # ( ) ! ) $ + ! % 1 ! -?> ! J / ! ! -?> - 5 " - $ ( - ) $ - " - ) " 4 ? ; < 8 $ ) ! " ? , ' 0 T " + " ? T " " % F? # ) ! ( % J # 9 ) $ ) $ ! $7 E 7 @ A' ! ! " " ) ' $ ! ! $ $ ! $ % G4 - ) ! ) $ " # " ! ! 7 E 7 : % - $ ! ) ) ! % 7 E 7 $ ! " " ! " $ ! ) ) % 7 E 7 : ! 1 ! !! , > - ) ) - ) - $ ) $ $ N $ ) 7 ! " " ) > > , # ! . > ) @ A Community Outcomes Figure 10 – Koh & Kim’s research model
  40. 40. 0 - " " $ ) - ) - $ ) ! $ !! , ! - ) 9 5 ) - $ $ $ ) - $ $ ) !! > D E - 9 $ % - $ $ $$ % - $ $ % - ) " ) $ % N "" " - ! ) $ % ' ) $ ) ) 7 E 7 : ) ! " ! ! $ ) ) % # $ ' ) ) $ 7 7 @ A " $ ) $ ( $ $ " $ % 1 ! J / ! !! , > - ) - U ! ! ? ! ) V 4 - " " T 0 " " T ? ? - " " " " T 0 " " T ? ; !! F ! ! 0' '4' ' TV? - ) $ $ U 0 0 D 0 0 4 ; D 0 V 0 4? F W ) ! ,) " #.' $ % # ! 9 4 F; # ) ! ) $ $ $ ! % F< # ) ! ) $ $ " $ &" 00' ! $ $ ' ! " ! 9 0% - ! $ )
  41. 41. % - ! ( ) ) 4% - ! ) $ " 2 # ! > - ( ) ' $ " ) ' ! ! J / ! / 0 T ' T & 4 " U 0; 0; D ? ; D 4? 4; D ?? V ?? 44 8 $ F " 8 > " 4 @,-.-*/ )A @,-.-*/ )A @,-.-*/ )A 4; /6K ,-.-*/ ) " $ ! ! " ! ! " ) ! ! 0 " ) !! ,-.-*/ )' # ) ! #. " % ,-.-*/ ) B $ ' $ $ #. " % # ! ! " $,-.-*/ ) # " ' ' ! " ! % 0 ( * > ! , > !! > H1 H6 H5 8$$ ) > - ) # H2 H3 H4 8( F + $ H7
  42. 42. 4 J # 9 ! ) ' ( C' ! $4; 9 ' $ ! " " ; " 9 = ) ) 9 ? , # , ! $ ! ' $ % # 4; 9 ! ) ' ) " ) 17' ) ,-.-*/ ) ! 0 " % # 9 ! ) ) " ) % ! # ,-.-*/ ) ' $ 17' $ $ " ) $ ' ! " $ $ ) ) ! ) $$ % # $ " " %
  43. 43. C + * # 5 ) $ ! ( ) " ) $ ) !% # " $ ! ' !' $ < ' ! F F0 # ) ! % F # ) ! ) F4 # ) ! F # ) ! $$ ) F? # ) ! ( % F; # ) ! ) $ $ " $ F< # ) ! ) $ $ $ ! % # ! ( ) ) " " $ ! " ) $ " $ " ! $ ! " ) ' $" 0 !' $ % 0 ( * > ! , > !! > H1 H6 H5 8$$ ) > - ) # H2 H3 H4 8( F + $ H7
  44. 44. ? # ( $ $ ! # $ " ! " # ! ! ' - 8( ' " ! ! F0 1 ! J / ! - # " - ) ! " " " T 0 " " T ? < = 8( - $ ( - ! " " T 0 " " T ? B 0 # ! ! ! F0 F0 # ) ! F0 # ) ! ( & ! $ ! ) $ ) " 1 ! J / ! & - ) $ " # " ! " " T 0 " " T ? 0; 0< # ! F= # ) ! $ # $ ! $ $ ! % - $ $ ! ! , $ $$ % ! ( ' $ $ $ % # $ ! " ! ( 0 ( * > ! , > !! > F0 F; F? 8$$ ) > - ) 8( F F4 F 8( F + $ F< - F0 FB D F0 F0?D F F 0 F & F=
  45. 45. ; FB # ) ! $ F0 # ) ! ( " $ F00 # ) ! ) " $ F0 # ) ! " $ F04 # ) ! $$ ) " $ F0 # ) ! $ " $ F0? # ) ! " $ F0; # ) ! ( " $ F0< # ) ! ) " $ F0= # ) ! " $ F0B # ) ! $$ ) " $ F # ) ! $ " $ F 0 # ) ! ( " $ F # ) ! ( " $ - " ' $ ! " ) ! ' # ' - 8( ' " ' - ) ' > ' 8$$ ) ' & @ ) " A' 8( ' > ' F $ % - ' ! " " $ ) ' ! " $ $ ! % & ( " % # ! ? " % # $ " ! $ 9 ' ! " $ " $ 9 ' 9 ( C% # " !
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
  47. 47. = - " ) $ " ) ! 9 ) $ ' " $ % # ) ! ) " ' $ " ! ) % # ! ) " ) ) % ) ) ) ' ! ! %
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
  51. 51. ? $ ' $ ) % # $ $ % ! -?> 7 T %;<' " $ $ $ % C : ' $ ' $ $ % # " %?<0 %;04' ! 0' " ) " ! % ) ) $ " %<?0 %?BB ) ' " <?K ; K $ ) ( ) % # 8" ) 0%=;' $ "' $ ' ( ' " ; K $ % 8( $ $ ' ! ! ' " " ' ) % 8( $ ' ! $ ! % $ $ ) $ $ ( % # ( " ) $ ) ' $ $ % , > 9 7 T %;B<' " $ $ $ % C : ' $ ' $ $ % # " %? $ ' ! ) 0 ! ) " ! % # ) ) $ " %<;= $ ' $ ' <;%=K $ ) > ) % # 8" ) 0%? ' $ " $ ' ' " <;%<BK $ % > 9 $ $ ' ! ! ' " " ' ) "% > $ ' ) $ ) ' $ $ % " 0 * # " ) " $ " ! $ ' ' ( ' ) ' ' ' $ ) $ " $ %
  52. 52. ?4 C + * # ( " $ ! % : ' H $ $ " $ ! %I > @0B<BA' ! % # ?% ! C 1 : V %? @ $ V %<A - V %4 ) $ - " D $ ) " > : ! $ @ ?%?A# ! ' ! ) $ : $ % ) ( C C / " 7 *> J / D E %?< # " - ! < 0 -?> D ?>E %; - ) ! " - $ ( = B D ) E %=? - $ - $ ! $ - 5 " ! 00 0 04 - D- E %=4 - $ - ) $ $ - $ $ ) " # " 0= 0B 0 , D, ) E %B # # $ 0 0? 0 ! %; - ) $ " # " ! 0; 0< ! -?> D ! ?>E %;< - 5 " - $ ( - ) $ 4 ? ! * D ! E %44 - " - ) " ; < , > D, > E %;B< - - " " ? ; - ) " ! $$ ) ) : ) %< % - ) 8$$ ) 4 ) ! ' " ' @0B<BA' > ' @0B<BA / 0B==' % ' @0B<BA' > ' @0B<BA / 0B== ) ' $ ) 4 % > ' ! $ %B ' ! " ' ) ! $ $ 9 $ $ ! % 8( ' $ ' ( ! %; %<' " $ ! ) % - $ %?<
  53. 53. ? 9 $ ) % ) ! ! % - ! " ( ( $ $ " ! " ) $ ' $ $ $ % C # ! 1 ? ' : $ ' $ ' ( " $ (' ! ) $ % # " $ : : " ) L ) ( ?%;% C & 1 ! / 1 1 1 1 1C 1& 1% 1' 1$ D ED1 E < = ) C% D ) ED1 E 00 0 04 %;= ) 'C - D- ED1 E 0= 0B 0 %<B; %=0 ) ' , D, ) ED1 E 0 0? % =< %;<4 %;?? ) $ -?> D ?> ED1CE B 0 % ;B %4B= %4 B %0 ? ) & 0 ! D1&E 0; 0< % 4? %<?; %; ; % ; % ; ) C& ! -?> D ! ?>E D1%E 4 ? % 4 %4=? %? = % 0 %0<4 % ) &% ! * D ! ED1'E ; < % 00 % ; % = %< % 4? %0 % 4 ) , > D, > ED1$E ? ; %;0 %<0; %?=< % ;B %? 0 %?;; %4 %0? 0 ) &$ % $ %?< ! " $ " C $ ' ( ' $ ' ( ' ) ' C1# ) $$ ) ) " : " " ! $ - % # $ ' $ ! % $ %=? ! " $ " $ ' ( ' $ ' ( ' ) ' ) ' C1# $$ ) $=%0' ! " ! $ - ) % # $ ' $ ! % - $ %=4 ! " $ " $ ' ( ' $ ' ( ' ) ' C1# ' T %<B;' ) ' T %=0' ! " ! $ 8$$ ) % # $ ' $ ! %
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
  55. 55. ?; D ! ?>E - $ ( - ) $ , > D, > E - - " " - ! ! 9 $ C + * D* # E &" 0 !' ! # ! ! ' ( % - $ $ ( ' " % # 5 ) $ " H " $ ! ) I% F 0BB=% " ' $ $ ! ) ) ' ' ) ' $$ ) % $ ' ' ( ' ( ) % # L $0BB 9 $ " % > ! $ ) ' ) ! ! $ $ ) $ $ ) % $ $ " ( 8 , " $ ! ) ' " $ $ $ $ " $ ) % $ $ " ( 8 F ! ) ' ) ! $ ' ! $ " $ ' " $ " ) ' ! $ ) % - $ $ $ ) 0 ( * > ! , > !! > F0 F; F? 8$$ ) > - ) 8( F F4 F 8( F + $ F< - F0 FB D F0 F0?D F F 0 F & F=
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
  57. 57. ?= C C 3 > , " ' ! F S0%; F0 S0%; "T % ? # " ) " ' $ ?%= ) ' ! ! $ ! " 3 K > > " > > B H I3D 3 K > > " ?> > > B H I3D 3 K > > " > > B H I3D 3 K > > " > > > T %? ' ! ! S0%;' $ ! ) $$ % 3 K > > " > > T 0%0 4' ! ! S0%;' $ ! $$ ) ) $$ % 3CK > > " ! ! ?> > > B H I3D 3&K > > " > > !! ! ! ! ! > T %4?;' ! ! S0%;' $ ! ) $$ " $ $ % 3%K > > " > > !! ! ! ! > !! > " @ B H I3D 3'K > > " ! > > T 0% ' ! ! S0% ' $ ! $ ) $$ %
  58. 58. ?B 3$K > > " ! ! > T % <<' ! ! S0%;' $ ! ) $$ $ ! % 3 )K > > " ?> ! ! > B H I3D % 3 K > > " ! ! > T %;04' ! ! S0%;' $ ! ) ) $$ $ ! % 3 K > > " > ! ! > T 0%= B ! ! S0%;' $ ! ) $$ $ ! % 3 K > > " ! ! > T %= 4' ! ! S0%;' $ ! $$ ) ) $$ $ ! % 3 K > > " ! ! ! > T %< ?' ! ) S0%;' $ ! $ ) $$ $ ! % 3 CK > > " ! ! > T 0% 0' ! ! S0%;' $ ! ) $$ " $ ) $ % 3 &K > > " ?> ! ! > T 0%4=;' ! ! S0%;' $ ! ( ) $$ " $ ) $ % 3 %K > > " ! ! > B H I3D 3 'K > > " > ! ! >
  59. 59. ; T %=;0' ! ! S0%;' $ ! ( ) $$ " $ ) $ % 3 $K > > " ! ! > T %B 0' ! ! S0%;' $ ! $$ ) ) $$ " $ ) $ % 3 )K > > " ! ! ! > B H I3D 3 K > > " ! ! ?> ! ! > T % ;;' ! ! S0%;' $ ! ( ) $$ $ ! % 3 K > > " ! ! ?> ! ! > B H I3D C & !! > - ' ! ' $ 9 -?> - ) $$ ) $ % -?> 0 ! ) $$ " $ ) $ % 9 9 0 ! ' ! -?> ) $$ $ ! % , > 9 ) ' ) $$ $ ! % *C - $ " $ $ ! ) $$ ' ! , % ( ( ' ! $ $ ( ! $ ' ' $ " $ % ' $ ) $$ ' " $ ' "" $ ! $ " " ) %
  60. 60. ;0 C & % * " F J K - ) ! $ ) $ $ - ) " ' ' ) ' $$ ) ! "" $ % # " ) ' ! ( % - ' " ! ) $ ! " ) $ % # &" 04' ! ) " ) "% > > " !! 9 9 9 ! ! ! > > !! * " ?> !! 259 " 9 > J K - ) ! ( ) $ $ >! F ?> 9 " ! ! ?> " > > > !! 0 " 9 > " > " *// > > " ! ! ?> ! ! > > !! ! 9 " 9 !! ! ! 9 " > > > ! J K - ) ! ) $ " + " $ ' ! 9 4 ! " ! 9 ' 4 4 ! J K- ) ! $ $ ' ' ( ' ) ' ' $$ ) ' $ ' ( " $ ) 0 8 !! " > ! ! ! > !! " @ > - - ) &
  61. 61. ; # " " ' $ ! " ' $" 0?' ! $ ) ) ! $ % 9 > > " !! 0 ! -?> ! ! ! ! !! * " ?> !! 259 " 9 > J - ) ! $ $ ' ' ( ' ) ' ' $$ ) ' $ ' ( $ ! % # " " ' $ ! " ' $" 0;' ! $ ) ) ! $ % K > > " !! 9 ! ! ! ! > !! " @ > > " ! ! ?> ! ! ! > !! " @ > > " > > ! ! ! > !! " @ 0 & ( " > ! ! ! > !! " @ F > ! 8( > & - ) - 0 C ( " > ! ! ! > !! " @ , " $ - & 8(
  62. 62. ;4 * " ?> ! 9 > 9 ! ! ! * !! 259 " 3 " > " ! ! !! " ! @
  63. 63. ; C & + !> # ! " ) % # " ) • - ' ) ' ( $ ) $ ! % • & ( " $ ) $ • - ' ) $ $ $ ! ) % • ( $ $ ! ) % • > $ $ ! ) % F ! ) ' ( ' ! 17% - $ ) ' ) $ $ " $ % - ' ' H ! I H $ I' $ $ $ % # $ ! " $ ! 9 $ % # $ " ( ! 1 ! !! > - - " " # ) % & ) % ' 0B<B' ) ! ' ( $4 % - $ ! % - # " - ! # ) % & ) % ' 0B<B' ) ! ' ( $4 % - $ ! % - ) - $ - $ ! $ 4 ) ' - ) ' $
  64. 64. ;? - 5 " ! ) ) $ ) $ " % > # # $ # ) % & ) % ' 0B<B' ) ! ' ( $4 % - $ ! % 8( - ) ! " - $ ( # ) % & ) % ' 0B<B' ) ! ' ( $4 % - $ ! % & - ) $ " # " ! # ) % & ) % ' 0B<B' ) ! ' ( $4 % - $ ! % 8( - 5 " - $ ( - ) $ 4 ) ' ( ' $ ) ) $ ) $ " $ ! ) % - $ ) ' $ $ ) $ ! % # $$ $ ( $ $ ! ) ' ) $ %
  65. 65. ;; C % !> & ) ! ' ) $$ $ " ' " ' ) :% " $ " ! " % # " ) ! " ! " " % ' " ) ' $$ $ $$ $ $ ) % , " " $ ! ' ! ) " " ) ' ! $ ' ! ) ) $ ! " ) $$ ! " % ' ! ) ) ( ! " ' ) $$ ! " % - ' ) ! " % # ! $ ' ' $ ' $ ' $ 5 " ! % # $ ' $ " " ) ' " ) ! $ % - ' ! ) " $ ! ) $ % ) " $ $ ) ' " 5 ) "' ! % # ! $ ' $$ $ $ 6 $ $' " ' ) $ % & ' $ $! $$ ! ' ! ( ' ! 5 " ' $ ( $ " $ $ % # $ $ " $ ! ' ) $ ' ' " " ! % # $ $ " ! " $ ' $ ' " ) $ ) " ' $ ' " $ ! " ) % F " " ) ) ! ! ) ' ! " ! ( " " $ ( $ % # ! ' ) $ " ' " $ $ ) ' % # ! $ ( ! $ " $ $ % # $ ' $ " ! " " ! " '
  66. 66. ;< ( " ) ! " $ ! " $% - $ ' $ ) $ ' ! $$ $$ $ ) : ( ) % * $ ) $ " ' ! ) ) $ $ " " % $ $ $ M - " ' " $ " ! ) ) ' $ ) $ ( ) ! " ! % # $ ! $ F + ) F F ' ! $ ) ) ' " % " ! $ $ $ ' " : ) % -$ ! ) " ! ( $ ! ' ' $ ' $ " ! % # $ $ $ " ) ' ! 5 ) ! $ ) ) $% # ) % $ 5 ! ) ) $ " " ) " ( $ $ ) % - ' " " ! ! " $ ) % - ! ! ) ' ! ) $ ) ) " ! ! " 9 %
  67. 67. ;= & ) # ' " $ " % # ) ! $ " " ( ! ' $ " ' ! ) ' 5 ' ) $ % 2 " " $ ! ' $" 0<' !% # ! 4 9 ! G0 - ) ! $ ) $ $ G - ) ! ( ) $ $ % G4 - ) ! ) $ $ # ) $ $ ! " • # ' ' ) ' ( ) $$ ) $ % • ( ) $$ ) $ % • # ' $ ( ) $$ " $ ) $ % • # ' ) $ ) $$ $ ) ! % • ( ) ) $$ $ ) ! % • # ) $ $ ) $$ $ ! % 0 % ( * > ! , > !! $ , # $ > H1 H3 H2
  68. 68. ;B & ! " $ " $ ! $$ ) $ " $$ ) $ ' $ ! 0BB ' " ) % ' $ ! ? , $ ' ! " $ ' ! $$ % - "" ' ! " $ $ $ ' ! ( ( ' ! % - $ ) $ $ " $ % ' ! ) ' " ) ( ! " $ ! ) " " $ ! $$ ) ! " ' % # $ ) ' ! ) $ ! ) $ " $ ! ' $ ! % & ! # ) % $ ! 4 ! $$ $ % ! ! ! ' ) " " % ! ! ! " ' ) " ' $ 17' ! " ) % & ' ) $$ $ $ " ! ) $ ) $ ' ! % ) " ! ) $ ! % ) " $$ " " % # ! " % $ ) $ " ) $ ( % # 4 ) ! 9 " $ $ $ ( ' ! $ $ " ' ! ) $ ) % F ' ) $ % & 0 #! ) $ % # $ 0 $ ' ! " " ' 9 ! % # $$ $ ! ' ' $ " ) $$ " " % - ""
  69. 69. < $ " " ' ' ! ) $ ' ! $ $$ ! $$ " % # ( ( /' ! " $ $ $ ) $$ $ $ " " %
  70. 70. <0 % ) !! K 4 ! > > I 4 ! @ I ) ' ) " ) " " ! % " ) ' ) $ ! ) " " $ % 2 " ! ) ( ) ! % ) $$ ) ! ) " " ! " " ' ) ) $ ! " % - ) $ " ' ) ) $ ! " ) $ ! $ $ ' ! ! $ $ $" % # ' $" ' ) $ ' ' ! ) " ' $ ' ) ! " ) $ " ) ! ) " % ! @ ? > @ " ! " > " ! Targeting Corporate & Divisions Employees Advocates Shareholders Customer s Suppliers& Partners Influencers Figure 4 – Stakeholder Community Cloud Segmentation Customer Profile Knowledge Base Collective Wisdom Value 1 > 5 " 9 > > ! @ !! Targeting
  71. 71. < * ! " ' ! " ' ! % # $ ' ! ! % - ! $ " ' ' " " " ! ! $ " % - ! " ! " ' $ $ " @ A $ ) " " ! " ! ( $ $ " % ) ) $ ! " % ' " ! $ $$ " ' $ "' ) ' ' $ ) ! % - $ 5 ) $ ' $ " " % ! " ' " % # ) ) ! ! $$ " ( " $ ( ' $ $$ " " " ' ! ! $ ! " $ ! ) " " ! " ( ! " ! " $ $ " % # $ $ " ! $ ) " " " • ) " " ! " • ) $ ) $ • ! " ) $ " $ • " • ) $ $ • ) $ & " ! " $ ' ! " ' ) ' % # $ ' " " $ $ ' ' ) $$ $ $ ! " " " % # $ " ) " " ! ) ( $ % # $ ;% K $ ) $ ) 0 ' ! ; %4K ) " % # " ) " $ " " $ ' $ " ' $ " " % # " $ ! $ ! ! $ " $ ! % # ' ! ' $ " ' " " " ) " % ' ) "
  72. 72. <4 ' ) ( % & ) ' $' $ $ " $ " ! " ! $ " % , ' $ $ ' % ! $ ' $$ ) ' $ ( ' ! $ ) ' $ ! % ) $ ! " % @ N !! 2 > > 1 2/ *+: > > " !! ! @ ! > ! @ 9 > !> ! 4 ! @ " F ; " ! < !! 9 " ! >! ! @
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
  76. 76. << *> ?*( + , > !! K 4 ! > > I 4 ! @ I * @ ! + , > O 4 @ O ))
  77. 77. <= 0% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%<B % 2 G %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%<B 4% - %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%<B % + $ $ %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%=0 %0 ) ) ! %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%=0 ?% 7 # %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%=4 ?%0 2 " %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%=4 ?% 2 " D " $%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%=4 ?%4 2 " %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%=4 ?% 2 " %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%= ?%? 2 " " %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%=? ;% C 2 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%=? <% C %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%=; <%0 C %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%=< <% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%=B =% # %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%B B% 7 ! " " E> . %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%B0 0 % %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%B 0 %0 ' ! %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%B 00% 2 " %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%B? 00%0 > %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%B? 00% > 2 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%B< 0 % # " > %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%B= ( - 2 " , %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%BB ( -- C , %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 0 0 ( --- , %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 0 ( -. # , %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 0 ( . D 7 ! " " E ) > , %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 0 ; ( .- C " %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%<
  78. 78. <B *! # $ $ $ ' " % # " " ' ! ) ' ! " " $ " " % + J 0% - ) ! $ % - ) ! 4% - ) ! % - ) ! $ ?% - ) ! # " " $ ' ) $ ' $ " ' ! ) ! ! " ( " " " " $ % - $ ) ' ) ) ! $ ! $ ! $ 9 0 E ' ! $ ' ' 1 C @ A $ % 2 9 4 ! ! 7 7 @ A $ ! " " ) % # $ $ $ ' " " " % # ( ! ) " ) $ $ $ " " % # ) $ $ % # " "' " $ % # $ ' ! $ $ ) ! " $ ' ! ) ) $ ' ! " ' ! ' ! ' ! D ' " ) " ) % #
  79. 79. = " ' " ' ! " " $ ) ) "' " " " $ % # $ % # " $ " ' $ $ " $ " " % # ) ! ' ! 2 " # 7 ! " " ) ) # ! " ' CC 17' ! CC $ ' 8L 1 ' ! ( $? ' ! 0 ) " ) ! ! ) ) %
  80. 80. =0 # !! & ) ! " ! ' $ ! " $ % ) " $ ! " ! • $ @O (A • ! ' @8C A • @F + ) A • ' @1 A • @ > A • @Q A • $ @ . " A • @ ) A $ ' H ) ! " " ( " $ $ ' $ %I 2 &%#' " ' @ 0A% H) "" " " $ * ! " " ' ! $$ $ " $ ! $ I' 2 " @0BB4' %4' ?A 9 $ 2 &%#' " ' @ 0A% " ' @ A $ H" $ $ " ( $ 5 %I H $ " % $ $ $ " ' ! " ' ' ' ) %I ( ' ' 7 " @ A !! " $ " ) ! ' ! " $$ " $ ! " " % " $! ! !' &" 0 0 8 > ! -? !! ! + " !! • C • L ! !! • + • Q • 2 ( $! ! !! • . " % % @ ! # ! A • , > • "! % # !! • 1 • • + " +
  81. 81. = ! , . > • 1 % , !! • > • - • . ! !! • / % • - ) " ! 0 . > • F • > - 0 > !! • & % % • & % • 8) % • F F 6 !! • 8OD " $ 8: • F + ) -?> !! • # Q • . # 5 "(3 " !! • " ) D # $$ 8) " " $ $$ 6 ) ) ! ' ' " $$ " " ( ' ) ! $ % - $ ' " ! ) ! $ ! " ' ) " % # ) " ) ! ) $ " $ $$ ! " % # $ " $ $ ! ( " ! ) @ ' ' ) A% - $ ) ! ! $$ " ' ' ' ! ' $ $ ! % & " ! " $ ' ! " ' ) ' % - 5 ) $ " % # $ ! ' 0% $ ! ' " ) ! " "' ' ' ) ! " " ' ! ) " " % ! % ) ! ' " $ $0? D 9 " ( $ $ $ 17 1 % # ! " $) ' ' ) ' ' " % # ! ) ) $ ' ) ! ! $ ) " " " : ) % # ! ) $ $ ! 0 ' ! " > % # ( " ' ! $ ! ! $ $ $ $
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
  83. 83. = F E 3" 1 * + 33 3! $ B C 3@ 0 3# ? # " $ D $ $ $ D ! ) " ! $ ) " ' " ) " 2 7 ( @ 0A' ) $ 2 ' ! $ " D ) 9 D H! $ I - ' 8 , ( $ ( *5 ;, EF+ " " ! 2 D B G? & ' " ! " ' 9 ! ! " D ! $ D ' " ) ' ! 2 " ) " $ " " ' " $ ! $ D ! % & 2 ) " ! " ! ! " ' " ) ) $ % ' ) ! ! ) " ) $ % # !' " " ) ' ' ! ) ' ! " ! " $ " ) ' $ " % # " " $ ! % C + > @ > @ ! " " " " $ " 9 $ ! " 6 ' ) ' % @ A% @ A' $) $ $$ " ' ) " $ $ " : " % - $) $ ' ! " ) $ " % : $ ' $ ' N ' ' $ % $ ) " ! " ?
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
  85. 85. =; % 6 !! L :/ @ 0A ) ! ' & @0BB=A% # " $ ! C % C $ " % & ! $ ' ) ) !% L :/ @ 0A' $ B ? ! H ? L :/ @ 0A' 4 ' & C ' @ A $ " ' ! ) ' $$ " D " ! " % L :/ @ 0A' H ? L :/ @ 0A $ $ ! " ' $ ' $ " ! " " $ ! ( $ ! ( $ ) % # ! $ ( ' @ A' ! " ) ) ) " " $ % # ! C & 1 ' ! ! $ " " " ) ' 5 " ) % ( :' @ A' ! ' ) H $ I ) ) ) $$ ! $ % # $ ' $H $ I H ( I " % # ! " ) ) ' $" 0% Brand Figure 1 - Customer Centric Model of Brand Community Product Customer Marketer Focal Customer
  86. 86. =< ( ' %F' % ' 7 " F%&' @ A D C " C D 5 $ ' . %;; C ) $ ) " ' " 9 F + ) ! / @F /A% @ A' ! " $ F + ) ! / " ! " % $ $ " " 6 $ " $ $ " $ " " " ! $ ! $ " " % % 6 !! D 6 E ) " " ' % - ! : " % ) ! ' ) ) % - ' ! $ % # " $ " % C : ) " ! ' $% - 2 ' !!!%! % % ' $" % ' C " $ "' ' ) ) % # ) $ " ' ' ! " $ ) $ ! " ( ' ) $$ ' ' % 0 8 ! 4 4 + > > ! ( 43*+ / 3 0 3 2.3 ,+ , -# -= -/ / 0 +- * / 3 , ,- +2 1 ( + > , > > !! C " " " + " ! + ) $ ( ! " " !! # " " $ * " # " " $ $ ) 8( ) " $ $ $ 8( " $ 7 ! " ) $ ( > " ) N ) 7 " - " >
  87. 87. == " " , ! ! > " ! " $$ ) " ( + ) . ( L $ ) ) " ) " - ! " + ) $ ! " ( !! + 8 " E C C 2 " @ 2 A - " 2 ' " NN %! % % N " " N " N ! N4 - ' $ " ' " ' ! ) $ " " ' " " 2 ' % - " ( ' $ " % C : ) ) ) $ ! ' ) " ' $ @ C A ) ) ) " $" ) " " ! $ ( " % # " ' ) $ ' ! " ! ) " $ $ C % C <% ' " " ! ( " $ ) $$ " =% ) B% " ) " ) ( " ! D 0 % H $ ) I 00% " ! " ' 5 H $!I 0 % 9 . ) " $ ' ! " $ " $ % # " ! ) $ ! " 9 ! ! ) % 2 ' @ A' " ) $ ' " ) $ C : ! L : ) ! % 8 ) $ % - 5 $ % # ( "' ! $ $ D ! 5 ! $ " % # $ " ) $ ) $ $ ) % % $ " ' !
  88. 88. =B 0 $ " ' " ? ' % @ L% ' A F ! ) ) ' " ! " ' " ) $ ! " ! ! ! % # " $ $ " ) ' " : ! " " ! ) % ( $ # L % ' ! ' " $ ( " ! " ( ' " ' ! ! 0 % @2 E " ' 0A - ! " " ! $ ' $ ( ) $ ! " 9 ! ! $ " " " " C ? $ *3EED+ % !! ! " $ ' ! % ) ! ' ! ' " ) $ ! $ $ " % ! ' " F " ' @0BB;A' $ ' 1 F @ A' ! ( $ ) ' @ 4A' " " > %7 2 ! . @ 4A " @ " F " @0BB;'0BB<A 9 " ' ' ) ! " ' ' 2 " ' @ 0A% " F " ' @0BB;' 0BB<A' $ $$ $ ' ' $ $$ ! ) $ " ' " $ ' $ ' S ) "' " ! @ A $ " ' ! ! ' " ! ' ! " ! ) % " F " @0BB;A H ) " ! ! ! " " ' " ! %I # " ) H I% " F " : 2 " : @ 0A' ) " $ # L % # L ! 1 ' ) $ ! ' $ ( ' ! $ 5 ! % # L $ " $ ! ) " " $$ $$ ! % # !' $$ ! " ' ( " $$ " " % @ 0A' )
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  93. 93. B H : ! " ' $ % 5 % $ 0 K " 5 ?K $ %I 2 @0BB A% " F " ' @0BB<A' $$ ' " $ ) ' ' ) ' ) $ $ % # $ " " H! $ 9 " " " %I & % ! $ ) ' $ " $ ! ) $ ! " " % Maximise share Of wallet Attract Prospects Attention Activate Customers To purchase Convert Prospects Potential Customers Create affinity to Company And Brand Reactivate Customers Convert customer To become Retain Customer Over Lifetime need For product/service Develop Interdependent Relationship with customer E V O L U T I O N O F C U S T O M E R R E L A T I O N S H I P S FIGURE 3: EVOLUTION OF A SUCCESSFUL CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP STRATEGY – diagram derived from review of literature by author
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  95. 95. B; 3 > 8 > > " !! ! ! @ 3 > 8 > > " !! ! ! > > 3 > 8 > > " !! ! ! @ ! ! > > 3 > C 8 > > " ! ! > > 3 > & 8 > > " ! ! > > !! 3 > % 8 > > " !! 3 > '8 > > " !! ! ! @ * ! $ ' ! $ @ A6 ! $ ! " ! % $ ) ' $ ' 7 7 % ' < , 7 7 ? , ' $ $ < ! % 1 ! * > !K * ! $ ' $ ! " ) ) $ @ A' ! $ ! " ! % # # " # " 9 - $ " N - ) $ - " $ ! * ! $ ' $ ! " ) ) $ @ A' ! $ ! " ! % - $ " - ) $ - " - ) * ! $ ' $ ! " ) ) $ @ A' ! $ ! " ! % # ) @0T ( ! '<T ( ! A ) ) $ $ @0T ( ) ' <T ( ) A - $ $ ) " ) ! ! $ $ ! $7 E 7 ' $ ! " ) $ % > - ) - $ ) $ $ N $ ) - $ ( : 7 E7 ! $ $ ! $7 E 7 ' $ ! "
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  126. 126. 0 < , # ! + * # " 4 $ ) ' " $ ) ' $ " ! $ <% # " $ ) ) % Regression Standardized Residual 2.25 1.75 1.25 .75 .25 -.25 -.75 -1.25 -1.75 -2.25 -2.75 Histogram Dependent Variable: PARTPTN Frequency 30 20 10 0 Std. Dev = .98 Mean = 0.00 N = 197.00 Normal P-P Plot of Regression Standardized Residual Dependent Variable: PARTPTN Observed Cum Prob 1.00.75.50.250.00 ExpectedCumProb 1.00 .75 .50 .25 0.00
  127. 127. 0 = Scatterplot Dependent Variable: PARTPTN Regression Studentized Deleted (Press) Residual 3210-1-2-3 PARTPTN 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 C # $$ " ' ) ! ' ) ' $$ ) ' $ ' ' ( ) % Regression Standardized Residual 2.25 1.75 1.25 .75 .25 -.25 -.75 -1.25 -1.75 -2.25 -2.75 Histogram Dependent Variable: PARTPTN Frequency 30 20 10 0 Std. Dev = .98 Mean = 0.00 N = 197.00
  128. 128. 0 B Normal P-P Plot of Regression Standardized Residual Dependent Variable: PARTPTN Observed Cum Prob 1.00.75.50.250.00 ExpectedCumProb 1.00 .75 .50 .25 0.00 Scatterplot Dependent Variable: PARTPTN Regression Studentized Deleted (Press) Residual 3210-1-2-3 PARTPTN 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
  129. 129. 04 & # ( " ' ) ' ) ' $ ' ' ( ) % Regression Standardized Residual 2.25 1.75 1.25 .75 .25 -.25 -.75 -1.25 -1.75 -2.25 -2.75 Histogram Dependent Variable: PARTPTNFrequency 30 20 10 0 Std. Dev = .99 Mean = 0.00 N = 197.00 Normal P-P Plot of Regression Standardized Residual Dependent Variable: PARTPTN Observed Cum Prob 1.00.75.50.250.00 ExpectedCumProb 1.00 .75 .50 .25 0.00
  130. 130. 040 Scatterplot Dependent Variable: PARTPTN Regression Studentized Deleted (Press) Residual 3210-1-2-3-4 PARTPTN 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 % # ) " ' ! ) ' ) ' $ ' ' ( ) % Regression Standardized Residual 2.25 2.00 1.75 1.50 1.25 1.00 .75 .50 .25 0.00 -.25 -.50 -.75 -1.00 -1.25 -1.50 -1.75 -2.00 -2.25 -2.50 Histogram Dependent Variable: PARTPTN Frequency 30 20 10 0 Std. Dev = .99 Mean = 0.00 N = 197.00
  131. 131. 04 Normal P-P Plot of Regression Standardized Residual Dependent Variable: PARTPTN Observed Cum Prob 1.00.75.50.250.00 ExpectedCumProb 1.00 .75 .50 .25 0.00 Scatterplot Dependent Variable: PARTPTN Regression Studentized Deleted (Press) Residual 3210-1-2-3 PARTPTN 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
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