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Encouraging  adult  English  
learners  to  help  children  
become  bilingual
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner
Instructors,Curriculum Developers,Authors1
Workshop  outcomes
v Gain familiarity with asset-based
perspectives of bilingualism
v Recognize ways to promote bilingualism
v within ESL lessons
v Reading and writing
v Listening and speaking
v English for Child Care
v in everydayinteractions with students
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 2
Traditional  emphasis  
on  the  L2  English
v Adults have already developed skills in their
native language.
v Teachers typically encourage ESL students
to use English and discourage them from
using L1.
v As adult ESL students gain proficiency in
English, they become bilingual.
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 3
Have  you  heard  of…
v apologies for native
language use?
v penalties for using
L1 during ESL class?
v lack of proficiency in
English as a deficit?
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 4
Impact  of  attitude  on  families
v How does a deficit-
based attitude affect
our students’
perspective on using
L1 in their homes?
v What effect can an
asset-based
approach have?
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 5
L1:  asset  or  deficit?
Approached from a deficit perspective,
students who are English language learners
(ELL) are often defined as fundamentally
lacking. By contrast, an asset-based
perspective builds on the home language of
students and recognizes this as a
fundamental strength.
-Martin Scanlan,
An Asset-based Approach to Linguistic Diversity, 2007
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 6
Dual  language  learners
v Children who are Dual Language Learners (DLLs) acquire
two or more languages simultaneously, and learn a
second language while continuing to develop their first
language. The term "dual language learners"
encompasses other terms frequently used, such as
Limited English Proficient (LEP), bilingual, English
language learners (ELL), and English learners.
v The term dual language learners has been adopted by the
Office of Head Start and the United States Department of
Education to highlight and promote the linguistic assets of
young children and families who speak languages other
than English.
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 7
How  can  ESL  teachers…
v let our students know that their L1 is an
asset?
v help our students show their children that
L1 is a gift?
v foster an asset-based perspective among
our adult learners of L2 English?
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 8
Encourage  support  for  
bilingualism
v Give adult ESL learners
information about…
v importance of home
language
v language development
v Give them opportunities to
promote bilingualism – dual
language acquisition among
children.
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 9
Activity  1:  Reading  a  quote  
about  the  home  language
v Pre-reading
v Vocabulary
v Schema
v Read
v Discuss the
quotation together
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 10
Brems, M., Chan, M. and Rosner, J. (in press). English for Child Development:
Language Skills for Parents and Providers. Sunnyvale, CA: Sunburst Media.
Purposes  of  quote  activity
v Inform students of the
importance of the
home language.
v Develop vocabulary.
v Give exposure to
research by experts.
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 11
Vocabulary  practice
1. ____ home language
2. ____ to support
3. ____ to maintain
4. ____ to be connected
to people
5. ____ advantages
6. ____ to thrive
a. to feel close to family
and friends
b. to help and to give what
is needed
c. the language spoken by
family at home
d. the good things about
something
e. to be healthy and
successful
f. to keep something in
good condition
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 12
Pre-­‐reading  questions
1. What is your home language? What was your
grandparents’ home language?
1. Do you know any children whose home
language is not English? How are they learning
English?
2. What does it mean to support a child’s home
language? Who supports a child’s home
language?
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 13
Quote  from  an  ECE*  expert
All children need English in order to thrive in
their new country. They also need support in
maintaining their home language in order to
stay deeply connected to their families, as well
as for the many advantages of being bilingual.
Derman-Sparks, Louise, and Julie Olsen Edwards.
Anti-Bias Education for Young Children and Ourselves (2010): 63.
*ECE: Early Childhood Education
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 14
Discussion  questions
1. What does this quote mean?
2. How can adults help children to maintain
their home language?
3. How does a language help children stay
connected with family?
4. What are some advantages of being
bilingual?
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 15
Activity  2:  Listening  to  a  passage  about  
language  development    
v Pre-listening
v Develop schema.
v Listen and fill in.
v Check
comprehension.
v Discuss the
research.
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 16Brems, M., Chan, M. and Rosner, J. (in press). English for Child Development:
Language Skills for Parents and Providers. Sunnyvale, CA: Sunburst Media.
Purposes  of  listening  cloze
v To give information
about language
development.
v To hone listening,
vocabulary, and
dictation skills.
v To expose students to
research by experts.
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 17
Pre-­‐listening  questions
1. What do parents and caregivers do to help
young children learn language?
2. What does ‘talkative’ mean? Do you know
someone who is talkative? What is a
talkative environment?
3. Guess. What happens when children know
few words when they start school? What
happens when children know many words?
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 18
Listen  and  fill  in  the  blanks.
In talkative _______________ , children hear many
words every day. They hear stories and
_______________ and descriptions and advice. Some
children _______________ as many as 20,000 and
30,000 _______________ a day. In other homes,
however, there is a lot less ______________. Over
time, there is a big difference in how many
_______________ the children have heard. By age
three , children from _______________ homes have
heard 20 to 30 _______________ more words than
children from non-talkative _______________ . This
difference has a big _______________ on children’s
ability to succeed in school and life.
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 19
Listening  cloze,  contd.
_______________ children need to hear a lot
of words to help them develop their language
_______________ . Parents and teachers can
use _______________ conversational
strategies to increase the _______________ of
words that children hear. _______________
main strategies are: tune in, talk more, and
take turns.
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 20
Check  comprehension.
Read the statements below. Mark them as T for
true or F for false based on the information above.
If a sentence is false, change it to make it true.
____ A child may hear 10,000 words a day in a
talkative environment.
____ Talkative environments include
descriptions, stories, and advice.
____ By age 3, children from non-talkative
homes have heard 20 to 30 million more
words than children from talkative homes.
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 21
Discuss  the  questions.
1. What happens when a child knows a lot of
words? What happens when a child
doesn’t?
2. Are you surprised by the information
above?
3. What do you think adults can do to help
children hear lots of words?
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 22
Fast  facts
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 23
v In a study of 42 parents and their babies,
Betty Hart and Todd Risley discovered vast
differences between families.
v Babies from professional families heard an
average of 2,100 words per hour.
v Babies from working class families heard an
average of 1,200 words per hour.
v Babies with parents on public assistance
heard an average of 600 words per hour.
Activity  3:  Expanding  language
v Develop a strategy
for talking more
v Develop ability to
repeat and expand a
child’s words
v in English
v in home language
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 24
Brems, M., Chan, M. and Rosner, J. (in press). English for Child Development:
Language Skills for Parents and Providers. Sunnyvale, CA: Sunburst Media.
Purposes  of  speaking  task
v To provide students
with a specific
strategy for using
more words
v To practice the
strategy in both
languages
v To develop
grammatical
competence
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 25
Rationale
One important way to help children
hear more language is by responding to a
child’s sounds and words. It is helpful for
caregivers to repeat a child’s words and
expand on them. They say the child’s words in
full sentences and add other ideas, too. In this
way, the child learns more about her
environment while learning language. Here are
some examples of repeating and expanding:
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 26
Repetition  and  expansion
v Child: “Doggie eat.”
v Child: “Truck
broken.”
v Child: “More milk.”
v Adult: “Yes, the doggie
is eating.”
v Adult: “Yes, I see the
truck is broken. We
can try to fix it.”
v Adult: “Oh, I see. You
finished your milk. You
want more.”
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 27
Practice  repeating  -­‐ expanding
Read the child’s words below. These are 2-3 word phrases.
Repeat and expand these phrases. Say your answer aloud to a
partner. Listen as your partner repeats and expands the phrase.
Choose the answer you like best and write it down.
Example:
v Child:Car gone.
v Partner A: Here’s my answer: “The car is gone. Aunt Mary
drove home.”
v Partner B: Good one. Here’s what I say: “That’s right. Aunt
Mary drove the car home so the car is gone.”
v Partner A: You used more words. It’s good for children to hear
more words, so I’m writing down your answer.
v Partner B: Well, I like your answer, so I’m writing yours.
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 28
Expand  2-­‐3  word  utterances
with  a  partner
1. Cat outside!
2. Mommy hungry.
3. No school.
4. Ball right here
5. Have it!
6. Daddy home.
7. No more juice.
8. Go store.
9. Toys away.
10.Grandma come.
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 29
Activate  home  language
Children benefit from hearing lots of words, in any
language! They benefit from hearing many words in their
home language as well as English.
Choose five of the sentences above and translate them
into your home language. Then repeat and expand on
the words in your own language.
Example:
Cat outside. -àGato afuera.
El gato está afuera. ¿A ver? ¿Quiere entrar?
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 30
Activity  4:  Bilingual  booklet
v Talk with children aged
3-15.
v Take dictation of what
younger children say.
v Help older children
complete the
sentences.
v Create a book with
sentences and pictures.
v Share their books.
Ésta es mi historia.
Đây là câu chuyện
của tôi.
这是我的故事。
This is my story.
31Brems, M., Chan, M. and Rosner, J. (in press). English for Child Development:
Language Skills for Parents and Providers. Sunnyvale, CA: Sunburst Media.
Purposes  of  booklet  activity
v To demonstrate the value of
home language
v To provide the opportunity
to publish
v To encourage creativity
v To foster connection
between home and school
cultures
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 32
Brems, M., Chan, M. and Rosner, J. (in press). English for Child Development:
Language Skills for Parents and Providers. Sunnyvale, CA: Sunburst Media.
33
34
Brems, M., Chan, M. and Rosner, J. (in press). English for Child Development:
Language Skills for Parents and Providers. Sunnyvale, CA: Sunburst Media.
35
Brems, M., Chan, M. and Rosner, J. (in press). English for Child Development:
Language Skills for Parents and Providers. Sunnyvale, CA: Sunburst Media.
36
Brems, M., Chan, M. and Rosner, J. (in press). English for Child Development:
Language Skills for Parents and Providers. Sunnyvale, CA: Sunburst Media.
37
Brems, M., Chan, M. and Rosner, J. (in press). English for Child Development:
Language Skills for Parents and Providers. Sunnyvale, CA: Sunburst Media.
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner
38
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner
39
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 40
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner
41
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner
42
Follow-­‐up  activity  for  students
v Read their own books
aloud to their
classmates.
v Listen and enjoy
classmates’ books.
v Share experiences
about dual language
learning.
v Learn about other
cultures.
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 43
Summary
v Encourage bilingualismby taking an asset-
based perspective.
v Use activities that foster bilingualism.
v quotation reading
v listening cloze
v repeating and expanding in English and L1
v bilingual book project
v Find everyday ways to encourage adults to
help their children become bilingual.
Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 44
www.sunburstmedia.com
45
Q&A  
Thank you for your  attention!
For information about our books,
go to Sunburst Media:
http://www.sunburstmedia.com
Julaine Rosner
julaine.rosner@wvm.edu
MarshaChan
marsha@sunburstmedia.com
46

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Encouraging adult English learners to help children become bilingual

  • 1. Encouraging  adult  English   learners  to  help  children   become  bilingual Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner Instructors,Curriculum Developers,Authors1
  • 2. Workshop  outcomes v Gain familiarity with asset-based perspectives of bilingualism v Recognize ways to promote bilingualism v within ESL lessons v Reading and writing v Listening and speaking v English for Child Care v in everydayinteractions with students Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 2
  • 3. Traditional  emphasis   on  the  L2  English v Adults have already developed skills in their native language. v Teachers typically encourage ESL students to use English and discourage them from using L1. v As adult ESL students gain proficiency in English, they become bilingual. Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 3
  • 4. Have  you  heard  of… v apologies for native language use? v penalties for using L1 during ESL class? v lack of proficiency in English as a deficit? Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 4
  • 5. Impact  of  attitude  on  families v How does a deficit- based attitude affect our students’ perspective on using L1 in their homes? v What effect can an asset-based approach have? Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 5
  • 6. L1:  asset  or  deficit? Approached from a deficit perspective, students who are English language learners (ELL) are often defined as fundamentally lacking. By contrast, an asset-based perspective builds on the home language of students and recognizes this as a fundamental strength. -Martin Scanlan, An Asset-based Approach to Linguistic Diversity, 2007 Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 6
  • 7. Dual  language  learners v Children who are Dual Language Learners (DLLs) acquire two or more languages simultaneously, and learn a second language while continuing to develop their first language. The term "dual language learners" encompasses other terms frequently used, such as Limited English Proficient (LEP), bilingual, English language learners (ELL), and English learners. v The term dual language learners has been adopted by the Office of Head Start and the United States Department of Education to highlight and promote the linguistic assets of young children and families who speak languages other than English. Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 7
  • 8. How  can  ESL  teachers… v let our students know that their L1 is an asset? v help our students show their children that L1 is a gift? v foster an asset-based perspective among our adult learners of L2 English? Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 8
  • 9. Encourage  support  for   bilingualism v Give adult ESL learners information about… v importance of home language v language development v Give them opportunities to promote bilingualism – dual language acquisition among children. Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 9
  • 10. Activity  1:  Reading  a  quote   about  the  home  language v Pre-reading v Vocabulary v Schema v Read v Discuss the quotation together Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 10 Brems, M., Chan, M. and Rosner, J. (in press). English for Child Development: Language Skills for Parents and Providers. Sunnyvale, CA: Sunburst Media.
  • 11. Purposes  of  quote  activity v Inform students of the importance of the home language. v Develop vocabulary. v Give exposure to research by experts. Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 11
  • 12. Vocabulary  practice 1. ____ home language 2. ____ to support 3. ____ to maintain 4. ____ to be connected to people 5. ____ advantages 6. ____ to thrive a. to feel close to family and friends b. to help and to give what is needed c. the language spoken by family at home d. the good things about something e. to be healthy and successful f. to keep something in good condition Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 12
  • 13. Pre-­‐reading  questions 1. What is your home language? What was your grandparents’ home language? 1. Do you know any children whose home language is not English? How are they learning English? 2. What does it mean to support a child’s home language? Who supports a child’s home language? Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 13
  • 14. Quote  from  an  ECE*  expert All children need English in order to thrive in their new country. They also need support in maintaining their home language in order to stay deeply connected to their families, as well as for the many advantages of being bilingual. Derman-Sparks, Louise, and Julie Olsen Edwards. Anti-Bias Education for Young Children and Ourselves (2010): 63. *ECE: Early Childhood Education Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 14
  • 15. Discussion  questions 1. What does this quote mean? 2. How can adults help children to maintain their home language? 3. How does a language help children stay connected with family? 4. What are some advantages of being bilingual? Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 15
  • 16. Activity  2:  Listening  to  a  passage  about   language  development     v Pre-listening v Develop schema. v Listen and fill in. v Check comprehension. v Discuss the research. Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 16Brems, M., Chan, M. and Rosner, J. (in press). English for Child Development: Language Skills for Parents and Providers. Sunnyvale, CA: Sunburst Media.
  • 17. Purposes  of  listening  cloze v To give information about language development. v To hone listening, vocabulary, and dictation skills. v To expose students to research by experts. Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 17
  • 18. Pre-­‐listening  questions 1. What do parents and caregivers do to help young children learn language? 2. What does ‘talkative’ mean? Do you know someone who is talkative? What is a talkative environment? 3. Guess. What happens when children know few words when they start school? What happens when children know many words? Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 18
  • 19. Listen  and  fill  in  the  blanks. In talkative _______________ , children hear many words every day. They hear stories and _______________ and descriptions and advice. Some children _______________ as many as 20,000 and 30,000 _______________ a day. In other homes, however, there is a lot less ______________. Over time, there is a big difference in how many _______________ the children have heard. By age three , children from _______________ homes have heard 20 to 30 _______________ more words than children from non-talkative _______________ . This difference has a big _______________ on children’s ability to succeed in school and life. Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 19
  • 20. Listening  cloze,  contd. _______________ children need to hear a lot of words to help them develop their language _______________ . Parents and teachers can use _______________ conversational strategies to increase the _______________ of words that children hear. _______________ main strategies are: tune in, talk more, and take turns. Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 20
  • 21. Check  comprehension. Read the statements below. Mark them as T for true or F for false based on the information above. If a sentence is false, change it to make it true. ____ A child may hear 10,000 words a day in a talkative environment. ____ Talkative environments include descriptions, stories, and advice. ____ By age 3, children from non-talkative homes have heard 20 to 30 million more words than children from talkative homes. Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 21
  • 22. Discuss  the  questions. 1. What happens when a child knows a lot of words? What happens when a child doesn’t? 2. Are you surprised by the information above? 3. What do you think adults can do to help children hear lots of words? Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 22
  • 23. Fast  facts Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 23 v In a study of 42 parents and their babies, Betty Hart and Todd Risley discovered vast differences between families. v Babies from professional families heard an average of 2,100 words per hour. v Babies from working class families heard an average of 1,200 words per hour. v Babies with parents on public assistance heard an average of 600 words per hour.
  • 24. Activity  3:  Expanding  language v Develop a strategy for talking more v Develop ability to repeat and expand a child’s words v in English v in home language Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 24 Brems, M., Chan, M. and Rosner, J. (in press). English for Child Development: Language Skills for Parents and Providers. Sunnyvale, CA: Sunburst Media.
  • 25. Purposes  of  speaking  task v To provide students with a specific strategy for using more words v To practice the strategy in both languages v To develop grammatical competence Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 25
  • 26. Rationale One important way to help children hear more language is by responding to a child’s sounds and words. It is helpful for caregivers to repeat a child’s words and expand on them. They say the child’s words in full sentences and add other ideas, too. In this way, the child learns more about her environment while learning language. Here are some examples of repeating and expanding: Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 26
  • 27. Repetition  and  expansion v Child: “Doggie eat.” v Child: “Truck broken.” v Child: “More milk.” v Adult: “Yes, the doggie is eating.” v Adult: “Yes, I see the truck is broken. We can try to fix it.” v Adult: “Oh, I see. You finished your milk. You want more.” Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 27
  • 28. Practice  repeating  -­‐ expanding Read the child’s words below. These are 2-3 word phrases. Repeat and expand these phrases. Say your answer aloud to a partner. Listen as your partner repeats and expands the phrase. Choose the answer you like best and write it down. Example: v Child:Car gone. v Partner A: Here’s my answer: “The car is gone. Aunt Mary drove home.” v Partner B: Good one. Here’s what I say: “That’s right. Aunt Mary drove the car home so the car is gone.” v Partner A: You used more words. It’s good for children to hear more words, so I’m writing down your answer. v Partner B: Well, I like your answer, so I’m writing yours. Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 28
  • 29. Expand  2-­‐3  word  utterances with  a  partner 1. Cat outside! 2. Mommy hungry. 3. No school. 4. Ball right here 5. Have it! 6. Daddy home. 7. No more juice. 8. Go store. 9. Toys away. 10.Grandma come. Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 29
  • 30. Activate  home  language Children benefit from hearing lots of words, in any language! They benefit from hearing many words in their home language as well as English. Choose five of the sentences above and translate them into your home language. Then repeat and expand on the words in your own language. Example: Cat outside. -àGato afuera. El gato está afuera. ¿A ver? ¿Quiere entrar? Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 30
  • 31. Activity  4:  Bilingual  booklet v Talk with children aged 3-15. v Take dictation of what younger children say. v Help older children complete the sentences. v Create a book with sentences and pictures. v Share their books. Ésta es mi historia. Đây là câu chuyện của tôi. 这是我的故事。 This is my story. 31Brems, M., Chan, M. and Rosner, J. (in press). English for Child Development: Language Skills for Parents and Providers. Sunnyvale, CA: Sunburst Media.
  • 32. Purposes  of  booklet  activity v To demonstrate the value of home language v To provide the opportunity to publish v To encourage creativity v To foster connection between home and school cultures Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 32
  • 33. Brems, M., Chan, M. and Rosner, J. (in press). English for Child Development: Language Skills for Parents and Providers. Sunnyvale, CA: Sunburst Media. 33
  • 34. 34 Brems, M., Chan, M. and Rosner, J. (in press). English for Child Development: Language Skills for Parents and Providers. Sunnyvale, CA: Sunburst Media.
  • 35. 35 Brems, M., Chan, M. and Rosner, J. (in press). English for Child Development: Language Skills for Parents and Providers. Sunnyvale, CA: Sunburst Media.
  • 36. 36 Brems, M., Chan, M. and Rosner, J. (in press). English for Child Development: Language Skills for Parents and Providers. Sunnyvale, CA: Sunburst Media.
  • 37. 37 Brems, M., Chan, M. and Rosner, J. (in press). English for Child Development: Language Skills for Parents and Providers. Sunnyvale, CA: Sunburst Media.
  • 38. Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 38
  • 39. Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 39
  • 40. Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 40
  • 41. Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 41
  • 42. Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 42
  • 43. Follow-­‐up  activity  for  students v Read their own books aloud to their classmates. v Listen and enjoy classmates’ books. v Share experiences about dual language learning. v Learn about other cultures. Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 43
  • 44. Summary v Encourage bilingualismby taking an asset- based perspective. v Use activities that foster bilingualism. v quotation reading v listening cloze v repeating and expanding in English and L1 v bilingual book project v Find everyday ways to encourage adults to help their children become bilingual. Marsha Chan and Julaine Rosner 44
  • 46. Q&A   Thank you for your  attention! For information about our books, go to Sunburst Media: http://www.sunburstmedia.com Julaine Rosner julaine.rosner@wvm.edu MarshaChan marsha@sunburstmedia.com 46

Editor's Notes

  1. Encouraging bilingualism Bilingualism is a goal for our adult students. Adult students have already developed skills in their native language. Thus, teachers encourage them to use English and discourage the use of their native language.
  2. Office of Head Start http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/cultural-linguistic/Dual%20Language%20Learners/DLL_%20Resources/OHSDefinitionof.htm Challenging Common Myths About Young Dual Language Learners: An Update to the Seminal 2008 Report http://www.researchconnections.org/childcare/resources/13826
  3. What does this quote mean? How can adults help children to maintain their home language? How does a language help children stay connected with family? What are some advantages of being bilingual?
  4. In talkative environments, children hear many words every day. They hear stories and conversations and descriptions and advice. Some children hear as many as 20,000 and 30,000 words a day. In other homes, however, there is a lot less talk. Over time, there is a big difference in how many words the children have heard. By age 3, children from talkative homes have heard 20 to 30 million more words than children from non-talkative homes. This difference has a big effect on children’s ability to succeed in school and life.
  5. Young children need to hear a lot of words to help them develop their language skills. Parents and teachers can use many conversational strategies to increase the number of words that children hear. Three main strategies are: tune in, talk more, and take turns.
  6. Do parents who talk to babies have smarter kids? Gwen Dewar, Ph.D. posted: April 13, 2013, 9:12 am http://blogs.babycenter.com/mom_stories/parents-who-talk-to-babies-have-smarter-kids/
  7. We provide sentence starters – templates.