CTG-cardiotocography. Antenatal testing- ECG of fetus during labour. Fetal heart rate 110 to 160 bpm.
Fetal well being can be determined by response of fetal heart rate to uterine contractions. Hypoxia: Short of breath. As it builds up, sympathetic nervous system causes vasoconstriction and the fetal heart rate variability decreases. Abnormalities like defective heart valves , backflow of blood, i,ii,iii degree av blockage, etc.
Many of the tools should be considered screening tests only. Often a combination of tests is required to develop the full picture of fetal welfare. “Palpation, or examination by touch, is a process of the ‘hands-on’ identification and assessment of the position, growth and wellbeing of the baby” It establishes the lie of the fetus, determines the presenting part, descent and liquor volume
Earlier Monitoring Of Fetal Heartbeat
Earlier monitoring of fetal
• What is fetal heart rate monitoring ? When it
• Why go for fetal heart rate monitoring ?Why
as early as possible?
• Fetal heart rate monitoring till date .
• ECG belts.
– Their Disadvantages.
• Proposed heart rate monitoring method.
– Explanation with circuit concepts.
• Advantages of the proposed methodology
over currently available techniques.
What is fetal heart rate monitoring
• Fetal heart rate monitoring is recording of
ECG & CTG and monitoring of the heart
as a whole of a fetus .
• Only screening tests are available for
monitoring fetal activity inside placenta,
• The only accurate test till date is the
• But the monitoring of fetus should be done
as early as possible.
Why go for fetal heart rate monitoring? Why as
early as possible?
• The fetal heart beat is an important
parameter in determining hypoxia.
• Bradycardia occurrence can be detected.
• Fetal heart rate is an indirect way of
measurement of pH of the body-Acidosis.
• Any abnormality in the structure of heart
can be found by observing the ECG ,PCG
Tools for Fetal Welfare Assessment
• There are many tools available for
assessing fetal welfare.
• All tests have a reasonably low incidence
of finding true fetal compromise.
• There are broadly two methods for fetal
heart rate monitoring:
• Introduced from the late 1950’s , it is
currently considered a safe, non-invasive
and cost-effective investigation.
– Dating scans
– Nuchal Translucency scans
– Anomaly scans
– Growth scans
– Liquor Assessment
• Monitoring the baby's heart using
electrocardiography (ECG) plus
cardiotocography (CTG) during labour
helps mothers and babies when
continuous monitoring is needed.
• This is done by placement of scalp
electrodes on the baby during labour.
• Many interferences observed in ECG.
• No clear picture of heart is obtained.
Proposed heart rate monitoring
• The proposed method for recording the
heart beat accurately and earlier consists
of a wide belt, fitted with several ECG
• The data from the electrodes is fed to a
monitor which analyses the data on an
algorithm, for clear ECG data of the fetus.
The Adaptive filter
x(n) = v(n) + m(n)
x(n) : primary input to the filter, observed signal
v(n) : signal of interest
m(n) : primary noise
Adaptive filtering requires a second input r(n), ‘reference input’
• Fetal heart rate can be found earlier.
• Added Advantage-Multidimensional view
of fetal heart can be obtained.
• Elizabeth Thomson.(2009).Techtalk. New
system allows earlier monitoring of fetal
• NSWHEALTH.(2008).Fetal Physiology.
Cooke H. & Giles W. Retrieved august