Protien synthesis flip book

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Protien synthesis flip book

  1. 1. Protein Synthesis By Donna Jean Roberts
  2. 2. Nucleolus Nuclear Membrane Cytoplasm Ribosomes Cell Membrane
  3. 3. Nucleolus Ribosomes Nuclear Membrane
  4. 4. Nucleus Nuclear Membrane Ribosomes
  5. 5. Nucleus Nuclear Membrane
  6. 6. Nucleus
  7. 7. A T G G A G T A C C G T T G A T A C C T C A T G G C A A C T T =Thymine C =Cytosine A =Adenine G =Guanine
  8. 8. RNA Polymerase A T G G A G T A C C G T T G A T A C C T C A T G G C A A C T
  9. 9. T A C G A G T A C C G T T G A RNA Polymerase A G T C T C A T G G C A A C T
  10. 10. A T G G A C G T A C C G T T G A C T A T C A T G G C A A C T
  11. 11. A T G A C A G T A C C G T T G A C T G T C A T G G C A A C T
  12. 12. A T G G A G T T A C C T C A C C G T T G A A T G G C A A C T
  13. 13. A T G G A G T T A C C T C A C C G T T G A A T G G C A A C T
  14. 14. A T G G A G T A C C T A C C T C A T G G T T G A G C A A C T
  15. 15. A T G G A G T A C C T A C C T C A T G G T T G A G C A A C T
  16. 16. A T G G A G T A C C G T T T A C C T C A T G G C A G A A C T
  17. 17. A T T A G C G C A T G C T A A T C G C G T T G C A G A A C T
  18. 18. A T G G A G T A C C G T T G A T A C C T C A T G G C A A C T
  19. 19. A T G G A G T A C C G T T G A T A C C T C A T G G C A A C T
  20. 20. mRNA A T G G A G T A C C G T T G A T A C C T C A T G G C A A C T RNA Polymerase
  21. 21. Nucleus
  22. 22. Nucleus Nuclear Membrane
  23. 23. Nuclear Pore Nucleus Nuclear Membrane Ribosomes Cytoplasm
  24. 24. Start Codon End Codon Amino Acid tRNA Large Subunit Ribosome Small Subunit Anticodon
  25. 25. Peptide Bond
  26. 26. Peptide chain
  27. 27. Protein
  28. 28. Protein Synthesis Essay • Protein synthesis is the process of which proteins are made in the cell. The first step in protein synthesis is Transcription. Transcription occurs in the nucleus of the cell. The reason for this step is that the double stranded DNA is to big to fit through the nuclear pore so a single stranded mRNA needs to be made to be sent to the cytoplasm. DNA holds the code to make the proteins. First, RNA Polymerase binds onto the DNA strand at the promoter region. RNA Polymerase unravels the DNA strand. As it unravels RNA polymerase adds the complementary nucleotides on to the mRNA strand, being made. The difference between an RNA strand and DNA strand is the base pairing rules, which on the RNA strand are A=U and G=C. RNA polymerase reads 3I to 5I and synthesizes 5I to 3I and adds nucleotides in codons, a group of three base pairs. The mRNA strand being made is built off to the side of the DNA strand. On every mRNA strand the first codon, start codon, is AUG and the last, stop codon, is UAA, UAG, or UGA. After the whole mRNA strand is made the DNA strand connects together again and forms the double helix. The single mRNA strand leaves the nucleus through the nuclear pore and into the cytoplasm where the next step occurs.
  29. 29. Protein Synthesis Essay • The second step in protein synthesis is Translation. In Translation the mRNA strand is read by a ribosome. A ribosome has two parts a large subunit and a small subunit. The mRNA strand goes in between the two units to be read. The ribosome reads in codons and starts at the start codon. Then a tRNA molecule comes. The structure of the tRNA is at the top is an amino acid, which is determined by the codon on the mRNA strand, and at the bottom is an anticodon, which is the three complementary nucleotides of the codon. The tRNA temporally connects to the mRNA strand. Once the ribosome reads the next codon and another tRNA molecule comes and connects the to the mRNA strand a peptide bond is made with both of the amino acids at the top of the tRNA molecules. After the peptide bond is made the first tRNA molecule leaves the amino acid connected to the other amino acid. This process repeats itself until the stop codon is reached. At the stop codon no tRNA molecule comes with an amino acid the last tRNA molecule just leaves it’s amino acid behind and the ribosome unbinds from the mRNA strand.
  30. 30. Protein Synthesis Essay • Now, with all of the amino acids connected with a peptide bond that forms a peptide chain. When the amino acids are unfolded they are in the primary structure. Then the amino acids start to fold and from a crimped type shape, which is the secondary structure. Finally, the amino acids fold up into a ball and are in the last structure the tertiary structure. The amino acids are now a protein. The protein gets its function from its unique shape

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