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Protein Synthesis
By: Alli Ishman
Nucleus

Cytoplasm
Nucleus
5
’

3’

Phosphate

Sugar (Deoxyribose)
Adenine
Thymine
Guanine
Cytosine
3’ Promoter Region

Coding Region

Phosphate

Sugar (Deoxyribose)
Adenine
Thymine
Guanine
Cytosine

RNA Polymerase

Termin...
AUGGA

3’

5
’

Phosphate

Sugar (Deoxyribose)
Adenine
Thymine
Guanine

mRNA Strand

Cytosine

RNA Polymerase
AUGGAGAGAAGG

3’

Phosphate

Sugar (Deoxyribose)
Adenine
Thymine
Guanine

mRNA Strand

Cytosine

RNA Polymerase

5
’
5
’

3’

Phosphate

Sugar (Deoxyribose)
Adenine
Thymine
Guanine

mRNA Strand

Cytosine

RNA Polymerase
Cytoplasm

Nuclear Pore
Ribosomes

Ribosomes

Ribosomes
Ribosomes

Ribosomes

Ribosomes
Cytoplasm

Start Codon

Codon

Codon

Sugar (Deoxyribose)
Adenine
Uracil
Guanine
Cytosine

mRNA Strand
Phosphate

Codon

S...
Ribosome
Large Subunit
Small Subunit

Start Codon
Adenine
Uracil
Guanine
Cytosine

Codon

Codon

tRNA
molecule

Codon
Amin...
Ribosome
Large Subunit
Small Subunit

Start Codon
Adenine
Uracil
Guanine
Cytosine

Codon

Codon

tRNA
molecule

Codon
Amin...
Ribosome
Large Subunit
Small Subunit

Polypeptide bond

Start Codon
Adenine
Uracil
Guanine
Cytosine

Codon

Codon

tRNA
mo...
Ribosome

Large Subunit
Polypeptide bond

Start Codon
Adenine
Uracil
Guanine
Cytosine

Polypeptide bond

Codon

Codon

tRN...
Polypeptide bond

Start Codon
Adenine
Uracil
Guanine
Cytosine

Polypeptide bond

Codon

Codon

tRNA
molecule

Polypeptide ...
Peptidebond

Start Codon
Adenine

Peptide bond

Codon

Peptide bond

Codon

tRNA
molecule

Peptide bond

Codon
Amino Acid
...
Polypeptide Chain

Peptide bond

Start Codon

Peptide bond

Codon

Adenine
Uracil
Guanine
Cytosine

mRNA
Strand

Peptide b...
Primary Structure
Secondary Structure
Tertiary Structure
First DNA transcription takes place in the nucleus of the cell. RNA polymerase
binds to the start of a gene on the double ...
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Proteinsynthesis_ishman

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Proteinsynthesis_ishman

  1. 1. Protein Synthesis By: Alli Ishman
  2. 2. Nucleus Cytoplasm
  3. 3. Nucleus
  4. 4. 5 ’ 3’ Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
  5. 5. 3’ Promoter Region Coding Region Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine RNA Polymerase Termination Sequence 5 ’
  6. 6. AUGGA 3’ 5 ’ Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine mRNA Strand Cytosine RNA Polymerase
  7. 7. AUGGAGAGAAGG 3’ Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine mRNA Strand Cytosine RNA Polymerase 5 ’
  8. 8. 5 ’ 3’ Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine mRNA Strand Cytosine RNA Polymerase
  9. 9. Cytoplasm Nuclear Pore
  10. 10. Ribosomes Ribosomes Ribosomes
  11. 11. Ribosomes Ribosomes Ribosomes
  12. 12. Cytoplasm Start Codon Codon Codon Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Uracil Guanine Cytosine mRNA Strand Phosphate Codon Stop Codon
  13. 13. Ribosome Large Subunit Small Subunit Start Codon Adenine Uracil Guanine Cytosine Codon Codon tRNA molecule Codon Amino Acid Ribosome Anti-codon mRNA Strand Stop Codon
  14. 14. Ribosome Large Subunit Small Subunit Start Codon Adenine Uracil Guanine Cytosine Codon Codon tRNA molecule Codon Amino Acid Ribosome Anti-codon mRNA Strand Stop Codon
  15. 15. Ribosome Large Subunit Small Subunit Polypeptide bond Start Codon Adenine Uracil Guanine Cytosine Codon Codon tRNA molecule Codon Amino Acid Ribosome Anti-codon mRNA Strand Stop Codon
  16. 16. Ribosome Large Subunit Polypeptide bond Start Codon Adenine Uracil Guanine Cytosine Polypeptide bond Codon Codon tRNA molecule Small Subunit Codon Amino Acid Ribosome Anti-codon mRNA Strand Stop Codon
  17. 17. Polypeptide bond Start Codon Adenine Uracil Guanine Cytosine Polypeptide bond Codon Codon tRNA molecule Polypeptide bond Codon Amino Acid Ribosome Anti-codon mRNA Strand Stop Codon
  18. 18. Peptidebond Start Codon Adenine Peptide bond Codon Peptide bond Codon tRNA molecule Peptide bond Codon Amino Acid Uracil Guanine Cytosine Anti-codon mRNA Strand Stop Codon
  19. 19. Polypeptide Chain Peptide bond Start Codon Peptide bond Codon Adenine Uracil Guanine Cytosine mRNA Strand Peptide bond Codon Peptide bond Codon Stop Codon
  20. 20. Primary Structure
  21. 21. Secondary Structure
  22. 22. Tertiary Structure
  23. 23. First DNA transcription takes place in the nucleus of the cell. RNA polymerase binds to the start of a gene on the double helix and it unwinds the DNA into single strands. As it goes along it uses one of the single strands as a template and builds a complementary mRNA strand. RNA polymerase uses RNA instead of DNA. Therefore, thymine is replaced by uracil. The mRNA breaks off from the template strand and moves from the nucleus into the cytoplasm through a nuclear pore, translation begins and DNA returns to its original double-helix formation. Then mRNA comes into contact with the ribosomes which consist of two parts; a large subunit and a small subunit. Ribosomes read the mRNA sequence and convert it into an amino acid sequence. The ribosomes begin translation at the start codon AUG and in this case, stop at the stop codon UGA. tRNA molecules transfer the amino acid to the ribosome. tRNA contains an anticodon on one end and an amino acid on the other. The tRNA with a complementary anticodon temporarily binds onto the codon, then the ribosome reads the next codon and another tRNA with a complementary anticodon binds. A peptide bond joins the two amino acids, and as the ribosome continues down the mRNA strand the first tRNA falls off, leaving its amino acid. The ribosome continues down the strand until the stop codon is reached, where the last tRNA falls off, leaving a chain of amino acids, which will then fold upon itself to give it its function.

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