Mutations Powerpoint

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  • Mutations Powerpoint

    1. 1. HTTP://UPLOAD.WIKIMEDIA.ORG/WIKIPEDIA/COMMONS/E/E5/PORTULACA_GRANDIFLORA_MUTANT1.JPG
    2. 2. MutationsBy: Jaelene Burkett, Heather Giavedoni, andDalton White. HTTP://UPLOAD.WIKIMEDIA.ORG/WIKIPEDIA/COMMONS/E/E5/PORTULACA_GRANDIFLORA_MUTANT1.JPG
    3. 3. Point mutations
    4. 4. Point mutationsoccur in a a single point in the DNA sequence
    5. 5. Point mutationsoccur in a a single point in the DNA sequence
    6. 6. Point mutationsoccur in a a single point in the DNA sequenceThese include substitutions insertions anddeletions
    7. 7. Point mutationsoccur in a a single point in the DNA sequenceThese include substitutions insertions anddeletions
    8. 8. Point mutationsoccur in a a single point in the DNA sequenceThese include substitutions insertions anddeletions
    9. 9. Point mutationsoccur in a a single point in the DNA sequenceThese include substitutions insertions anddeletionshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Point_mutations-en.png
    10. 10. Point mutationsoccur in a a single point in the DNA sequenceThese include substitutions insertions anddeletionshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Point_mutations-en.png
    11. 11. Substitution
    12. 12. Substitutionone base is changed into a completely differentbaseusually only affects one amino acidthis also can have no affect at all TUC- PYRIMIDINES AG- PURINES
    13. 13. Substitutionone base is changed into a completely differentbaseusually only affects one amino acidthis also can have no affect at all TUC- PYRIMIDINES T A C A T G AG- PURINES
    14. 14. Substitutionone base is changed into a completely differentbaseusually only affects one amino acidthis also can have no affect at all TUC- PYRIMIDINES T A T C A T G AG- PURINES
    15. 15. Frameshift MutationsConsist of insertions and deletions in the DNAsequence.They shift the “reading frame” and can changeevery amino acid that follows that.
    16. 16. Insertion and Deletions EX. OF INSERTION EX. OF DELETIONSTHE GATE IS CLOSE THE GATE IS CLOSED
    17. 17. Insertion and Deletions Insertions have to many nucleotides in a DNA sequence Deletions can occur after an insertion or without one. EX. OF INSERTION EX. OF DELETIONSTHE GATE IS CLOSE THE GATE IS CLOSED
    18. 18. Insertion and Deletions Insertions have to many nucleotides in a DNA sequence Deletions can occur after an insertion or without one. EX. OF INSERTION EX. OF DELETIONSTHE GATE IS CLOSED THE GATE IS CLOSED
    19. 19. Insertion and Deletions Insertions have to many nucleotides in a DNA sequence Deletions can occur after an insertion or without one. EX. OF INSERTION EX. OF DELETIONSTHE GATE IS CLOSED THE GATE IS CLOSE
    20. 20. Insertion and Deletions Insertions have to many nucleotides in a DNA sequence Deletions can occur after an insertion or without one. EX. OF INSERTION EX. OF DELETIONSTHE GATE IS CLOSED THE GATE IS CLOSE
    21. 21. Insertion and Deletions Insertions have to many nucleotides in a DNA sequence Deletions can occur after an insertion or without one. EX. OF INSERTION EX. OF DELETIONSTHE GATE IS CLOSED THE GATE IS CLOSE
    22. 22. Insertion and Deletions Insertions have to many nucleotides in a DNA sequence Deletions can occur after an insertion or without one. EX. OF INSERTION EX. OF DELETIONSTHE GATE IS CLOSED THE GATE IS CLOSE PICTURE FROM: HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/FILE:INSERTION-GENETICS.PNG
    23. 23. Mutagens
    24. 24. Mutagens Chemical Physical Mutagens Pesticide X-rays Few plant alkaloids ultra-violet light tobacco smoke ionizing radiationsenvironmental pollutants
    25. 25. MutagensThese are chemical or physical agents in the environment Chemical Physical Mutagens Pesticide X-rays Few plant alkaloids ultra-violet light tobacco smoke ionizing radiations environmental pollutantsDNA Replication causes the mutation to grow at a faster rate.Mutagens also cause the DNA strand to break, which is known asChromosomal MutationsPicture from http://www.loc.gov/rr/scitech/mysteries/colors.html
    26. 26. Chromosomal Mutations
    27. 27. Chromosomal MutationsThis involves the number or structure change inchromosomes.
    28. 28. Chromosomal MutationsThis involves the number or structure change inchromosomes.It can even change the number of copies ofsome genes.
    29. 29. Chromosomal MutationsThis involves the number or structure change inchromosomes.It can even change the number of copies ofsome genes.Chromosomal mutations usually occur duringthe formation of a zygote.
    30. 30. Chromosomal MutationsThis involves the number or structure change inchromosomes.It can even change the number of copies ofsome genes.Chromosomal mutations usually occur duringthe formation of a zygote.They may change by inversion, deletion,duplication, or translocation.
    31. 31. Effects of MutationGenetic material can be altered by naturalartificial means.Mutations do not always effect the organism.The Cellular machinery that replicates DNAinserts the incorrect base every 10 million bases.
    32. 32. Harmful MutationsThese dramatically change protein structure.Defective proteins can disrupt normal, biological activities and resultsin genetic disorder.Some cancers are the result of mutations.Sickle cells are a mutation of red blood cells. The shape is no longercircular.If a mutation is in sex cells, the mutation Symptoms of sickle cellscan be in all the cells of the offspring anemia frequent infections severe pain stunted growth
    33. 33. Beneficial EffectsMutations can often produce proteins that canbe helpful and new functions that can be helpfulto the environment.A polyploidy is an organism that has an extra setof chromosomes.This occurs naturally in citrusplants.This can be very bad for humans because ofmutated organisms.

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