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Mutations

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Mutations

  1. 1. HTTP://UPLOAD.WIKIMEDIA.ORG/WIKIPEDIA/COMMONS/E/E5/PORTULACA_GRANDIFLORA_MUTANT1.JPG
  2. 2. MutationsBy: Jaelene Burkett, Heather Giavedoni, andDalton White. HTTP://UPLOAD.WIKIMEDIA.ORG/WIKIPEDIA/COMMONS/E/E5/PORTULACA_GRANDIFLORA_MUTANT1.JPG
  3. 3. Point mutations
  4. 4. Point mutationsoccur in a a single point in the DNA sequence
  5. 5. Point mutationsoccur in a a single point in the DNA sequence
  6. 6. Point mutationsoccur in a a single point in the DNA sequenceThese include substitutions insertions anddeletions
  7. 7. Substitution
  8. 8. Substitutionone base is changed into a completely differentbaseusually only affects one amino acidthis also can have no affect at all TUC- PYRIMIDINES AG- PURINES
  9. 9. Substitutionone base is changed into a completely differentbaseusually only affects one amino acidthis also can have no affect at all TUC- PYRIMIDINES T A C A T G AG- PURINES
  10. 10. Substitutionone base is changed into a completely differentbaseusually only affects one amino acidthis also can have no affect at all TUC- PYRIMIDINES T A T C A T G AG- PURINES
  11. 11. Frameshift MutationsConsist of insertions and deletions in the DNAsequence.They shift the “reading frame” and can changeevery amino acid that follows that.
  12. 12. Insertion and Deletions Insertions have to many nucleotides in a DNA sequence Deletions can occur after an insertion or without one. EX. OF INSERTION EX. OF DELETIONSTHE GATE IS CLOSE THE GATE IS CLOSED
  13. 13. Insertion and Deletions Insertions have to many nucleotides in a DNA sequence Deletions can occur after an insertion or without one. EX. OF INSERTION EX. OF DELETIONSTHE GATE IS CLOSED THE GATE IS CLOSED
  14. 14. Insertion and Deletions Insertions have to many nucleotides in a DNA sequence Deletions can occur after an insertion or without one. EX. OF INSERTION EX. OF DELETIONSTHE GATE IS CLOSED THE GATE IS CLOSE
  15. 15. Mutagens These are chemical or physical agents in the environment Chemical Physical Mutagens Pesticide X-rays Few plant alkaloids ultra-violet light tobacco smoke ionizing radiationsenvironmental pollutants DNA Replication causes the mutation to grow at a faster rate. Mutagens also cause the DNA strand to break, which is known as Chromosomal Mutations
  16. 16. Chromosomal MutationsThis involves the number or structure change inchromosomes.It can even change the number of copies ofsome genes.Chromosomal mutations usually occur duringthe formation of a zygote.They may change by inversion, deletion,duplication, or translocation.
  17. 17. Effects of MutationGenetic material can be altered by naturalartificial means.Mutations do not always effect the organism.The Cellular machinery that replicates DNAinserts the incorrect base every 10 million bases.
  18. 18. Harmful MutationsThese dramatically change protein structure.Defective proteins can disrupt normal, biological activities and resultsin genetic disorder.Some cancers are the result of mutations.Sickle cells are a mutation of red blood cells. The shape is no longercircular.If a mutation is in sex cells, the mutation Symptoms of sickle cellscan be in all the cells of the offspring anemia frequent infections severe pain stunted growth
  19. 19. Beneficial EffectsMutations can often produce proteins that canbe helpful and new functions that can be helpfulto the environment.A polyploidy is an organism that has an extra setof chromosomes.This occurs naturally in citrusplants.This can be very bad for humans because ofmutated organisms.

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