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Protein
Synthesis
By: Kim Shoemaker
Nucleus
Cell
DNA
transcription
occurs in the
nucleus of the
cell.
Nucleus
Adenine
Cytosine

Thymine

Adenine

Adenine

Thymine

Thymine

Guanine

Adenine
Cytosine

Adenine

Adenine

Thymine

Cytos...
Adenine
Cytosine

Thymine

Adenine

Adenine

Thymine

Thymine

Guanine

Adenine
Adenine

Cytosine

Thymine

Cytosine

Thym...
Adenine
Cytosine

Thymine

Adenine

Adenine

Thymine

Thymine

Guanine

Adenine
Adenine

Thymine

Cytosine

Thymine

Adeni...
Thymine

Thymine

Adenine

Thymine

Guanine

Adenine

Cytosine

Thymine

G A C
A C

Thymine
Adenine

Adenine

RNA
Polymera...
Thymine

Thymine

Adenine

Adenine

Thymine

Thymine

Thymine

Thymine

Adenine

Cytosine

Thymine

Adenine

Thymine

G A ...
Thymine

Thymine
Adenine

Cytosine

Thymine

Adenine

Adenine

Thymine
Adenine
Cytosine

Adenine

Adenine

Thymine

Cytosi...
Adenine
Cytosine

Thymine

Adenine

Adenine

Thymine

Thymine

Guanine

Adenine
Cytosine

Adenine

Adenine

Thymine

Cytos...
Ribosomes

Cytoplasm
Translation occurs in the
cytoplasm.
Nuclear Pore

A U
A U G
G

C
C A
G C
A

G A C
G A C
A C
A

A U
A...
A U
A U G
G

C
C A
G C
A

Nucleus

G A C
G A C
A C
A

A U
AU G
U
A U G
A U G

C
C A U

G
G

G A C
G A C
A C
A

A U U
A
G
tRNA
Amino acid

Ribosome
U A

Large
subunit

U
G U
U U AA

A
A
A G
G

G
C G

G U A
G
“Start”
codon

codons

U A
C C
A

Sm...
U
G U
U U AA

A
A
A G
G

G
C G

U A
C C
A

G U A
G
T A

G T A
U
G U
U U AA

A
A
A G
G

G
C G

U A
C C
A

G U A
G

G T A
G T
Peptide bond
U
G U
U U AA

A
A
A G
G

G
C G

U A
C C
A

G T
T G
U
G U
U U AA

G
C G
T G
U
G U
U U AA
Polypeptide chain
Summary:
DNA transcription occurs in the nucleus of the cell. RNA polymerase breaks the
hydrogen bonds in the DNA and make...
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Kshoemaker Protein synthesis project

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Kshoemaker Protein synthesis project

  1. 1. Protein Synthesis By: Kim Shoemaker
  2. 2. Nucleus Cell
  3. 3. DNA transcription occurs in the nucleus of the cell. Nucleus
  4. 4. Adenine Cytosine Thymine Adenine Adenine Thymine Thymine Guanine Adenine Cytosine Adenine Adenine Thymine Cytosine Thymine Adenine Guanine Thymine Cytosine Guanine Adenine Guanine Thymine Cytosine Guanine Guanine Adenine Cytosine Thymine 3’ 5’ Thymine 5’ 3’
  5. 5. Adenine Cytosine Thymine Adenine Adenine Thymine Thymine Guanine Adenine Adenine Cytosine Thymine Cytosine Thymine Adenine Guanine Thymine Cytosine Guanine Adenine Guanine Thymine Cytosine Guanine Guanine Adenine Cytosine Thymine Adenine 5’ 3’ 3’ 5’ Thymine RNA Polymerase
  6. 6. Adenine Cytosine Thymine Adenine Adenine Thymine Thymine Guanine Adenine Adenine Thymine Cytosine Thymine Adenine Guanine Thymine Cytosine Guanine Guanine Thymine Adenine Thymine Cytosine Adenine Cytosine Thymine Guanine Guanine Cytosine 3’ 5’ 5’ G 3’ RNA Polymerase Adenine A U
  7. 7. Thymine Thymine Adenine Thymine Guanine Adenine Cytosine Thymine G A C A C Thymine Adenine Adenine RNA Polymerase Thymine Cytosine Thymine Guanine Adenine Thymine G C A Guanine Adenine 3’ Cytosine Cytosine Adenine A U G A U G Guanine Cytosine Cytosine Adenine Thymine Guanine 5’ Guanine Cytosine Adenine mRNA strand C C A 5’ 3’
  8. 8. Thymine Thymine Adenine Adenine Thymine Thymine Thymine Thymine Adenine Cytosine Thymine Adenine Thymine G A C G A C A C A 3’ Adenine Adenine Cytosine Adenine Guanine Adenine Adenine G C A Guanine Cytosine Cytosine Guanine Guanine Cytosine Cytosine Adenine Thymine Guanine 5’ Guanine Cytosine Adenine A U A U G G C C A A U AU G U 5’ 3’
  9. 9. Thymine Thymine Adenine Cytosine Thymine Adenine Adenine Thymine Adenine Cytosine Adenine Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine Cytosine Adenine Thymine Adenine Adenine Guanine Cytosine Guanine Adenine Guanine Thymine Cytosine Guanine Guanine Adenine Cytosine Thymine 3’ 5’ Thymine 5’ 3’
  10. 10. Adenine Cytosine Thymine Adenine Adenine Thymine Thymine Guanine Adenine Cytosine Adenine Adenine Thymine Cytosine Thymine Adenine Guanine Thymine Cytosine Guanine Adenine Guanine Thymine Cytosine Guanine Guanine Adenine Cytosine Thymine 3’ 5’ Thymine 5’ 3’
  11. 11. Ribosomes Cytoplasm Translation occurs in the cytoplasm. Nuclear Pore A U A U G G C C A G C A G A C G A C A C A A U AU G U
  12. 12. A U A U G G C C A G C A Nucleus G A C G A C A C A A U AU G U
  13. 13. A U G A U G C C A U G G G A C G A C A C A A U U A G
  14. 14. tRNA Amino acid Ribosome U A Large subunit U G U U U AA A A A G G G C G G U A G “Start” codon codons U A C C A Small subuni t Anticodon “Stop” codon
  15. 15. U G U U U AA A A A G G G C G U A C C A G U A G T A G T A
  16. 16. U G U U U AA A A A G G G C G U A C C A G U A G G T A G T Peptide bond
  17. 17. U G U U U AA A A A G G G C G U A C C A G T T G
  18. 18. U G U U U AA G C G T G
  19. 19. U G U U U AA
  20. 20. Polypeptide chain
  21. 21. Summary: DNA transcription occurs in the nucleus of the cell. RNA polymerase breaks the hydrogen bonds in the DNA and makes the mRNA strand from the base pairs. As RNA polymerase is making the mRNA strand the hydrogen bonds reform. The mRNA strand then goes to the cytoplasm to go through translation so the mRNA can be translated into protein. A ribosome (rRNA) takes the mRNA strand in it’s small subunit and at the beginning of the strand there is a start codon then there are three codons and then there is a stop codon. The start codon is always AUG. The start codon is in the small subunit of the ribosome and a tRNA molecule comes into the large subunit of the ribosome with the anti codon of the start codon and the codon and the anti codon attach and when they come apart the amino acid at the top of the tRNA molecule forms a peptide bond with the amino acid with the next tRNA molcule’s amino acid. Then the process continues like that until the stop codon is reached and the stop codon does not have an anti codon so the polypeptide chain is completed and released. When the chain is released all of the amino acids have their own charge so they all come together in a globular structure, which is a protein.

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