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Gene expression


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Gene expression

  1. 1. Gene expression including what is genotype and phenotype<br />By: CassiAul, Kasey Martz, Bethany Butler and TionnaMcmahan<br />
  2. 2. Definitions<br />Genetic code- The ordering of nucleotides in DNA molecules that carries the genetic information in living cells.<br />Genotype- The genetic makeup, as distinguished from the physical appearance, of an organism or a group of organisms.<br />
  3. 3. Definitions Continued<br />Phenotype- the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism, as determined by both genetic makeup and environmental influences.<br />Gene Expression- The way in which DNA, RNA, and proteins are involved in putting genetic information into action in living cells.<br />
  4. 4. Genetic Code<br />The genetic code is the set of rules by which information encoded in genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) is translated into proteins (amino acid sequences) by living cells. The code defines a mapping between tri-nucleotide sequences, called codons, and amino acids<br />
  5. 5. Gregor Mendel<br />Learned that most genes contain nothing more than instructions for assembling proteins.<br />He might have asked what proteins could possibly have to do with the color of a flower, the shape of a leaf, or the sex of a newborn baby.<br />Proteins have everything to do with these traits.<br />
  6. 6. The Molecular Basis of Heredity<br />A gene that codes for an enzyme to produce pigment can control the color of a flower.<br />Molecular biology seeks to explain living organisms by studying them at the molecular level, using molecules like DNA and RNA.<br />Molecular biology is the near- universal nature of the genetic code.<br />
  7. 7. The human CFTR gene, which encodes a protein that transports chloride ions across cell membranes, can be dominant (G) as the normal version of the gene, or recessive (g) as a mutated version of the gene. It is receiving two recessive alleles that individuals will be diagnosed with cystic fibrosis. It is generally accepted that inherited genotype, transmitted epigenetic factors, and non-hereditary environmental variation contribute to the phenotype of an individual.<br />Genotype<br />
  8. 8. Genotype<br />There are three pairs of alleles for genotypes, they are AA, Aa, and aa.<br />Dominant trait- overpowers and prevents expression of its recessive allele when the two alleles are present in a heterozygous individual. A recessive trait will only be expressed when both alleles are recessive, also called homozygous recessive.<br />Recessive trait- is the trait that isn’t expressed<br />
  9. 9. Genotype<br />A dominant gene is the gene that "counts" or is shown through looks. For example if you have a father with the dominant trait of black hair and a mom with a dominant trait of black hair it is more likely that the child will receive the dominant trait of black hair.<br />
  10. 10. Genotype<br />The genotype of an organism is the inherited instructions it carries within its genetic code. Not all organisms with the same genotype look or act the same way because appearance and behavior are modified by environmental and developmental conditions. Similarly, not all organisms that look alike necessarily have the same genotype.<br />
  11. 11. Phenotype<br />A phenotype is any observable characteristic or trait of an organism: such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, or behavior.<br />Phenotypes result from the expression of an organism's genes as well as the influence of environmental factors and the interactions between the two.<br />
  12. 12. Phenotype<br />This genotype-phenotype distinction was proposed by Wilhelm Johannsen in 1911 to make clear the difference between an organism's heredity and what that heredity produces.<br />Despite its seemingly straightforward definition, the concept of the phenotype has some hidden subtleties. First, most of the molecules and structures coded by the genetic material are not visible in the appearance of an organism, yet they are observable and are thus part of the phenotype.<br />
  13. 13. Phenotype<br />Human blood groups are an example. So, by extension, the term phenotype must include characteristics that can be made visible by some technical procedure. Another extension adds behaviour to the phenotype since behaviours are also observable characteristics.<br />
  14. 14. Phenotype<br />Phenotype-everything that deals with the outward appearance that's not hidden in a single persons DNA.<br />So besides blood type phenotype is outward features<br />