Rfid overview


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Rfid overview

  1. 1. RFIDOverview $ Application By:- Anubhav Gupta LIET
  2. 2. Presentation Objectives:• Explain technical principles behind RFID• Provide overview of RFID technology• Discuss: – Forces driving the adoption of RFID – Challenges RFID deployment must overcome – The future
  3. 3. Agenda• RFID history• Tag overview• EPC• RFID Reader• System Components/logical structure• Antenna & its Type• Applications & usage models• Challenges
  4. 4. What is RFID?• RFID = Radio Frequency Identification.• An ADC (Automated Data Collection) technology that: – uses radio-frequency waves to transfer data between a reader and a movable item to identify, categorize, track.. – Is fast and does not require physical sight or contact between reader/scanner and the tagged item. – Performs the operation using low cost components. – Attempts to provide unique identification and backend integration that allows for wide range of applications.• Other ADC technologies: Bar codes, OCR.
  5. 5. Radio Frequency IDentification Four main frequencies: Example Frequency Distance Application Auto- LF 125khz Few cm Immobilizer Building HF 13.56Mhz 1m AccessFocus of this presentation is on UHF UHF 900Mhz ~7m Supply Chain μwave 2.4Ghz 10m Traffic Toll
  6. 6. RFID History• First Bar code patents – 1930s• First use of RFID device – 2nd world war – Brittan used RFID-like technology for Identify- Friend or Foe• Harry Stockman October 1948 Paper – Communication by means of reflected power ( The proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers)• First RFID Patent - 1973• Auto-ID center founded at MIT – 1999 – Standardization effort taken over by EPC Global (Electronic Product Code)• Current thrust primarily driven by Wal-Mart and DoD – Automate Distribution: • Reduce cost (man power, shipping mistakes) • Increase sales (keep shelves full) • DoD Total Asset Visibility Initiative Source of data: EDN – October 2004 - “Reading Between the Lines” Brian Dipert
  7. 7. Basic Tag Operational Principles Inductive Coupling Backscatter N Reader Reader TAG TAG S• Near field (LF, HF): inductive coupling of tag to magnetic field circulating around antenna (like a transformer) • Varying magnetic flux induces current in tag. Modulate tag load to communicate with reader• Far field (UHF 300 to 3000MHz, microwave). • Modulate back scatter by changing antenna impedance • Field energy decreases proportionally to 1/R• Absorption by non-conductive materials significant problem for microwave frequencies
  8. 8. RFID Tags•Tags can be attached to almost anything: – Items, cases or pallets of products, high value goods – vehicles, assets, livestock or personnel•Passive Tags – Do not require power – Draws from Interrogator Field – Lower storage capacities (few bits to 1 KB) – Shorter read ranges (4 inches to 15 feet) – Usually Write-Once-Read-Many/Read-Only tags – Cost around 25 cents to few dollars•Active Tags – Battery powered – Higher storage capacities (512 KB) – Longer read range (300 feet) – Typically can be re-written by RF Interrogators – Cost around 50 to 250 dollars
  9. 9. RFID tags : Smart Labels A paper label with RFID inside an antenna, printed, etched or stamped ...… and a chip … on a substrateattached to it e.g. a plastic foil ...
  10. 10. Electronic Product Code Header - Tag version number EPC Manager - Manufacturer ID Object class - Manufacturer’s product ID Serial Number - Unit IDWith 96 bit code, 268 million companies can each categorize 16 million different productswhere each product category contains up to 687 billion individual units Note: 64 bit versions also defined, 256 bit version under definition
  11. 11. RFID readers• Reader functions: – Remotely power tags – Establish a bidirectional data link – Inventory tags, filter results – Communicate with networked server(s) – Can read 100-300 tags per second• Readers (interrogators) can be at a fixed point such as – Entrance/exit – Point of sale• Readers can also be mobile/hand-held
  12. 12. RFID system components Ethernet RF ID ReaderRF ID Tag R F A ntenna Network Works tation
  13. 13. RFID systems: logical view Product ONS Information Server (PML Format) AntennaWrite data Items with Reader Read Transaction Applicationto RF tags RF Tags Manager Data Store Systems Antenna Trading Partner EDI / Systems XML Tag/Item Relationship Database Other Systems Tag Interfaces RFID Middleware
  14. 14. RFID Antennas:• Gate antennas (orthogonal use)• Circular polarized(Doordarshan)• Omni directional antennas(Any direction)• Stick antennas (directional)• Di-pole or multi-pole antennas• Adaptive, beam-forming or phased-array element antennas(Laser)
  15. 15. RFID applications• Manufacturing and Processing – Inventory and production process monitoring – Warehouse order fulfillment• Supply Chain Management – Inventory tracking systems – Logistics management• Retail – Inventory control and customer insight – Auto checkout with reverse logistics• Security – Access control – Counterfeiting and Theft control/prevention• Location Tracking – Traffic movement control and parking management – Wildlife/Livestock monitoring and tracking
  16. 16. Usage Models Conveyor Belt Dock Door Forklift Printers Handheld Smart Shelves Point of Sale
  17. 17. Traditional RFID Market Segments Automated Vehicle IdAuto Immobilizers • Isolated systems • Simple reads • Slow growth Animal Tracking Access Control
  18. 18. Reader Implementation Challenges• Reader must deliver enough power from RF field to power the tag• Reader must discriminate backscatter modulation in presence of carrier at same frequency• Interference between readers• Hugh volume of tag data – readers need to filter data before releasing to enterprise network
  19. 19. THANK’ S For Your “PATIENCE”.