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Ppt on hepatitis b

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Hepatitis Band its vaccine

Published in: Engineering
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Ppt on hepatitis b

  1. 1. Pankaj Yadav 346/11
  2. 2.  Hepatitis B is a germ (virus) that gets into your body and attacks your liver.  Your liver helps your body digest the food you eat and store energy. It also helps your body get rid of poisons
  3. 3.  Acute Hepatitis B  In Acute Hepatitis B ,Most adults who get it have it for a short time and then get better.  Chronic Hepatitis B  Sometimes the virus causes a long-term infection, called chronic hepatitis.
  4. 4.  It is passed by contact with the blood or other body fluids of someone who has the hepatitis B virus.  Being born to a mother who has hepatitis B.  Sharing needles and syringes.
  5. 5.  The main symptoms are fatigue, abdominal pain, and jaundice (yellow coloration of the skin).  Other symptoms may include nausea/vomiting and joint pain  Bloated or swollen stomach
  6. 6. Hepatitis A  This form of hepatitis never leads to a chronic infection and usually has no complications. Hepatitis C  At least 80% of patients with hepatitis C develop a chronic liver infection.  No vaccine is yet available to prevent hepatitis C.
  7. 7.  Approximately 1 in 12 persons worldwide, or some 500 million people, are living with chronic viral hepatitis .  An estimated 350 million people are living with chronic hepatitis B worldwide.  An estimated 1 million people die each year from hepatitis B and its complications.  Chronic hepatitis C affects an estimated 170 million people worldwide and causes approximately 350,000 deaths each year .
  8. 8.  Highest rate of people that get it are in the 20 to 49 year old age group.  There has been a great decline in infected children due to routine vaccinations.  An estimated 1.25 million chronically infected americans (20-30% get it in childhood).
  9. 9.  A member of the hepadnavirus group.  Circular partially double-stranded DNA viruses  It has not yet been possible to propogate the virus in cell culture.
  10. 10.  HBsAg  HBcAg (HBeAg is a splice variant)  Hepatitis B virus DNA polymerase(it convert the viral RNA genome into dsDNA in viral cytoplasmic capsids)
  11. 11.  It is developed for the prevention of hepatitis B virus infection.  The vaccine contains one of the viral envelope proteins, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg).  It is produced by hansenula polymorpha (yeast )cells, into which the genetic code for HBsAg has been inserted  The first vaccine became available in 1981.
  12. 12.  Paediatric  Each dose of 0.5 ml contains :  10 mcg of purified Hepatitis B surface antigen  Adsorbed on Aluminium hydroxide (Al+++)0.25 mg to 0.40 mg  Preservative: Thiomersal 0.025 mg  Produced in Hansenula Polymorpha (yeast)  Dose : 0.5 ml by intramuscular injection  Adult  Each dose of 1 ml contains :  20 mcg of purified Hepatitis B surface antigen  Adsorbed on Aluminium hydroxide (Al+++)0.5 mg to 0.8 mg  Preservative: Thiomersal 0.05 mg  Produced in Hansenula Polymorpha (yeast)  Dose : 1 ml by intramuscular injection
  13. 13. It can also cause long-term (chronic) illness that leads to:  Liver damage (cirrhosis)  Liver cancer
  14. 14. Children and Adults  Babies normally get 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine:  1st Dose: Birth  2nd Dose: 1-2 months of age  3rd Dose: 6-18 months of age
  15. 15.  Everyone 18 years of age and younger.  Adults over 18 who are at risk.
  16. 16.  People with life-threatening allergic reaction to baker’s yeast or to hepatitis B vaccine.  People with moderate or severe illness should wait until they recover.
  17. 17.  Severe allergic reactions, harm or death (extremely rare).  Soreness at site of injection lasting 1-2 days.  Mild to moderate fever.
  18. 18.  Hives, swelling, redness  High fever  Difficulty breathing, wheezing  Dizzyness
  19. 19.  When to expect an allergic reaction?  Within a few minutes to a few hours after the shot.  What should I do?  CALL a doctor or see a doctor right away.
  20. 20.  There are 3 common tests.  HBsAg, HBsAb, HBcAb.  The doctor needs all 3 blood test results in order to determine your diagnosis.  The hepatitis B blood panel requires only one blood sample but includes three tests.
  21. 21.  HBsAg (hepatitis B surface antigen)  HBsAb or Anti-HBs (hepatitis B surface antibody)  HBcAb or anti-HBc (hepatitis B core antibody)
  22. 22.  This test looks for hepatitis B surface antigens in your blood.  A "positive" or "reactive" HBsAg test result means that the person is infected with the hepatitis B virus.
  23. 23.  A "positive" or "reactive" HBsAb (or anti-HBs) test result indicates that a person has successfully responded to the hepatitis B vaccine or has recovered from an acute hepatitis B infection.  This result means that you are immune to future hepatitis B infection and you are not contagious.
  24. 24.  The HBcAb is an antibody that is part of the virus- it does not provide protection.  Test result indicates a past or present infection, but it could also be a false positive.
  25. 25.  Hepatitis B is a leading cause of death worldwide and the primary cause of hepatic cirrhosis.  Available evidence indicates that control of Hepatitis B replication with antiviral therapy decreases the incidence of complications.
  26. 26. Thank You…

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