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Webhosting on IPv6-only Virtual Machines
Wolfgang Zenker
Dubai, October 25, 2017
Webhosting for small to medium sized websites
Model Separation Security File access Shell Webserver Database php
old
nameVirtual
Host
suexec ftp (chroot) no shared shared shared
Webhosting for small to medium sized websites
Model Separation Security File access Shell Webserver Database php
old
nameVirtual
Host
suexec ftp (chroot) no shared shared shared
new jail jail ftp, scp root own own own
FreeBSD jails
• Jails are lightweight virtual machines
• Extension of chroot model: partition not only file system but also process table, network- and IPC-stack
etc.
We use jails combined with ZFS datasets
• System environment on r/o mount from host
• Application environment on r/o mount from blueprint
• Configuration defaults copied from blueprint to r/w dataset
• r/w dataset for application data and software
Host
Internet
virtual Bridge
v4/v6 v4/v6v4/v6v4/v6v4/v6
…
Jail JailJailJailJail
Jail hosting – version 1
SSL
“dehydrated” script running in each jail to aquire SSL certificates 

from “Let's Encrypt”
IP Address requirement
old model: one address shared by all websites on one physical machine
new model: one address per website
IP Address requirement
old model: one address shared by all websites on one physical machine
new model: one address per website


AS16188 address space
IPv4: 1 x /20, 1 x (final) /22

-> 5120 addresses
IPv6: 1 x /32

-> 79228162514264337593543950336 addresses
Host
Internet
virtual Bridge
v6 v6v6v6v6
…
Jail JailJailJailJail
Jail hosting – version 2
reverse proxy
v4/v6
First implementation for “nextcloud” hosting
• Application pre-installed
• Customer interacts per https only
SSL
• “dehydrated” script running on host only
• host has r/w access of jail dataset to provision certificate and key
• v4 SSL termination on host, proxy to v6 http on jail


At time of implementation, “Let's encrypt” would send challenges 

on IPv4 if signing request was by IPv4.
Problem
• Applications sends mail to users
• Some users don't have IPv6 on mailserver
Solution
• Use host system as outgoing mail relay
Problem
• “nextcloud” plugin repository is IPv4 only
Solution (kind of)
• disable plugin installation by customer
Problem
• Let’s encrypt now sends challenge on IPv6
Solution
• reverse proxy on jail for challenges, going to host IPv6
Tried
• run “dehydrated” in jail
-> failed: “dehydrated” does not work on IPv6-only
Problem
• Some webdav clients fail because of SSL termination on host
Solution (probably)
• proxy to https on jail instead of http
Outlook
For "generic" webhosting we expect more challenges:
• customers with IPv4-only need ssh access
• code repositories (e.g. GitHub, RubyGems, ...) are IPv4-only
• ...
Questions?
Thank you
Further questions: hosting@punkt.de
@punktdehosting
https://www.facebook.com/punkt.deGmbH/

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Webhosting on IPv6-only Virtual Machines

  • 1. Webhosting on IPv6-only Virtual Machines Wolfgang Zenker Dubai, October 25, 2017
  • 2. Webhosting for small to medium sized websites Model Separation Security File access Shell Webserver Database php old nameVirtual Host suexec ftp (chroot) no shared shared shared
  • 3. Webhosting for small to medium sized websites Model Separation Security File access Shell Webserver Database php old nameVirtual Host suexec ftp (chroot) no shared shared shared new jail jail ftp, scp root own own own
  • 4. FreeBSD jails • Jails are lightweight virtual machines • Extension of chroot model: partition not only file system but also process table, network- and IPC-stack etc. We use jails combined with ZFS datasets • System environment on r/o mount from host • Application environment on r/o mount from blueprint • Configuration defaults copied from blueprint to r/w dataset • r/w dataset for application data and software
  • 5. Host Internet virtual Bridge v4/v6 v4/v6v4/v6v4/v6v4/v6 … Jail JailJailJailJail Jail hosting – version 1
  • 6. SSL “dehydrated” script running in each jail to aquire SSL certificates 
 from “Let's Encrypt”
  • 7. IP Address requirement old model: one address shared by all websites on one physical machine new model: one address per website
  • 8. IP Address requirement old model: one address shared by all websites on one physical machine new model: one address per website 
 AS16188 address space IPv4: 1 x /20, 1 x (final) /22
 -> 5120 addresses IPv6: 1 x /32
 -> 79228162514264337593543950336 addresses
  • 9. Host Internet virtual Bridge v6 v6v6v6v6 … Jail JailJailJailJail Jail hosting – version 2 reverse proxy v4/v6
  • 10. First implementation for “nextcloud” hosting • Application pre-installed • Customer interacts per https only
  • 11. SSL • “dehydrated” script running on host only • host has r/w access of jail dataset to provision certificate and key • v4 SSL termination on host, proxy to v6 http on jail 
 At time of implementation, “Let's encrypt” would send challenges 
 on IPv4 if signing request was by IPv4.
  • 12. Problem • Applications sends mail to users • Some users don't have IPv6 on mailserver Solution • Use host system as outgoing mail relay
  • 13. Problem • “nextcloud” plugin repository is IPv4 only Solution (kind of) • disable plugin installation by customer
  • 14. Problem • Let’s encrypt now sends challenge on IPv6 Solution • reverse proxy on jail for challenges, going to host IPv6 Tried • run “dehydrated” in jail -> failed: “dehydrated” does not work on IPv6-only
  • 15. Problem • Some webdav clients fail because of SSL termination on host Solution (probably) • proxy to https on jail instead of http
  • 16. Outlook For "generic" webhosting we expect more challenges: • customers with IPv4-only need ssh access • code repositories (e.g. GitHub, RubyGems, ...) are IPv4-only • ...
  • 18. Thank you Further questions: hosting@punkt.de @punktdehosting https://www.facebook.com/punkt.deGmbH/