• A preposition is a word which shows relationships
among other words in the sentence. The
relationships may include direction, place, time,
cause, manner and amount.
• She went to the store - Direction
• He came by bus - Manner
• They will be here at three o'clock - Time
• It is under the table - Place
Preposition comes from Latin, a language in which such a word is
usually placed before its complement.
English is another such language.
Prepositions precede their complements. (Thus it is pre-positioned).
about, above, beneath, into, like – some common prepositions.
She drove to the store
The words of grammatical function come after, not before, the
complement. Such words are then commonly called postpositions.
Many head-final languages (E.g. Bengali, Korean, Tamil, Basque,
Turkish, and Japanese).
Among, for , to, with – some common postpositions.
Par, se, ko - some hindi postpositions
Three minutes before.
John received a generous offer few hours ago.
Kitaab mez par hai.
Main Hindustan se hun.
Postposition in Hindi
• Postpositions in Hindi are like prepositions in English
but they are placed after the noun.
- ped ghar ke peeche hain.
• The use of postpositions makes it possible to express the
cases in Hindi.
- larki ka kaam – genetive case
- larke ko de do - dative
- larki se – ablative
- larki mein - locative
Postposition in Bengali
Postpositions in Bengali are like prepositions in English but
they are placed behind the noun or pronoun. The noun or
pronoun is often in the possessive case.
- aapnar saamne (infront of you)
- babar kaache (near father)
- taar jonno fase gechi (stuck because of him)
Some people use “preposition“ instead of Adposition for all three
• The prepositional phrase consists of the preposition, its
object, and modifiers of the object.
• The object of the preposition is always a noun, pronoun,
or a group of words used as a noun.
• The coin fell between the cracks.
• They walked to their school.
Function of Prepositions
• Adjective modifying a noun – “Look at the boat with the
• Adverb modifying a verb – “The team won without the
• As nominal when used in conjunction with the verb
form to be – “The park is next to the hospital”.
Semantic properties of Prepositions
In semantic terms, the preposition functions to
illustrate a logical, temporal, or spatial relationship
between the object of the prepositional phrase and
the other components of the sentence.
• The dog is asleep on his bed.
In this example, the prepositional phrase on his
bed indicates a spatial relationship between the
subject dog and the object bed.
• The town hasn't been the same since the
In this sentence, the prepositional phrase since the
war indicates a temporal relationship between the verb
phrase hasn't been the same and the object war.
Use of Adpositional phrases
• Can modify sentences infinitely – important to
understand their form and function.
• Writers use prepositional phrases excessively,
creating an almost arousing effect in an attempt at