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  1. 1. Dr.Punita Adajania
  2. 2. WHAT IS YOGA? Yoga is a supreme harmonisation of physical, vital, mental, psychological and spiritual aspects of an individual.
  3. 3. • Yoga – “YUJ” means to Join – Yoga means to join individual (“Jivatma”) with supreme consciousness. – PATANJALI - “Father of Yoga”
  4. 4. HISTORY OF YOGA • Evidence that yoga was practiced as early as 5,000 years ago. • Primal drawings on walls of caves in the Indus Valley in Northern India.
  5. 5. AIM OF YOGA • The aim of Yoga is to bring balance into the body physically, mentally and emotionally. • By connecting to ourselves through the breath, we can bring our bodies from a state of turbulence to a place of health.
  6. 6. YOGA - IMPORTANCE • Yoga shows the pathway to self realization • Yoga is practical approach to achieving ultimate goal of life. • Yoga alleviates man’s sufferings • Yoga is a science of personality development
  7. 7. FORMS OF YOGA • Four basic forms of yoga:- • Karma yoga (right attitude towards work) • Jnana yoga (pursuing knowledge) • Bhakti yoga (devotion) • Raja yoga (mastering the mind)
  8. 8. BASIC ELEMENTS OF YOGA • Yama – disciplinary or moral restrains • Niyama- spiritual observances • Asana - movement and posture of the body for promotion of perfect health. To bring harmony in the body. • Pranayama- rhythmic breathing or regulation of breathing process (control of prana) • Pratyahara- withdrawal of mind from external objects.
  9. 9. • Dharna- concentration of mind on one object for a brief period (mental control) • Dhyana- meditation or concentration of mind on one object for a long period • Samadhi- attainment of supreme harmony between mind and body.
  10. 10. • These 8 elements are called ASTANGAS, which are the basic components of complete yoga are divided into two major stages: 1. External yoga or Bahiranga 2. Internal yoga or Antaranga
  11. 11. • Bahiranga or external yoga includes first five elements. • Yama, niyama, asana and pranaya are needed to attain the fifth element of Pratyahara. • Pratyahara is a phase of acquiring highest control of senses.
  12. 12. • Antaranga or internal yoga:- Also known as Raja yoga, it leads towards the achievement of the remaining three elements, namely, dharana, dhyana and samadhi. Samadhi is the final stage of supreme harmony, where the individual remains unmoved or still by any sort of physical and mental afflictions.
  13. 13. ASANA • Asana assist in acquiring physical control. • Each asana is a series of scientifically developed slow, rhythmic and graceful movements of various joints and muscles of the body aimed at attaining a definite posture as related to that particular asana. • Asana aims to acquire optimal physical conditioning with minimal efforts.
  14. 14. • This smooth and rythmic movement is not possible without perfect neuro-musculo-skeletal co- ordination and control.
  15. 15. PRANAYAMA • This is based on the methodology of breathing to achieve respiratory control. • A single yogic breath has 4 units:- 1. Puraka 2. Kumbhaka 3. Rechaka 4. Shunyaka
  16. 16. • PURAKA- related to inhalation of oxygen to the fullest capacity of lungs. • KUMBHAKA- refers to the steady state of holding air with full distension of lungs. • RECHAKA- refers to total exhalation of air emptying both lungs to the maximum. • SHUNYAKA- holding the state of void or vaccuum when air from the lungs is totally expelled.
  17. 17. • Yogic breathing carried out by this method tones up the intra-thoracic and intra- abdominal viscera and the total respiratory system. • Promotion of external functions: For optimal physical functioning, the flexibility of joints, muscular strength and endurance and neuro-muscular co-ordination are important.
  18. 18. • Toning up of these body systems through yoga asanas and pranayama improves the physiological functioning of all the systems and organs of the body. • Promotion of internal functions:- yoga provides efficiency in the functioning of central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.
  19. 19. • Improves the functioning of endocrine system. • Asanas and pranayama have a significant role to play in the prevention of disease and promotion of positive health.
  20. 20. THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF YOGA 1. HYPERTENSION- reduction of 10mm Hg of systolic blood pressure and reduction of diastolic blood pressure of 10-15mm Hg. The practice of shavasana also resulted in a significant reduction of hypertension. 2. EXERCISE TOLERANCE- patients of coronary artery disease (CAD) with stable angina showed improvement in exercise tolerance.
  21. 21. 3. BRONCHIAL ASTHMA- spontaneous reduction in the rate of breathing and reduction in the airway resistance was found. 4. DIABETES – adult-onset type diabetes, of less than 10 years duration responded favorably. 5. LOW BACKACHE- yoga showed favorable response in patients suffering from low back pain with improved functional capacity.
  22. 22. 6. Tachycardia, palpitation, nervousness, insomnia- Asana are very helpful in reducing these symptoms.
  23. 23. THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF PHYSIOTHERAPY • Improve strength, endurance and flexibility of the muscles. • Facilitate neuro-muscular co-ordination. • Restore function or to provide maximum functional independence. • Build up vicarious movements or trick movements to compensate for the permanent loss of movements.
  24. 24. • Facilitate neuro-muscular re-education. • Achieve cardio-pulmonary conditioning. • Improve body balance and gait. • Promote performance by improving physical fitness. • Prevent sports injuries by conditioning of an athelete. • Prepare for and facilitate child birth. • Relieve pain and inflammation and promote healing.
  25. 25. • Provide ergonomic advice. • Prevent post-surgical complications. • Promote physical fitness for overall positive health.
  26. 26. RATIONALE OF YOGA AND PHYSIOTHERAPY • Physiotherapy has its origin in yoga. • The basic postures of body known as fundamental or starting positions for initiating therapeutic exercises are same as starting postures or asanas in yoga. • For eg. Tadasana corresponding to standing, shavasana corresponding to supine lying, bhujangasana similar to hyper-extension stretch to spine.
  28. 28. • Paschimottasana corresponds to spinal stretch in flexion along with hamstrings stretch. • Pawan muktasana is similar to low back stretch or knee chest position. • Ardha halasana is similar to SLR. • Vriskshasana is similar to whole body stretch. • Gomukhasana is similar to shoulder stretch. • Naukasana is similar to stretching of the whole spine and legs in hyperextension.
  31. 31. YOGA AS APPLIED TO PHYSIOTHERAPY • Shavasana is ideal for total relaxation of the body after continuous exercise sessions. • Intermittent practice of meditation is ideal for better concentration of mind. • Integration of certain yoga postures facilitate movement control by reducing selective postures.
  32. 32. • Pranayama and other kriyas can be added to chest physiotherapy. • Modified asana postures can be effective in common musculoskeletal disorders.