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  2. 2. WHAT IS SOMATOTYPING? The Technique Of Somatotyping Is Used To Appraise Body Shape And Composition Somatotyping Is A System Of Classifying Body Types In Terms Of Three Categories: Endomorphy, Mesomorphy And Ectomorphy Three Somatotypes, Named After The Three Germ Layers Of Embryonic Development: The Endoderm(develops Into The Digestive Tract ), The Mesoderm , (Becomes Muscle, Heart And Blood Vessels), And The Ectoderm (Forms The Skin And Nervous System).
  3. 3. "SOMATOTYPES" AND THEIR SUPPOSED ASSOCIATED PHYSICAL TRAITS • Long and thin muscles/limbs and low fat storage ECTOMORPHIC MESOMORPHIC ENDOMORPHIC • medium bones, solid torso, low fat levels, wide shoulders with a narrow waist; usually referred to as “muscular” • increased fat storage, a wide waist and a large bone structure, usually referred to as “fat”
  5. 5. BODY COMPOSITION • Body composition refers to the relative proportion of lean body mass (LBM) and body fat mass (BFM) within the body. • LBM can further be subdivided into: muscle mass, body water, and bone mass. • These two approaches are commonly referred to as a two-compartment model (LBM and BFM) or a fourcompartment model (BFM, muscle mass, body water and bone mass) for assessing body composition.
  6. 6. BODY COMPOSITION The composition of a human body may be considered from different perspectives. ANATOMY MODEL CHEMICAL MODEL  The human anatomy model divides the body into the following systems: • muscular • skeletal • adipose tissue (body fat) • the others (inner organs, etc.)
  7. 7. • • • • • The chemical model consists of: Water glycogen fat storage proteins minerals (Ca, P, Mg, Cl, Fe, Cu, etc.)
  8. 8. Anthropometric Measurements Height Weight Skin fold thickness Body diameter Body circumference
  9. 9. THE ANTHROPOMETRIC SOMATOTYPE METHOD Equipment for anthropometry: • stadiometer or height scale and headboard • weighing scale • small sliding caliper • a flexible steel or fiberglass tape measure • a skinfold caliper
  10. 10. TEN ANTHROPOMETRIC DIMENSIONS NEEDED TO CALCULATE THE ANTHROPOMETRIC SOMATOTYPE • Stretch stature • Body mass • Four skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, supraspinale, medial calf) • Two bone breadths (biepicondylar humerus and femur) • Two limb girths (arm flexed and tensed, calf).
  12. 12. AGE • Many studies have documented an increase in body weight and percent body fat with increasing age. • For the majority of people, LBM decreases with age and body fat increases with age, even if body weight does not change.
  13. 13. GENDER • Women have a higher percentage of body fat than do men. • “Frisancho” NHANES • For individuals 25 to 54 years triceps skinfold thicknesses ranged from 11 to 15 mm for men and 19 to 30 mm for women depending on height and weight. • ranges for subscapular skinfold thicknesses were 13 to 18 mm for men and 12 to 29 mm for women.
  14. 14. RACE AND ETHNIC GROUP • Differences in body composition based on the socioeconomic status.
  15. 15. PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE • Studies conducted by Vogel and Friedl, and separately by Harman and Frykman suggested that excess weight diminishes running performance and that, conversely, lower body weight is associated with relatively better running performance. • Harman and Frykman smaller, lighter-weight individuals do well with tasks of muscular strength and endurance.
  16. 16. TRADITIONAL VS. NEW METHODS Traditional methods • • • • • Total body water Total body potassium Urinary creatinine excretion Densitometry Anthropometry: Bone measures , Skinfolds, Arm circumference
  17. 17. New methods  Neutron activation analysis • Total body calcium • Total body nitrogen  Muscle Metabolites • Total plasma creatinine • Endogenous urinary 3-methylhistidine excretion  Absorptiometry Single-photon absorptiometry Dual-photon absorptiometry
  18. 18. • Electrical conductance: Bioelectrical impedance Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC). • Computerized tomography • Subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness • Ultrasound • Infrared interactance • Magnetic resonance imaging • DEXA
  19. 19. Simple measurements or indices: • skinfold thickness • Body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight/ height2) • Waist circumference (WC)
  20. 20. Predictive techniques: • Skinfold thickness • Bioelectric impedance
  21. 21. BIOELECTRIC IMPEDANCE ANALYSIS • The principle on which BIA is based is that lean tissue conducts electricity better than does fat tissue. • Electrodes are placed on the arms and legs, and a low-level current is run through the individual. • Impedance resistance to the flow of electricity is measured, and the percent body fat is calculated by a formula.
  22. 22. TWO-COMPONENT TECHNIQUES AND MODELS DUAL ENERGY X RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY: • measure bone mineral mass • calculated from the differential absorption of x rays of two different energies • quick and acceptable for children down to about 4 years, and can also be used in small infants. • Typically used to diagnose and follow osteoporosis • Could be used to measure regional (limb) lean mass • Disadvantage: radiation exposure
  23. 23. DENSITOMETRY(BOD-POD) • The density of the body is measured by weighing the body in air and under water, with correction made for residual air in the lungs. • acceptable two-component technique. • Could provide longitudinal data on both lean and fat mass since its accuracy is less likely to be affected by changes in fatness. • Does not provide regional data.
  24. 24. SOMATOTYPE AND SPORTS TRIATHLETE • Triathletes are more muscular than runners but with less leg development than cyclists and less upper body development than swimmers. • Low body weight improves the power-to-weight ratio. HOCKEY • Short legs boost balance and stability, allowing players to pivot. • They also can prevent back injuries. • Speed and aerobic endurance are musts.
  25. 25. SWIMMERS • Long arms and legs act as levers, allowing swimmers to produce greater force in the water. • Big hands and feet propel the swimmer faster. DISTANCE RUNNER • Low body fat levels conserve energy because the runner carries less weight. • Muscles will ideally be slow twitch (or fatigue resistant), aiding endurance. SPRINTER • All over muscle and lower body fat levels give sprinters their explosive powers • Muscles must be fast twitch(they contract quickly). • Height does not matter, so long as stride length is efficient.
  26. 26. NETBALLER • For mid court players, powerful legs enable leaps to intercept high passes and sprint speed to chase the ball. • End court players are usually with long arms for shooting and defending. WEIGHT LIFTER • Short legs lower the weight lifters centre of gravity (CoG), improving stability. • Short arms reduce the arc through which the weight must be lifted.
  27. 27. GYMNAST • Long limbs in relation to the body boost the gymnasts powerto-ratio. • Low body fat results in better muscle definition. • Broad shoulders and narrow hips promote maximum upper body strength.
  28. 28. REFERENCES • Body Composition and Physical Performance, Marriott, Bernadette M. • The Heath-carter Anthropometric Somatotype, J.E.L. Carter • Measuring body composition, C K Wells, M S Fewtrell, Arch Dis Child 2006;91:612–617. • Methods for the assessment of human body composition: traditional and new, Henry C Lukaski, Am J Clin Nutrition 1987;46:537-56 • Body organization and composition.