Pom 1

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Pom 1

  1. 1. Module: 1
  2. 2. TYPES OF PRODUCTION PROCESSES Projects Batch Production Mass Production Continuous Production
  3. 3. PROJECTS Project is the one-of-a-kind production of a product to customer order. Involve large sums of money & last a considerable length of time. Production process as well as final product are basically designed new for each customer order.
  4. 4. BATCH PRODUCTION Batch production systems process many different jobs through the system in groups or batches. It is characterized by fluctuating demand, short production runs of a wide variety of products, & small to moderate quantities of any given product made to customer order. It is also known as job shops.
  5. 5. MASS PRODUCTION It produces large volumes of a standard product for a mass market. It is also known as repetitive production and used by producers who need to create more standardized products in larger quantities than batch production can economically handle It is usually associated with flow lines or assembly lines.
  6. 6. CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION It is used for very high level of commodity products that are very standardized. The system is highly automated.
  7. 7. FACILITY LAYOUT
  8. 8. FACTORS INFLUENCING LAYOUT Product Volume of Production Type of machinery Type of industry Flexibility Materials Location of plant Employees Management policies
  9. 9. TYPES OF PLANT LAYOUT Process Layout Product Layout Combined Layout Cellular Layout Fixed position Layout Service Layout
  10. 10. PRODUCT LAYOUT Layout that uses standardized processing operations to achieve smooth, rapid, high-volume flow Product layout unique characteristics are: • Resources are specialized • Facilities are capital intensive • Processing rates are faster • Material handling costs are lower • Space requirements for inventory storage are lower • Flexibility is low relative to the market
  11. 11. EXAMPLE OF PRODUCT LAYOUTRacks containing Racks containing Racks containing headlight sub- tail-light sub- steering wheel assembly assembly sub-assemblyWorkstation: 1 Workstation: 2 Workstation: 3 Car 1 Car 2 Car 3
  12. 12. ADVANTAGES OF PRODUCT LAYOUT High rate of output Low unit cost Labor specialization Low material handling cost High utilization of labor and equipment Established routing and scheduling
  13. 13. DISADVANTAGES OF PRODUCT LAYOUT Creates dull, repetitive jobs Poorly skilled workers may not maintain equipment or quality of output Fairly inflexible to changes in volume Highly susceptible to shutdowns Needs preventive maintenance Expensive layout
  14. 14. PROCESS LAYOUT Layout that uses standardized processing operations to achieve smooth, rapid, high-volume flow Product layout unique characteristics are: • Resources are specialized • Facilities are capital intensive • Processing rates are faster • Material handling costs are lower • Space requirements for inventory storage are lower • Flexibility is low relative to the market
  15. 15. PROCESS LAYOUT Process Layout (functional)Raw Material Store Turning Shop Electro platting shop(B) (D) (C) Paint ShopDrilling m/c Office (A)(E) (G) Welding Shop (F)Heat Treatment Final Assembly Dispatch of FGArea (H) (I) (J) Used for Intermittent processing Job Shop or Batch Processes
  16. 16. ADVANTAGES Can handle a variety of processing requirements Not particularly vulnerable to equipment failures Equipments are less costly Possible to use individual incentive plans
  17. 17. DISADVANTAGES In-process inventory costs can be high Challenging routing and scheduling Equipment utilization rates are low Material handling slow and inefficient Special attention for each product or customer Accounting and purchasing are more involved
  18. 18. HYBRID (COMBINED) LAYOUT Combine elements of both product & process layouts Maintain some of the efficiencies of product layouts Maintain some of the flexibility of process layouts Types  Cellular Layout  Flexible Manufacturing System
  19. 19. CELLULAR LAYOUT
  20. 20. FIXED POSITION LAYOUT Layout in which the product or project remains stationary, and workers, materials, and equipment are moved as needed
  21. 21. SERVICE LAYOUT For Service industry Generally layout need to be adjusted nearby customer where interaction with customers is convenient

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