RESPIRATION
HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT
1) NOSTRILS
2) NASAL
CAVITIES
3) PHARYNX
4) LARYN...
LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT
CONDUCTING ZONE RESPIRATORY ZONE
1) THICKER WALL 1) THINNER WALL
2) LARGER DIAMETER 2) SMALLER DIA...
RESPIRATORY OR BRONCHIAL TREE
INFUNDIBULUM
• Atria are
also called
infundibulum.
ALVEOLI
• The number of alveoli present in each lung is 300
million.
• An average diameter of each alveolus is 0.2mm.
• Th...
LUNGS
LEFT LUNG
1) Smaller
2) Weighing 550 grams
3) Divided into two lobes namely
superior & inferior by an oblique
fissur...
PLEURA
• Lungs are surrounded by two pleural membranes. They
are
● Inner visceral/pulmonary
● Outer parietal
PLEURISY
• It is the painful infection involving inflammation of
pleura and overproduction of pleural fluid.
RESPIRATORY MECHANISMS
CELL SURFACE RESPIRATION
• It is the direct exchange of gases between cells and the
environment.
Example; Sponges, coelent...
CUTANEOUS RESPIRATION
• Skin functions as respiratory surface Example;
Earthworm, leech and frog
TRACHEAL RESPIRATION
• This system consists of network of white shining tubes
called tracheae. Tracheae communicate to the...
BRANCHIAL/GILL RESPIRATION
• It is the exchange of gases with the help of gills. They
occur in aquatic animals.
• There ar...
PULMONARY RESPIRATION
• It occurs with the help of lungs and
respiratory tract
• Examples; All land vertebrates
including ...
PULMONARY SAC RESPIRATION
• It is seen in molluscs.
• Here the mantle or glandular membrane of molluscs is
modified in man...
BUCCOPHARYNGEAL RESPIRATION
• It is seen in frog and some related animals where the
buccopharyngeal surface functions as r...
CLOACAL RESPIRATION
• It is seen in some turtles.
• Some turtles, especially those specialized in diving,
are highly relia...
SURFACTANT
• The walls of the alveoli are extremely thin, being composed
primarily of a single layer of squamous epithelia...
SURFACTANT
Dust cells
EUSTACHIAN TUBES
• They are also known as auditory tubes and
pharyngotympanic tubes
• This tube connect the pharynx with t...
CHOANAE
• They are the internal nostrils or nares
• During swallowing of food, it is closed by Uvula.
GUARDIAN OF AIRWAYS
• Epiglottis
is called
guardian of
airways
NASAL CHAMBER
• Nasal chamber is differentiated into three regions
namely vestibular, respiratory and olfactory parts.
● V...
BRONCHIAL TREE
• The bronchial tree divides 23 times.
• The first 16 generations form the conducting zone.
It includes bro...
PHRENIC MUSCLES
• The muscles of diaphragm are called phrenic muscles.
THE TONSILS
• The tonsils are the 2 oval masses of lymphoid tissue
lying in the side walls of the oral pharynx. The tonsil...
CARTILAGES OF LARYNX
• The wall of larynx is supported by 9 pieces of cartilages.
● 3 of them are unpaired and 3 of them a...
PRESSURES INVOLVED IN
BREATHING
Atmospheric
pressure
It is the pressure
exerted by
surrounding air on
the body.
It is 760 ...
RESPIROMETER OR SPIROMETER
• It is a device to measure the amount of air exchanged
during breathing. Its recording is call...
SPIROMETER
• The instrument used in
measuring and recording
the volume of air exchanged
during breathing is called
spirome...
BREATHING RATE
▪ Normal breathing rate in a new-born baby is 32/ minute.
▪ In a child of 6 years of age , it is about 26/m...
RESPIRATORY VOLUMES
• Tidal volume: - It is the amount of air move in
and out of lungs during normal breathing. It is
appr...
RESPIRATORY VOLUMES
• Vital capacity: - It is the maximum amount of
air a person can move in and out of his lungs.
It is e...
RESPIRATORY VOLUMES
• Tidal volume; 500mL
• Inspiratory reserve volume (Inspiratory capacity); 3000-
3500ml
• Expiratory r...
TIDAL VOLUME
• It is 500ml
• It consists of 150ml of dead space volume and 350 ml of
alveolar volume
CARRYING CAPACITY OF BLOOD
• 20ml of oxygen and 3-7ml of CO2/100 ml of blood
OXYGEN CARRYING CAPACITY OF
HAEMOGLOBIN
• There is about 15gm of haemoglobin in 100 ml of blood,
which can transport about...
RESPIRATORY MINUTE VOLUME
(RMV)
• It is the product of tidal volume and normal breathing
rate per minute i.e. 500 x 12 =60...
RESPIRATORY VOLUMES;
• Functional residual capacity; It is sum total of ERV+
residual volume i.e. 1200+1200= 2400
• Total ...
ANATOMICAL DEAD SPACE AIR
• It is the volume of air, present in the conducting zone of
human respiratory system.
• It is n...
RESPIRATORY CYCLE
• A respiratory cycle includes one inspiration and one
expiration
• An average period taken by one respi...
INSPIRATION
EXPIRATION
PHONATION
• It is the production of sound. It is the non-respiratory
function of larynx
MOUNTAIN SICKNESS
• When a person living on plains ascends and stays on a
mountain about 8000 feet from sea level, he deve...
MECHANISM OF RESPIRATION
• External respiration
• Transport of gases by blood
● Transport of CO2
• In the form of carbonic...
AIR-BLOOD BARRIER
• The alveolar-capillary membrane acts as the air-blood
barrier. This is due to the membrane with air on...
LUDWIG (1872);
• He described gaseous exchange in blood.
CHRISTIAN BOHR (1904)
• He put forth Bohr’s effect in 1909
• According to this” the affinity of haemoglobin to O2
reduces ...
HALDANE EFFECT
• Carbaminohaemoglobin is produced more readily when
the haemoglobin is deoxygenated. Therefore binding of
...
ROSE FEVER
• Hay fever is even known by the name rose fever or
Rhinitis or Pollenosis.
EMPHYSEMA
▪ It is one of the diseases along with bronchitis and asthma,
coming under COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary
d...
BARREL CHEST
• Emphysema and smoke inhalation makes the lungs to
loose their elasticity. The lungs become permanently
infl...
BIOPSY
• It is a technique of detecting abnormal malignant cells in
a tissue.
METASTASIS
• It is a state in which malignant tumour cells move from
the site of formation to other parts through transpor...
HYPOXIA
• Reduced supply of oxygen to the tissues.
• Types of hypoxia;
● Hypoxic hypoxia; It is a state where PO2 of the a...
ANOXIA
• An absence of oxygen supply to the tissues is known as
anoxia
HYPERCAPNIA
• Increased concentration of CO2 in blood is known as
hypercapnia
APNOEA
• The complete cessation of breathing is known as apnoea
DYSPNOEA
• The forceful breathing (i.e. difficulty in breathing) is
known as dyspnoea.
EUPNOEA
• It is the process of normal breathing
HYPOPNOEA
• Slower breathing rate
HYPERPNOEA
• Rapid i.e. increased breathing caused by emotions,
exercise etc.
ASPHIXIA (BREATHING ARREST)
• Paralysis of respiratory centre due to excessive CO2.
• It is commonly due to irreversible c...
EPISTAXIS
• Nose bleeding
• It may be due to scratching of nasal membranes or
hypertension.
BOOK LUNG
• It is a terrestrial respiratory organ similar to the purse
with a number of compartments.
• It occurs in spide...
BOOK GILL
• It is an aquatic respiratory organ found in Limulus. It
consists of a number of leaf-like structures , between...
THE LYMPH
• The lymph flows in lymphatic vessels very slowly. Only
about 10-20 liters of lymph passes into the blood in a
...
HICCOUGH (HICCUP)
• Inspiratory spasm caused by sudden contraction of
diaphragm accompanied by loud closure of glottis.
PHARYNGITIS
• Inflammation of pharynx.
LARYNGITIS
• Inflammation of larynx.
SNEEZING
• An involuntary, sudden, violent and audible expulsion of
air through mouth and nose.
YAWNING
• A deep involuntary inspiration with mouth open, often
accompanied by act of stretching.
SARS
• It is a killer typical pneumonia called “SEVERE ACUTE
RESPIRATORY SYNDROME”.
• It is caused by a variant of common ...
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  1. 1. RESPIRATION
  2. 2. HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT 1) NOSTRILS 2) NASAL CAVITIES 3) PHARYNX 4) LARYNX CONDUCTING ZONE RESPIRATORY ZONE 1) TRACHEA 2) PRIMARY BRONCHI 3) SECONDARY BRONCHI 4) TRETIARY BRONCHI 5) BRONCHIOLES 6) TERMINAL BRONCHIOLE 1) RESPIRATORY BRONCHIOLES 2) ALVEOLI
  3. 3. LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT CONDUCTING ZONE RESPIRATORY ZONE 1) THICKER WALL 1) THINNER WALL 2) LARGER DIAMETER 2) SMALLER DIAMETER 3) SMOOTH MUSCLES IN WALLS 3) ABSENT 4) TOTAL AREA OCCUPIED 4) MORE WITHIN THE LUNG IS LESS 5) VELOCITY OF AIR MOVEMENT* 5) SLOW IS FASTER
  4. 4. RESPIRATORY OR BRONCHIAL TREE
  5. 5. INFUNDIBULUM • Atria are also called infundibulum.
  6. 6. ALVEOLI • The number of alveoli present in each lung is 300 million. • An average diameter of each alveolus is 0.2mm. • The alveoli of both lungs provide a combined surface area of 80 sq.meters. • The trachea undergoes 23 levels of branching to produce the bronchial tree or respiratory tree.
  7. 7. LUNGS LEFT LUNG 1) Smaller 2) Weighing 550 grams 3) Divided into two lobes namely superior & inferior by an oblique fissure 4) Has a cardiac notch to accommodate the tip of the heart RIGHT LUNG 1) Larger 2) Weighing 650 grams 3) Divided into three lobes namely superior, middle & inferior lobes by oblique and horizontal fissures 4) It is absent
  8. 8. PLEURA • Lungs are surrounded by two pleural membranes. They are ● Inner visceral/pulmonary ● Outer parietal
  9. 9. PLEURISY • It is the painful infection involving inflammation of pleura and overproduction of pleural fluid.
  10. 10. RESPIRATORY MECHANISMS
  11. 11. CELL SURFACE RESPIRATION • It is the direct exchange of gases between cells and the environment. Example; Sponges, coelenterates and protistans
  12. 12. CUTANEOUS RESPIRATION • Skin functions as respiratory surface Example; Earthworm, leech and frog
  13. 13. TRACHEAL RESPIRATION • This system consists of network of white shining tubes called tracheae. Tracheae communicate to the outside through lateral holes called spiracles or stigmata. It occurs in insects and myriapods.
  14. 14. BRANCHIAL/GILL RESPIRATION • It is the exchange of gases with the help of gills. They occur in aquatic animals. • There are two kinds of gills ● External ● Internal
  15. 15. PULMONARY RESPIRATION • It occurs with the help of lungs and respiratory tract • Examples; All land vertebrates including birds and mammals. (Even whale)
  16. 16. PULMONARY SAC RESPIRATION • It is seen in molluscs. • Here the mantle or glandular membrane of molluscs is modified in many cases to function as respiratory sac or pulmonary sac.
  17. 17. BUCCOPHARYNGEAL RESPIRATION • It is seen in frog and some related animals where the buccopharyngeal surface functions as respiratory surface.
  18. 18. CLOACAL RESPIRATION • It is seen in some turtles. • Some turtles, especially those specialized in diving, are highly reliant on cloacal respiration during dives. They accomplish this by having a pair of accessory air bladders connected to the cloaca, which can absorb oxygen from the water. • In zoological anatomy, a cloaca is the posterior opening that serves as the only such opening for the intestinal, urinary, and genital tracts of certain animal species. The word comes from Latin, and means "sewer". All birds, reptiles, and amphibians possess this orifice, by which they simultaneously evacuate both urine and feces
  19. 19. SURFACTANT • The walls of the alveoli are extremely thin, being composed primarily of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells called type I cells. Scattered among them are cuboidal cells called type II cells or Septal cells or surfactant cells. In addition to these cells, there are roaming phagocytic cells called alveolar macrophages or dust cells. They are involved in defence. • These type II cells secrete a fluid called surfactant. • It forms a coating to the inner surface of an alveolus. • It lowers the surface tension of alveoli. If the surface tension is not kept low, the alveoli become smaller during expiration and collapses.
  20. 20. SURFACTANT Dust cells
  21. 21. EUSTACHIAN TUBES • They are also known as auditory tubes and pharyngotympanic tubes • This tube connect the pharynx with the cavity of the middle ear.
  22. 22. CHOANAE • They are the internal nostrils or nares • During swallowing of food, it is closed by Uvula.
  23. 23. GUARDIAN OF AIRWAYS • Epiglottis is called guardian of airways
  24. 24. NASAL CHAMBER • Nasal chamber is differentiated into three regions namely vestibular, respiratory and olfactory parts. ● Vestibular part; It is the anterior most region, lined by pseudostratified ciliated epithelium, meant for filtration. ● Respiratory tract; It is the middle region, lined by glandular and vascular epithelium, meant for warming up of air. ● Olfactory part; It is the posterior region, lined by sensory epithelium, meant for olfaction.
  25. 25. BRONCHIAL TREE • The bronchial tree divides 23 times. • The first 16 generations form the conducting zone. It includes bronchi, bronchioles and terminal bronchioles. • The remaining 7 generations form the transitional and respiratory zones. They are made up of respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveoli.
  26. 26. PHRENIC MUSCLES • The muscles of diaphragm are called phrenic muscles.
  27. 27. THE TONSILS • The tonsils are the 2 oval masses of lymphoid tissue lying in the side walls of the oral pharynx. The tonsils forms part of a ring of lymphoid tissue guarding the alimentary and respiratory tracts against bacteria.
  28. 28. CARTILAGES OF LARYNX • The wall of larynx is supported by 9 pieces of cartilages. ● 3 of them are unpaired and 3 of them are paired. ● The three unpaired pieces are thyroid cartilage (Adams apple), epiglottic cartilage (epiglottis) and cricoid cartilage. ● Paired ones are the arytenoids, corniculate and cuneiform cartilages.
  29. 29. PRESSURES INVOLVED IN BREATHING Atmospheric pressure It is the pressure exerted by surrounding air on the body. It is 760 mm Hg. It is a positive pressure. Intrapulmonary pressure It is the pressure exerted within the lung. It is 760 mm Hg. It is a positive pressure. Intrapleural pressure It is the pressure exerted within the pleural space. It is 756 mm Hg. It is a negative pressure.
  30. 30. RESPIROMETER OR SPIROMETER • It is a device to measure the amount of air exchanged during breathing. Its recording is called a “spirogram”. • Spirometer is also called pulmometer. • Measurement of lung capacity with the help of spirometer is called spirometry.
  31. 31. SPIROMETER • The instrument used in measuring and recording the volume of air exchanged during breathing is called spirometer or respirometer.
  32. 32. BREATHING RATE ▪ Normal breathing rate in a new-born baby is 32/ minute. ▪ In a child of 6 years of age , it is about 26/minute. ▪ It is 12-15/minute in a man of 25-30 years of age. ▪ It is 18/minute in a man of 50 years of age.
  33. 33. RESPIRATORY VOLUMES • Tidal volume: - It is the amount of air move in and out of lungs during normal breathing. It is approximately 500 ml of air for an average person. • Inspiratory reserve volume: - It is the amount of air inspired forcefully over and above the tidal volume. It is about 3000ml for a normal person. • Expiratory reserve volume: - It is the amount of air that can be forcefully expired over and above the tidal volume. It is about 1200 ml on the average.
  34. 34. RESPIRATORY VOLUMES • Vital capacity: - It is the maximum amount of air a person can move in and out of his lungs. It is equivalent to the sum of the tidal volume + inspiratory and expiratory reserve volumes. The vital capacity of an average person is about 4500-5500 ml. • Residual volume: - Even after a maximum expiration about 1200 ml of air remains in the lungs. This is known as the residual volume.
  35. 35. RESPIRATORY VOLUMES • Tidal volume; 500mL • Inspiratory reserve volume (Inspiratory capacity); 3000- 3500ml • Expiratory reserve volume; 1200ml • Vital capacity; 4500-5500ml (TV+IRV+ERV=500+3000+1200= 4700ml) • Residual volume; 1200ml
  36. 36. TIDAL VOLUME • It is 500ml • It consists of 150ml of dead space volume and 350 ml of alveolar volume
  37. 37. CARRYING CAPACITY OF BLOOD • 20ml of oxygen and 3-7ml of CO2/100 ml of blood
  38. 38. OXYGEN CARRYING CAPACITY OF HAEMOGLOBIN • There is about 15gm of haemoglobin in 100 ml of blood, which can transport about 20 ml of oxygen.
  39. 39. RESPIRATORY MINUTE VOLUME (RMV) • It is the product of tidal volume and normal breathing rate per minute i.e. 500 x 12 =6000ml/minute
  40. 40. RESPIRATORY VOLUMES; • Functional residual capacity; It is sum total of ERV+ residual volume i.e. 1200+1200= 2400 • Total lung capacity; Maximum amount of air the lungs can hold after forceful inspiration. It is 6000ml. It is the sum of IRV+ERV+TV+RV
  41. 41. ANATOMICAL DEAD SPACE AIR • It is the volume of air, present in the conducting zone of human respiratory system. • It is not used for exchange of gases • It is 150 ml
  42. 42. RESPIRATORY CYCLE • A respiratory cycle includes one inspiration and one expiration • An average period taken by one respiratory cycle is 5 seconds • Out of 5 seconds, 2 seconds are for inspiration and 3 seconds for expiration. It is calculated by multiplying tidal volume and respiratory rate per minute. (500ml x 12= 6000ml/minute)
  43. 43. INSPIRATION
  44. 44. EXPIRATION
  45. 45. PHONATION • It is the production of sound. It is the non-respiratory function of larynx
  46. 46. MOUNTAIN SICKNESS • When a person living on plains ascends and stays on a mountain about 8000 feet from sea level, he develops mountain sickness. Its symptoms are nausea, headache, breathlessness, dizziness, mental fatigue and a bluish tinge on skin, nails and lips. • Rate of breathing increases with altitude. Hill people have more RBC’s.
  47. 47. MECHANISM OF RESPIRATION • External respiration • Transport of gases by blood ● Transport of CO2 • In the form of carbonic acid • In the form of ions and bicarbonates • In the form of carbaminohaemoglobin ● Transport of O2 • As solution in plasma • Through RBC as oxyhaemoglobin • Internal respiration and cellular oxidation
  48. 48. AIR-BLOOD BARRIER • The alveolar-capillary membrane acts as the air-blood barrier. This is due to the membrane with air on the alveolar side and blood on the capillary side
  49. 49. LUDWIG (1872); • He described gaseous exchange in blood.
  50. 50. CHRISTIAN BOHR (1904) • He put forth Bohr’s effect in 1909 • According to this” the affinity of haemoglobin to O2 reduces with increased concentration of CO2”
  51. 51. HALDANE EFFECT • Carbaminohaemoglobin is produced more readily when the haemoglobin is deoxygenated. Therefore binding of O2 to Hb reduces its affinity for CO2. This effect is called Haldane effect.
  52. 52. ROSE FEVER • Hay fever is even known by the name rose fever or Rhinitis or Pollenosis.
  53. 53. EMPHYSEMA ▪ It is one of the diseases along with bronchitis and asthma, coming under COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases). ▪ The meaning of emphysema is fully blown out. ▪ It is a disorder of the pulmonary system characterized by destructive changes of alveolar walls resulting in loss of lung elasticity and reduces the ventilation of alveoli.
  54. 54. BARREL CHEST • Emphysema and smoke inhalation makes the lungs to loose their elasticity. The lungs become permanently inflated. To adjust to the increased lung size, size of thoracic cavity also increases. This condition is called as Barrel chest.
  55. 55. BIOPSY • It is a technique of detecting abnormal malignant cells in a tissue.
  56. 56. METASTASIS • It is a state in which malignant tumour cells move from the site of formation to other parts through transport system (blood and lymph)
  57. 57. HYPOXIA • Reduced supply of oxygen to the tissues. • Types of hypoxia; ● Hypoxic hypoxia; It is a state where PO2 of the arterial blood is extremely low. ● Anemic hypoxia; It is a state where the arterial PO2 is normal but the amount of haemoglobin available to carry O2 is reduced. ● Stagnant or Ischemic hypoxia; It is a state where the blood flow to a tissue is so low, that adequate O2 is not delivered to it inspite of normal PO2 and haemoglobin concentration. ● Histotoxic hypoxia; It is a state where the amount of O2 delivered to a tissue is adequate but because of the action of toxic agents, cells cannot make use of the O2. Cyanide poisoning leads to histotoxic hypoxia, as the poison blocks electron transport chain.
  58. 58. ANOXIA • An absence of oxygen supply to the tissues is known as anoxia
  59. 59. HYPERCAPNIA • Increased concentration of CO2 in blood is known as hypercapnia
  60. 60. APNOEA • The complete cessation of breathing is known as apnoea
  61. 61. DYSPNOEA • The forceful breathing (i.e. difficulty in breathing) is known as dyspnoea.
  62. 62. EUPNOEA • It is the process of normal breathing
  63. 63. HYPOPNOEA • Slower breathing rate
  64. 64. HYPERPNOEA • Rapid i.e. increased breathing caused by emotions, exercise etc.
  65. 65. ASPHIXIA (BREATHING ARREST) • Paralysis of respiratory centre due to excessive CO2. • It is commonly due to irreversible combination of CO with haemoglobin to form carboxyhaemoglobin. It results in death. • It is common in closed rooms with coal burning, kerosine lamp etc.
  66. 66. EPISTAXIS • Nose bleeding • It may be due to scratching of nasal membranes or hypertension.
  67. 67. BOOK LUNG • It is a terrestrial respiratory organ similar to the purse with a number of compartments. • It occurs in spiders and scorpions
  68. 68. BOOK GILL • It is an aquatic respiratory organ found in Limulus. It consists of a number of leaf-like structures , between which water circulates.
  69. 69. THE LYMPH • The lymph flows in lymphatic vessels very slowly. Only about 10-20 liters of lymph passes into the blood in a day.
  70. 70. HICCOUGH (HICCUP) • Inspiratory spasm caused by sudden contraction of diaphragm accompanied by loud closure of glottis.
  71. 71. PHARYNGITIS • Inflammation of pharynx.
  72. 72. LARYNGITIS • Inflammation of larynx.
  73. 73. SNEEZING • An involuntary, sudden, violent and audible expulsion of air through mouth and nose.
  74. 74. YAWNING • A deep involuntary inspiration with mouth open, often accompanied by act of stretching.
  75. 75. SARS • It is a killer typical pneumonia called “SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME”. • It is caused by a variant of common cold Corona virus.

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