Political Economy


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Political Economy

  1. 1. Politicaleconomy …
  2. 2. Political economy ?
  3. 3. Politicaleconomy
  4. 4. The birth• First - France in 1615 with the well known book by Antoine de Montchrétien: Traité de l’economie politique.• French physiocrats, Adam Smith, David Ricardo and German philosopher and social theorist Karl Marx were some of the exponents of political economy.• Now a specialised subject of study in colleges
  5. 5. The present state of political economy…• No more a synonym for economics• Different dimensions• Marxian analysis• Economists’ advice to a polity or public• Vast Literature discourse led to change in the meaning• From model of economic policy• To examining how political forces affect the choice of policies• political economy refers to different, but related, approaches to studying economic and political behaviours,
  6. 6. The basic idea..• interdisciplinary studies drawing upon economics, law, and political science• explaining how political institutions, the political environment, and the economic system—capitalist, socialist, mixed—influence each other• Each discipline has their own approach of relating their subject to p.e
  7. 7. Political economy and the internet
  8. 8. Music, videos, games, info,One man chatting, The golden social weaponarmy networking, etc etc etc and lots
  9. 9. The intro…• A computer with internet ( which involves a lot of other equipment like the telephone connection, the mode, software, etc.) has become a necessity.• Millions of us are investing in what could be the largest media transformation• A new form of convergence of social interactions into digital format on the internet• Let us attempt to understand this transformation in the way we communicate first……..
  10. 10. • The decision makers and their role• attempt to make us believe these new forms of communications- our own interest• They are sub-consciously (or consciously) being driven by a ‘systematic momentum’• Our duty to keep a check on this phenomenon to avoid a creation of society functioning as a solely consumerist and economic.
  11. 11. Political economy ofcommunication….. (A simplified version of Vincent Mosco’s ideas• Analyse the forces of it) that shape our communication patterns• Understand the p.e of I.C by attempting to uncover the realities of the current situation• The players, the players, their activities and environments, and their motives and effects• Tries to understand social processes rather than institutions
  12. 12. Mosco’s 3 entry points• 1 COMMODIFICATION• 2 SPATIALIZATION• 3 STRUCTURATION
  13. 13. Political economy of the internet…• "Digitization reinforces a social process in which the production and distribution of information evolves into the most important economic activity in a society, in which information technology begins to function as the Key infrastructure for all industrial production and service provision, and in which information itself becomes a commodity tradable on a global scale." -Hamelink
  14. 14. Contd……• Computing technology in workplaces• No need of physical analogue (news ppr, cd etc.)• Can remain in digital bits• They just need a means to send it from producer’s computer to recepient’s computer• Thus the internet in I.C plays an important role
  15. 15. The digital age – the age of convergence• The merging functions of diff media• telecommunications, media and computing industries – overlapping activities• according to McChesney and Herman This convergence is important in two ways• 1. the size and growth of the merging global info- communications sector• 2. the uncertainty in the markets caused by this convergence
  16. 16. Increase in the number of people online• Today internet is the mother of all mediums• You develop its economic potential- you get rewards, you don’t- you’ll end up in oblivion• Competition a major force towards the internet for companies• Hype created by mass media• Internet is important to their corporate customers and interesting to their audiences• Govt promotes it out of the fear of the fall of their economy due to dearth of their infra- structure• Today plenty of people mke their online presence felt which have affected many aspects of our lives
  17. 17. Microsoft and monopoly• an industry giant extending its base• Has monopolized the market• Initially started s an MS dos os provider, today comprises a variety of software apps• The Netscape controversy• US Department of Justice and 13 states have filed anti-trust suits against Microsoft, charging it with uncompetitive practices• controls the software that in turn controls attention,
  18. 18. Governments and the Global Information Infrastructure (GII)leading to national• Internet is global, thus governments heavily involved in the formation of a new Global Information Infrastructure (GII), based on the Internet.• Fall of soviet union – dominant economic idea – free market capitalism• The W.T.O and I.M.F• Al Gore, the U.S. Vice-President, has been one of the biggest promoters of the GII• U.S and European domintion in these forums causing disparities in the flow of revenue.
  19. 19. The commercialized net• The death of Acceptable Use Policy• Commercial sites largest category of computer permanently linked to the Internet.• Every website has some commercial value to it• Real estates, transactions, shopping, are all moving to the virtual world
  20. 20. Advertising on the internet• Target audience attention• Which site or portal has the most hits- attention economy• Search sites – ads picked on the basis of typed words• Their research – invasion of our privacy• The cookies• many different forms of advertising, sub- liminal and direct
  21. 21. Pornography and censorship• a major conduit for digital pornography• All the hype has died• Culture gaps cannot be bridged• Software• Some govt involvement• Parental control options• Electronic privacy informtion center
  22. 22. Security and privacy• Fear of hackers a hinderance to e commerce• Access to our info by researchers for advertising• Cloud computing ??• Cookies• Photographs on net• Search engines – trackers of user info
  23. 23. lifestyle• Virtual communities• Work life vs. home life barriers breached• Structural barriers broken• Change in communication patterns• Speed gen v/s lazy gen• The download culture• disconnect
  24. 24. Some other forms of political economy….• (result of discussions of the topic with my kashmiri roommate zahoor-2 yr history student)• Historians – Taj mahal ….• Literature- sale of art• History/education/journalism- nalanda• Technology- the issue of tablets to I.I.T students• Storytellers – films and visual arts