ICT & Digital Divide by John Jacob


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ICT & Digital Divide by John Jacob

  1. 1. ICT & DIGITAL DIVIDE John Jacob II - M.A. Mass Communication Department of Electronic Media & Mass Communication Submitted to: M. Shuaib Mohamed Haneef Assistant Professor
  2. 2. Defining the ICT <ul><li>Information And Communication(s) Technology stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications, computers, middleware as well as necessary software, storage and audio-visual systems, which enable users to create, access, store, transmit, and manipulate information. </li></ul><ul><li>The expression was first used in 1997 in a report by Dennis Stevenson to the United Kingdom government and Promoted by the new national Curriculum documents for the UK 2000. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Defining the digital divide <ul><li>The term digital divide refers to the increasing access gap between those who have and those who do not have: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>access to information and communication technologies; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>access to content that benefits them socially and economically; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>skills to take advantage of ICT services; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the ability to afford to pay for digital services. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Debate on the priority of ICTs for development – against <ul><li>Critics argue: </li></ul><ul><li>ICTs are a waste of money </li></ul><ul><li>Funding should be directed to more important areas of impact and real need </li></ul><ul><li>There is the risk of disillusionment </li></ul><ul><li>ICTs will not necessarily provide benefits and may infact open people up to new forms of harm </li></ul>
  5. 5. Debate on the priority of ICTs for development – pro <ul><li>Supporters argue: </li></ul><ul><li>The digital divide will become perilously wider if ICTs are not promoted </li></ul><ul><li>ICTs can support other social and economic goals to improve peoples lives </li></ul><ul><li>Access to ICTs and participation in the Information Society will have far reaching benefits </li></ul>
  6. 6. United Nations Millennium Development Goals <ul><li>Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development. </li></ul><ul><li>Target 18: In cooperation with the private sector make available the benefits of new technologies, specifically information and communications. </li></ul><ul><li>Indicator 47: Telephone lines and cellular subscribers per 100 population. </li></ul><ul><li>Indicator 48: Personal computers in use per 100 population and Internet users per 100 population. </li></ul>
  7. 7. ICTs and development goals (education & health) <ul><li>ICTs as a subject: information literacy, programming and other related skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Computer - based training and distance education </li></ul><ul><li>Access to learning communities </li></ul><ul><li>Access to increased and up-to-date information </li></ul><ul><li>Telemedicine: broadband applications – from health clinic to hospital </li></ul><ul><li>Telehealth: phone and computer support for clinic management and information flows </li></ul><ul><li>Information sharing: information and exchange on health priorities, e.g. HIV / AIDS, TB, cholera </li></ul><ul><li>Epidemiology: statistics and information to support knowledge and disease management </li></ul>
  8. 8. ICTs and development goals (SMMEs & governance) <ul><li>ICTs can support routine business operations: accounts, letters, plans </li></ul><ul><li>ICTs can be an opportunity themselves: training, support, sale, program, web </li></ul><ul><li>Linking suppliers directly to markets: reducing role of intermediaries </li></ul><ul><li>Info for tenders, linking SMMEs, support & funding, supply and sales chain </li></ul><ul><li>E-Commerce opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Access to government information, services and processes </li></ul><ul><li>Transparency of governance </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation of corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Access to representatives: constituents direct link to members of Parliament </li></ul>
  9. 9. Dimensions of gap <ul><li>High vs Degraded quality of access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low performance computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low performance connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High price connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet access through Internet café or at home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet connectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different levels of skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to operate the technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to actually use the technology for some purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for reading and writing skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different levels of training capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Computer-literate” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Importance of “closing” gap <ul><li>Economic equality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important, possibly vital information may be accessed/provided through Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raise educational level of disfavoured socio-economic children </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. To allow girls to access information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased information / Increased participation to elections, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic Growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploitation of latest technologies provide competitive advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic benefit further provided to highly educated population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loop </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. “ Global” digital divide <ul><li>Widening of gap: the economic issue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide Internet access => high economics advances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor Internet access => low economics result </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Awareness of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of technology, in particular information and communication technology (ICT) for economic development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to connect both </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. How to close the gap? <ul><li>Make access easier and wider </li></ul><ul><li>Make content more useful and relevant </li></ul><ul><li>Promote entrepreneurial efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Change laws and policies at national level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>foster information creation and knowledge sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usefulness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>adjust technology to human beings and their needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide ICT-enabled solutions to help the poor:  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>using new technology to provide clean drinking water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>improve (rural) health care services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>extend quality of education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet-connected libraries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Inform people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>advantages and prospect of ICT </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. How to close the gap? <ul><li>Investment in human resources </li></ul><ul><li>Investment in high quality education </li></ul><ul><li>Define strategy for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combining openness to trade, education, government regulations </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. THANK YOU John Jacob II - M.A. Mass Communication Department of Electronic Media & Mass Communication Submitted to: M. Shuaib Mohamed Haneef Assistant Professor