Dream to learn


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  • In a study where lab rats’ brain waves were monitored while running a maze and immediately afterwards while they dreamed, the waves’ pattern turned out to be identical. Researchers believe the study suggests that the rats were dreaming about running the maze. For more info. on this study, consult the following article: "Mammalian Dreaming." Science 2 Feb. 2001: 291. :823- . University of Arizona Library . 21 Dec. 2005 <http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/291/5505/823a>. Available on the University of Arizona library database
  • In a recent study research participants learned to play Tetris. Later, the participants were awakened during their dream cycle. The majority of the participants were dreaming about falling blocks. (see Sleep Links for more details on this study.)
  • If you suspect that you have major sleeping disorder, consult a sleep lab. Here are a few in the Tucson area.
  • Dream to learn

    1. 1. Dream to Learn    <ul><li>Sleep Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>REM Sleep (dream stage) </li></ul><ul><li>Studies on Dreaming & Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep Disorders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insomnia & Narcolepsy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Night Terrors & Nightmares </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleep Paralysis & Sleepwalking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dream Incubation </li></ul><ul><li>Lucid Dreaming (controlling one’s dreams) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul> 
    2. 2. Sleep Cycle Overview
    3. 3. Stage 1 <ul><li>Light Sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Easily Awakened </li></ul><ul><li>Eyes move slowly & muscle activity slows. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Stage 1 THETA Waves <ul><li>transition state between sleep and wakefulness </li></ul><ul><li>eyes begin to roll slightly </li></ul><ul><li>consists mostly of theta waves (high amplitude, low frequency (slow)) </li></ul><ul><li>brief periods of alpha waves, similar to those present while awake </li></ul><ul><li>lasts only for a few minutes before moving on to next stage </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Metamorphosis --- http://consciousevolution.com/metamorphosis/0306/frequency0306.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Dream Views: http://www.dreamviews.com/sleepstages.php </li></ul>
    5. 5. Stage 2 THETA Waves with Spindles & K Complexes <ul><li>Eye movements stop </li></ul><ul><li>Brain waves become slower but will often produce occasional bursts of rapid waves called spindles </li></ul><ul><li>peaks of brain waves become higher and higher ( sleep spindles ) </li></ul><ul><li>k-complexes (peaks suddenly drastically descend and then pick back up) follow spindles </li></ul><ul><li>again, only lasts for a few minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Psychology World - http://web.umr.edu/~psyworld/sleep_stages.htm#2 </li></ul><ul><li>Dream Views: http://www.dreamviews.com/sleepstages.php </li></ul>
    6. 6. Stage 3 <ul><li>Extremely slow brain waves called delta waves begin to appear interspersed with smaller, faster waves. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Stage 4 <ul><li>Deep Sleep </li></ul><ul><li>difficult to wake someone from this stage </li></ul><ul><li>very slow brain waves, called delta waves (lower frequency than theta waves) </li></ul><ul><li>last of the sleep stages before Dreaming </li></ul>
    8. 8. Stage 3 & 4 DELTA Waves <ul><li>also called delta sleep or deep sleep </li></ul><ul><li>very slow brain waves, called delta waves (lower frequency than theta waves) </li></ul><ul><li>last (and deepest) of the sleep stages before REM (dream) sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Metamorphosis --- http://consciousevolution.com/metamorphosis/0306/frequency0306.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Dream Views: http://www.dreamviews.com/sleepstages.php </li></ul>
    9. 9. Rapid Eye Movement - REM <ul><li>Breathing becomes rapid, irregular, and shallow. </li></ul><ul><li>Eyes jerk rapidly in various directions. </li></ul><ul><li>Limb muscles are temporarily paralyzed. </li></ul><ul><li>Heart rate increases. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood pressure arises. </li></ul><ul><li>Dreams usually occur. </li></ul><ul><li>1 st REM phase happens about 70 to 90 minutes after we fall asleep </li></ul><ul><li>Typically we spend 2 hours dreaming usually just during REM sleep </li></ul>
    10. 10. REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Dream Sleep <ul><li>beta waves have a high frequency and occur when the brain is quite active, both in REM sleep and while awake </li></ul><ul><li>frequent bursts of rapid eye movement, along with occasional muscular twitches </li></ul><ul><li>heart may beat faster and breathing may become shallow and rapid </li></ul><ul><li>Muscles are locked, blocking movement </li></ul><ul><li>most vivid & detailed dreaming occurs during this stage </li></ul>
    11. 11. Stages of Sleep - Cycles
    12. 12. What does sleep do for us? <ul><li>Necessary for our nervous system. </li></ul><ul><li>Too little affects our ability to concentrate. </li></ul><ul><li>Impaired memory & physical performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to carry out math calculations. </li></ul><ul><li>Some researchers believe that sleep gives neurons used while awake a chance to shut down and repair themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Boosts Immune System’s Response </li></ul>
    13. 13. Sleep Deprivation -- Effects First study in this conducted by Dement in 1960 <ul><li>In People: </li></ul><ul><li>Irritability </li></ul><ul><li>Aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty concentrating </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty making decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of short-term memory </li></ul><ul><li>Paranoia </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperactive behavior often observed in children* *“ In fact, sleep deprivation is often misdiagnosed as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)” Source -- National Sleep Foundation </li></ul>In Studies on Rats: Sleep Deprivation can lead to Death
    14. 14. How much sleep do we need? <ul><li>Most adults find that 7 to 8 hours is the best. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people may need only 5 or as much as 10 hours of sleep each day. </li></ul><ul><li>Getting too little sleep creates “sleep debt”. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Source: http://www.npi.ucla.edu/sleepresearch/science/1058full.html
    16. 16. Dreaming the Periodic Table - Dmitri Mendeleyev – 1869 “I saw in a dream where all the elements fell into place as required.”
    17. 17. Sledding at the Speed of Light Einstein attributed his lifelong studies to an inspirational dream held as a teen. “ His sled traveled faster and faster, until it approached the speed of light. At that speed, the stars and night sky were transformed into a dazzling spectrum of colors.” Source: http://www.science-spirit.org/article_detail.php?article_id=286
    18. 18. AMAZing Rats <ul><li>Brain waves while running maze </li></ul><ul><li>Identical to </li></ul><ul><li>Brain waves during REM sleep </li></ul>
    19. 19. More Rat Studies <ul><li>Two groups learned trick </li></ul><ul><li>Group A allowed to sleep uninterrupted </li></ul><ul><li>Group B’s sleep interrupted during REM </li></ul><ul><li>Group A could perform trick upon waking </li></ul><ul><li>Group B had to relearn trick </li></ul>Can you recall any dreams where you relearned material earlier in the day?
    20. 20. Tetris in Your Dreams
    21. 21. Babies & Sleep <ul><li>Recent UA Study by UA Psychology Dept. </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers: Rebecca Gomez, Richard Bootzin and Lynn Nadel </li></ul><ul><li>Taught babies a nonsense language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiment Group tested after napping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control Group tested without a nap </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control Group able to recognize phrases </li></ul><ul><li>But Experiment Group showed stronger responses, demonstrating ability to predict patterns of new phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions: REM supports abstract learning & babies must sleep within 4 to 8 hours after receiving new info. in order to retain the data </li></ul>
    22. 22. Study Then Sleep <ul><li>Harvard Univ. study on 100 college students </li></ul><ul><li>Students told to memorize several lists </li></ul><ul><li>Morning group studied at 9am & tested 12 hrs later </li></ul><ul><li>Night group studied at 9pm & tested 12 hrs later (after they got a chance to sleep) </li></ul><ul><li>Night Group remembered more words </li></ul><ul><li>Night Group also recalled words not on lists </li></ul>
    23. 23. Dream Incubation <ul><li>Dream incubation – the process of planting a subject in one’s mind before sleeping in order to dream about it </li></ul><ul><li>Harvard Medical School study conducted by Dr. Deidre Barrett with students in a Psychology class Students were introduced to techniques for directing their dreams & instructed to try to create a solution to one of their problems through dreaming </li></ul><ul><li>More than half of the participants reported dreaming about their problem </li></ul><ul><li>1/3 reported having dreamed of a solution </li></ul>
    24. 24. Sleep Cycle Disruptions <ul><li>Caffeine </li></ul><ul><li>Diet Drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Some Pain relievers </li></ul><ul><li>Some sedatives </li></ul><ul><li>Nicotine </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol * </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme temperatures * </li></ul><ul><li>* Alcohol (night cap) does help many people fall asleep but it keeps the sleeper in the lighter stages of sleep & robs one of uninterrupted REM and the deeper, more restorative stages of sleep. </li></ul><ul><li>* Extreme temperatures (body does NOT have strong control over body’s thermostat during REM) </li></ul>
    25. 25. Some Common Sleep Disorders <ul><li>Insomnia </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep Apnea </li></ul><ul><li>Narcolepsy </li></ul><ul><li>Sleepwalking </li></ul><ul><li>Nightmares </li></ul><ul><li>Night terrors </li></ul>
    26. 26. If You suffer from insomnia <ul><li>Exercise regularly, but not before bedtime </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid alcohol & caffeine </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid napping </li></ul><ul><li>Go to sleep and wake at the same time every day </li></ul><ul><li>Save your worries for daytime Tip: Try keeping a Worry Journal by the bed </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a relaxing bedtime ritual like a hot bath or calm music. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not eat or drink too much before bedtime </li></ul><ul><li>Create a sleep-promoting environment quiet, dark, cool comfortable. </li></ul>When to See a Doctor If sleep problems persist, it may be time to seek professional help. Your doctor can help determine how to treat your problem and may refer you to a sleep specialist. Source – National Sleep Foundation
    27. 27. Sleep Apnea <ul><li>Disorder of interrupted breathing during sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Two Causes: Brain signal interruption or Windpipe collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Airflow blocked for 10 to >60 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Blood oxygen drops, and your brain wakes you up enough to let you breathe. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Snoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive daytime sleepiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Blood Pressure Treatment:: machine that forces air down the windpipe during sleeping hours </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Narcolepsy <ul><li>Excessive daytime sleepiness </li></ul><ul><li>uncontrollable daytime sleep attacks Instant Fall Into REM sleep stage </li></ul><ul><li>Causes still under investigation, recent research points to the possibility of a gene mutation that controls hypocretins, which regulate REM sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Most common age group for initial onset: </li></ul><ul><li>15-21 </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment may include schedule napping & prescribed stimulants such as Ritalin </li></ul>
    29. 29. Night Terrors <ul><li>Occurs in Deep Sleep, not REM May be trapped between sleep stages </li></ul><ul><li>Sleeper awakens in Terror (heart pounding, sweating) </li></ul><ul><li>Often awakens screaming (may even physically react to this by running around room or be paralyzed by fear) </li></ul><ul><li>Very little imagery recalled (not dreaming) </li></ul><ul><li>Imagery may be that of creepy, crawly things </li></ul>
    30. 30. Night Terror Subjects <ul><li>Most Commonly affected age group: 2 – 6 yrs. Old, affects 15% of children -- rare in adults </li></ul><ul><li>May be genetic </li></ul><ul><li>May suffer from Sleep Apnea </li></ul><ul><li>May be linked to hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) </li></ul><ul><li>Adults who suffer frequent night terrors likely to be passive individuals with self-directed anger, held back aggression, & repressed memories (similar to victims of abuse) </li></ul>
    31. 31. Sleep Paralysis <ul><li>Sleeper suddenly awakens during REM sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Body movement still restricted resulting in feeling of paralysis </li></ul><ul><li>May be accompanied by hallucinations (result of still being in dream state) </li></ul><ul><li>Causes great fear </li></ul><ul><li>Theories suggest that sleep paralysis may be the root experience behind folklore (across many cultures) about supernatural attacks involving an evil spirit trying to suffocate the sleeping victim </li></ul>  Fuseli: The Nightmare , 1781, Detroit, Institute of Arts
    32. 32. Nightmares <ul><li>Rare in adults, more common in children due to developing emotions & understanding of reality </li></ul><ul><li>Avg 1 per year </li></ul><ul><li>1 person in 500 has them as often as 1/week </li></ul><ul><li>Hard to capture in a sleep lab, 1 in 3000 nights of studied sleep </li></ul>“ The Scream” by Edvard Munch
    33. 33. Causes of Nightmares <ul><li>Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs/Medications – effects of or withdrawls </li></ul><ul><li>Illness </li></ul><ul><li>Traumatic Events </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of loved ones </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitivity (“thin boundaries”) </li></ul>
    34. 34. Frequent Nightmares - adults <ul><li>Occurs more often in people with “thin boundaries” between reality and fantasy, between themselves and others (unusually sensitive, able to identify with others’ stories and to empathize) </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs more often in people who are genetically vulnerable to Schizophrenia (Having relatives who have it) </li></ul><ul><li>“ thin boundaries” often leading to artistic lives, poets, musicians, artists, etc. (Nightmares were inspiration behind Frankenstein & Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde ) </li></ul><ul><li>Study published in 1984 based on 50 people who frequently experienced nightmares -- Study conducted by Dr. Ernest Hartmann & Dr. Bessel Van Der Kolk </li></ul>
    35. 35. Interpreting Nightmares <ul><li>Nightmares represent urgent messages from our unconscious minds </li></ul><ul><li>Steps to interpretation: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify current changes or concerns in life and/or past traumas </li></ul><ul><li>Look for symbols and puns </li></ul><ul><li>-- Symbolic meanings may derive from universal concepts and stories or from personal, contextual knowledge </li></ul>
    36. 36. Common Nightmares & Meanings <ul><li>Chase (Monsters & Demons & Bears, Oh, My) </li></ul><ul><li>Monster = Some unwanted part of self -- may involve an unresolved problem or conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Intruder = an new insight about oneself that is breaking into the conscious appears frightening due to its unknown qualities </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster = Change or crisis (not always negative) </li></ul>http://www.stanford.edu/~corelli/nightmares.html Richard J. Corelli, M.D., Stanford University
    37. 37. <ul><li>Car out of Control – Often result of hectic life – Navigation dreams involving directional changes in life </li></ul><ul><li>Trapped – stuck in same position in life, needing to explore options and other directions </li></ul>http://www.dreams.ca/nightmares.htm The Dream Foundation
    38. 38. Controlling Nightmares <ul><li>Lucid Dreaming - Awareness of being in the dream state </li></ul><ul><li>Confronting “the Monster” </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing that you have nothing to fear </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing that you are in control </li></ul><ul><li>Changing the scenery or the threat </li></ul><ul><li>Questioning the threat’s meaning or symbolism </li></ul>
    39. 39. Controlling Nightmares <ul><li>Imagery Rehearsal Therapy (treatment for recurrent nightmares) </li></ul><ul><li>Write out the Nightmare </li></ul><ul><li>Change the Ending to a more peaceful or happy outcome </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearse the New Version before sleeping </li></ul><ul><li>Do a relaxation exercise before sleeping </li></ul>
    40. 40. Controlling Nightmares <ul><li>Imagery Rehearsal Therapy example “A woman had been raped. She had a recurring nightmare of being pursued by a dark figure. In the nightmare, she ran and ran, and, each each time the nightmare recurred, she always woke up, sweating and gasping for breath, at the same point. So she decided, as a new ending, to stop running and confront the figure. In a subsequent dream, when the pursuing figure appeared, she turned to him and said, “Who are you and what do you want?” And here’s where her unconscious surprised her. The man replied, very politely, “You dropped this, and I have been trying to give it back to you.” He handed her a package. She asked what it was. “It’s your faith in human goodness,” he said. She woke up. And the nightmare never returned.” </li></ul><ul><li>Source: GuidetoPsychology. Com Raymond Lloyd Richmond, Ph.D </li></ul>
    41. 41. SleepWalking <ul><li>Occurs in Deep Sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Eyes Open, pupils dilated, glassy stare </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs more often in kids, ages 3-7, esp. ones who wet the bed </li></ul><ul><li>Good to awaken sleep walker </li></ul><ul><li>In adults, sometimes induced by sedatives or stress </li></ul><ul><li>Linked to Sleep Apnea </li></ul>
    42. 42. Sleepwalking Prevention <ul><li>Avoid alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid sedatives or other drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Set a regular sleep schedule to avoid fatigue or insomnia </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce stress, conflict, and anxiety </li></ul>http://www.medicinenet.com/sleepwalking/page2.htm#tocf
    43. 43. Sleepwalking Behavior <ul><li>Most Common: </li></ul><ul><li>Everyday tasks: cleaning, cooking, eating, dressing, and even… </li></ul><ul><li>Driving! </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes… </li></ul><ul><li>Act out a violent dream </li></ul>Eyes Wide Open: The Sleepwalking Story Drgreene.com
    44. 44. Sleepwalking as Murder Defense? <ul><li>Cases </li></ul><ul><li>Early 80s in Arizona, Steven Steinberg– killed his wife, found innocent by temp. insanity </li></ul><ul><li>1992, Canada, Kenneth Parks acquitted of murder of mother-in-law & stabbing of father-in-law after driving 14 miles to kill them in sleep </li></ul><ul><li>1997, Arizona, Scott Falater, stabbed wife & threw her body in pool Story --http://www.cnn.com/US/9905/25/sleepwalk.defense/ -- Guilty Verdict, sentenced to life without parole </li></ul><ul><li>2004, Stephen Reitz, Calif. -- hit wife with flowerpot & stabbed her on weekend getaway, found guilty and sentenced to 26 year term </li></ul>
    45. 45. Sleep Labs <ul><li>Comprehensive Sleep Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>5671 E. Grant </li></ul><ul><li>885-4671 </li></ul><ul><li>American Sleep Diagnostics (claims to be Largest Sleep Lab in Arizona) </li></ul><ul><li>1951 N. Wilmot – 722-3210 </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>215 W. Giaconda Way - 219-1781 </li></ul><ul><li>Also has 3 locations in Phoenix </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep Disorders Center – UMC </li></ul><ul><li>1501 North Campbell Avenue Tucson, AZ 85724-0001 Phone: (520) 694-6112 </li></ul>
    46. 46. Further Information <ul><li>Lucid Dreaming Techniques: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.dreams.ca/lucid_techniques.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical Steps to Psychological Dream Interpretation: http://www.guidetopsychology.com/dreams.htm </li></ul><ul><li>The Universal Dream Key by Patricia Garfield Preview available through Google Book Search (books.google.com) </li></ul>
    47. 47. Sources <ul><li>Articles: </li></ul><ul><li>http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9903E3D61439F930A15753C1A962948260&sec=health&spon=&pagewanted=1 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.lucidity.com/EWLD10.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.macalester.edu/psychology/whathap/UBNRP/nightmares/tdreams.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://sleep-medicine.advanceweb.com/Article/Once-a-Nightmare-Always-a-Nightmare.aspx?CD=633353760000000000,633353760000000000,633353760000000000,633353760000000000 </li></ul>
    48. 48. More Sources <ul><li>http://www.intuitive-connections.net/2003/dreamincubation.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep Foundation – </li></ul><ul><li>nightmares </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.sleepfoundation.org/site/apps/nlnet/content2.aspx?c=huIXKjM0IxF&b=2450839&ct=3501387 </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep Cycles </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.sleepfoundation.org/site/c.huIXKjM0IxF/b.2419159/k.A817/What_Happens_When_You_Sleep.htm </li></ul>
    49. 49. More Sources <ul><li>Narcolepsy </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.bio.davidson.edu/Courses/genomics/2005/Kiley/assignment1.html </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep Stage Chart: </li></ul><ul><li>http://blog.dreamsanalyst.com/dream-research/dream-research-dreaming-and-the-brain/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://uanews.org/node/30205 </li></ul><ul><li>http://abcnews.go.com/Health/story?id=2574630&page=1 </li></ul>