- email is still the #1 direct channel!! by a LARGE margin. - social is email and supports it - Facebook sends 1 billion emails a day, Groupon ($6Bil - $15bil) - and exciting stuff on the horizon - video, rich media, social integration, better filtering (?) Delete fewer messages without reading. In 2006, 73% of consumers deleted most email messages without reading them (see Figure 1). But this behavior has been waning since. In 2008, 63% deleted messages without reading them, and in 2010, 59% did so. Likewise, our data indicates that fewer consumers are unregistering from email promotions. In 2006, 49% of consumers wished it were easier to unregister from email offers they’d previously registered for, while only 28% of consumers agreed in 2010. · Integrate email promotions and personal emails. Fewer consumers today are apt to separate promotional from personal emails. In 2006, 16% of consumers said they had a separate email account they used just for receiving email advertising. This number decreased to 15% in 2008 and 10% in 2010. · Forward promotional emails. In 2006, 9% of consumers agreed that they sometimes forward email advertisements to their friends. This percentage increased to 10% in 2008 and to 12% in 2010, likely due to social media tools like Twitter and ShareThis, which make email easy to share.1 · Fluctuate about email ’ s value for product content. Twenty-two percent of consumers in 2006 said that email offers are great ways to find out about products and promotions. In 2008, 27% said the same. But this percentage dropped in 2010 to 17%. We bet this dip is due to further proliferation of product information sources. Now blogs, search engines, social networks, ratings and reviews, and communities, among others, provide product information in addition to email promotions. - ASK CROWD - how many of you track ROI for your programs? How many have hit that number?
Perhaps because it works so well, too often, the email channel is seen as a cash cow, instead of a strategic weapon in customer cultivation and retention. It works pretty darn well, even if we have it on auto-pilot. Send out an email campaign, and earn response and revenue. What ’s wrong with that?!
- it’s not the real spammers that are doing the damage - “there are many kinds of spam” - CANSPAM is a very low bar and many who adhere to the law are guilty of a a much worse crime - creating poor customer experiences. one angry/upset/disgruntled customer can influence thousands. flip side, and equally important is the opportunity cost of not delighting consumers and making them loyalists and evangelists - einstein’s theory or other einstein’s theory -”any message that doesn’t delight the recipient is spam” - email isn’t dead, but we’re all beating it up a little bit
SAM This puts a lot of pressure not just on the channels, but also on the team, and the technology we use. What if we can SUGGEST some action or new behavior, even if the subscriber didn ’t know to ask for it? This is the heart of marketing. Luckily, we can use more channels today than ever before and that gives us new opportunity. With that approach, we can send fewer, more customized email, SMS/text, social and mobile messages, continue to market creatively and assertively – AND have our emails and other messages reach the various inboxes. Happy customers is a good thing. Today we are going to focus on how to make that happen for our customer ’s happiness and our own success.
Our world is changing rapidly, and that sort of “batch and blast” mentality will not ensure that a) you reach the inbox or that b) you earn a response. Doing what you ’ve always done in email marketing is not going to break through the clutter any longer. There are a couple of key trends that are driving the change for marketers, but all of them center around the subscriber.
The inbox is no longer just in the email client. We have multiple inboxes, and we have certain brands and friends that reach us in those unique places. Will there be one portal, one inbox? Maybe that will be Google Wave or MSFT Windows or Amazon or maybe even Yahoo! (It will probably be Google, who are we kidding?!) Doesn ’t matter. Right now – your subscribers are distracted and they have taken the time they spend online and fragmented it out among multiple sites – where the inbox experience is mimicked in everything from (ANIMATION) Twitter Facebook My smart phone.
Hotmail, Yahoo! both have similar inbox management tools. Even AOL has hinted that they will be improving their interface to make it easier to sort messages.
Goal is to move along that continuum. Moving from batch and blast to engaged dialogue requires data management and organization and management of creative assets.
It means that relevancy is even more important. The marketers who are welcome and relevant to their subscribers will reach the inbox and earn higher response and revenue. Relevancy is perhaps the most over-used word in email marketing. It ’s easy to see why increased relevancy will improve results. But it ’s hard to do.
While we are all well intentioned, Unfortunately, most of the email marketing we see today is pretty terrible. It ’s untargeted, ill timed and poorly formatted
This is what it sounds like. It beats an incessant drum for subscribers. And does not engage them or enthuse them to open in future, What happened to that covenant?
This is more like what you want your email program experience to be for subscribers. Start out, by taking a step back and using data to improve your email marketing relevancy.
In our quest to do more than broadcast email marketing, segmentation is the key. We must use intelligent segmentation and connect with subscribers to build higher engagement over time. Customers expect that we will know about them, without being creepy. They expect that when they tell us information about themselves, that we will treat it with respect – and use it. They expect that we will honor their preferences for cross channel marketing. Take a look at your own calendar of email, SMS, social publishing…. When you use customized content and personalization, does that make a difference in results? Usually it does – and that shows up in a lot of ways – in response and revenue, in the promoted:purchased ratio, in the loyalty and sharing.
What if you are not Amazon or didn ’t gather that data up front? Preferences are important to the relationship. If you don ’t ask up front, ask early in the relationship, or on a regular basis. From: Old Navy Subject Line: Time to Play Favorites Date: July 31, 2008
If your customers are on the go, create experiences that allow them to stay connected. This is a fully featured mobile experience that makes sense for the kinds of activities that members do on the go. They need quick info and citations, not deep research. Notice also that they collect email address subscription as part of the mobile experience.
If you are using social networks as your search landing page, You can also use your FB page to sign up for the newsletter – this is an example from the sidebar. Of course, do the opposite if you like – and tell email subscribers about your FB or Twitter feed. Two ways to use social media and email – share and join. Also, all social and email is by nature now mobile.
In order to do this, we need data. You ’ve got a lot of it, from a lot of different sources. From a database management perspective, this data comes in different formats. Structured and unstructured, from a variety of forms hosted in different systems, and via APIs that sometimes limit the character length of open strings.
ANIMATION Reality is, many of your systems that are customer-facing are not connected, and can be difficult to connect. You know what I say? ….
The least loved word in marketing.
Email/Domain – Hotmail & Yahoo rich media, deliverability issues, etc. Opt-in Date/Time – RT Welcome Website behavior – op abandonment, browse not buy, replenishment RFM – suppressing non-responders Zip, Geo is key for retail, restaurants, ad supported business, etc. Sex – men & women are different Preferences – give the people what they want Birthday – b-day messages, targeting based on age & (May need to test Zodiac based segmentation – Gemini's and Tauruss respond differently).
There are a lot of things you can do even without a lot of database power.. This is perhaps the most obvious sort of LC timing. FTD Thank you Example. Nice subject line Call to action to take a survey. Good timing because you just finished purchasing. Reminder about important dates can lead to more personalized messaging. Note that they are aggressive and send 2-3 promotional messages a week. So a thank you is a nice break from the promotions.
SAM From: Apple Subject Line: Thanks for purchasing your Mac Book Pro. Date: Tuesday, January 6, 2009
Companies that adopt this philosophy OFTEN meet the objective of delivering a program that feels personal (Others rarely do)
While people debate which segmentation approaches are the best, the data has historically shown that the key is not which type of segmentation, but whether or not brands are segmenting at all!
Personalization is what demonstrates your relationship with the customer
Some message content is easier to automate than other contnet
Translating data into people. Why is it Important? Gives a face to data – gives clarity and alignment to teams working on projects – designers, copywriters, media planners/buyers; serves as key point of integration in cross channel digital marketing
Remember that if you are doing cross channel marketing, you must ensure you have permission. SMS/text messaging can be very powerful because of the reach. However, even if you have mobile numbers you must have specific opt in permission for sending text messages. That permission can be collected on a website. Just as in any marketing, permission is just the beginning. Relevancy and brand affinity are more important.
Data is the foundation of an inbox marketing program and a program can only be as health as the data. Good hygiene allows your list to be all it can be – promotes a good reputation. People know you take care of yourself, and they’re willing to engage in a dialogue.
A poor sending reputation can have lasting negative impacts on your program. Bulking of messages Bouncing of messages Generally not driving business objectives “ even if this guy cleans up, he’s still pigpen”
Scrubbing – bad domain, role accounts, SPAM traps BT – non-responders & winback Acq. – need to feed the top of the funnel
SAM – make it quick
One reminder, is to consider not just the channel but the device. Social is also mobile, and a lot of email is also mobile. However, there is also a lot of banking and ecommerce that happens on a device – using the standard webpage engines. Experience matters. Make sure you know how important devices are to your customers ’ routines and aspirations.
The value of Social Data. Measured with a cost. There is a continuum of data types that give graduated levels of insight. Aggregate/Interest Membership Affinity Influence Listening
Sometimes the idea of a great cross channel program seems like a big bowl of candy – delicious and tempting and could never hurt us. Until we eat too much of it…. So while we seek to prioritize our opportunity, how do we make good decisions? Here are the key learnings from a recent program we did with a marketer who was moving to a centralized campaign management solution, and trying to balance the multi channel needs.
Permission: Never assume permission. Period. Never. First, it may be illegal depending on the countries where you market. Second, it ’s bad marketing. There is plenty of cross sell opportunity along the existing permission grants that you own today. At the same time, encourage subscribers to sign up for more types of messages from other brands in your preference center. Lest you falter in your steadfastness, take this tale to heart: We had one marketer recently suffer a big drop in sender reputation and inbox placement. We traced the high complaints to a few campaigns promoting retail partners. Even though it was the marketer’s brand, template and from line, customers thought the messages were actually from the partners like Walmart and Staples. Complaints were very high, even when the partners were trusted brands themselves. Subscribers knew they didn’t sign up for email from those brands, and didn’t stop to check to see if was a cross promotion. They just clicked the spam button. Even if you own the partner brands, don’t assume customers know that. I can’t emphasize enough how important it is to gain permission, and earn it with every message you send.
Audience Profile : You don ’t have time or resources to tackle every possible cross promotion opportunity, so focus on the 2-3 that have the right criteria: Reach, Revenue and Strategic Importance. This latter one is sometimes hard to gauge, but it usually involves business drivers, high value customers or high visibility projects. Balance those factors out in a spreadsheet so that you have real science behind your discussions. Make sure that every test has an actionable learning so that you can continue to improve and optimize. Brand Affinity: Just like in social marketing, customers who already trust you are the ones most likely to take your advice on cross promotional purchases. Therefore, segment not just by permission status, but also by the likelihood of brand affinity that will encourage cross pollenization of the brand(s). For example, free online members may have a very low brand affinity, and thus are the least likely to welcome cross promotions. Those paid members who have purchased recently, or have more than one product, will be more likely to welcome up selling offers (and not complain). Sales Channel Preference: A factor that became more important than we initially considered is sales channel, for example, those who purchase at retail vs. online. Not only are there demographic differences between the two, but there are also differences in the way email is utilized. For example, in this case, email was not very successful in encouraging retail customers to purchase online, but it was effective in generating store traffic. Seems obvious now that we see the results, but of course, the magic is in the discovery!
The first bite is important. Make it count. Customer lifecycle: This is perhaps the most important factor. I have found time and time again that we marketers are way too confident in our assumptions about how interested customers are in our offers. In fact, we have to start way back in the lifecycle for cross promotions, just as we would with new prospects (which of course, many of these people are!). Nurturing has to start with discovery and exploration. Too many times, we hit prospects with offers well before they have established our credibility, or before they even acknowledge their own needs.
Consider this simple diagram as a way to begin to think about integrating data into a campaign. At the end of the day, content is the currency that holds all this together. You might want to start and end with the content strategy, not the channel strategy. The content is what drives the channel – along with customer preference.
Set realistic goals. Connecting data can be more complex than you anticipate. Disparate data systems Normalization of data database structure data feeds And then….. Will you really be able to create Actionable Intelligence with the combined information?? There are a few considerations that must be taken into account as well….
Ask crowd. B/C WE CAN’T FUND THE PROGRAM OURSELVES
SAM – how to make sense of reports you have
Look at your reports!
Similarly, a different customer tested self reported data vs. demographics that were appended. Give your customers the ability to tell you what they want. I guarantee they will like what they select! Consider adding a few options into your registration form, as a secondary step after the Submit button. Tell us what you want to hear about… !
Behavior seems to consistently trump demographics. A good argument to both: Track behavior and use ti to create triggered dialog campaigns (conversations) Limit your forms to what you need to get to the next key stage, not for the entire relationship
Do it anyway. Don ’t let the opportunity paralyze you. Remember some of the simple things that we talked about: This quarter, test thanking new customers and those who purchase Track the impact of whitepaper downloads on webinar attendance and identify if there is a multi touch opportunity. Identify 2-3 vulnerable spots in the customer lifecycle and improve the relevancy and cadence of messaging at those times. Consider the two channels that your customers use the most, and connect the dots between them, even 1-2 touches a month can make a big difference.
Nicholas Einstein, VP Strategic Services & Deliverability With over ten years of online marketing experience, Mr. Einstein can safely be considered an industry veteran. Specializing in emessaging and CRM strategy, Nicholas has spent his entire career helping companies of all kinds leverage online channels to communicate more effectively with their customers and prospects.. Mr. Einstein has significant agency experience, and at one time ran RealNetwork’s worldwide email operations. He has served a variety of high profile clients ranging from Accenture, Bank of America and NBC Universal to ARM & HAMMER, Rolling Stone and Sony, and has helped each drive incremental revenue and customer lifetime value. Nicholas currently serves as PulsePoint’s Vice President of Deliverability and Strategic Services, where he helps some of America’s top brands optimize their email and CRM programs. Nicholas received his MBA from the University of Washington and his BA in Anthropology & Sociology from Kenyon College.
Dennis Dayman, CIPP <ul><ul><li>Eloqua (Chief Security and Privacy Officer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seventeen (17) Years in Email/Privacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AT&T Internet, MAPS - Mail Abuse Prevention Systems, Verizon Online, StrongMail Systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Involved in several coalition boards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MAAWG, CAUCE, IAPP, ESPC </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Co-chair DMA/EEC Deliverability Round Table </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Twitter: ddayman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blogs: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.deliverability.com </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://blog.eloqua.com/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Columnist: http://www.clickz.com </li></ul></ul>
A Eulogy of Action “ It's one thing to miss someone, to feel a void when they're gone. It's another to do something with their legacy, to honor them through your actions. Steve devoted his professional life to giving us (you, me and a billion other people) the most powerful device ever available to an ordinary person. Everything in our world is different because of the device you're reading this on. What are we going to do with it?” - Seth Godin 10/5/11
<ul><li>Part 2: </li></ul><ul><li>Leveraging Audience and Campaign Data (8:15-12:00pm) </li></ul><ul><li>Part 3: </li></ul><ul><li>Brand Equity, Consumer Commitment, and the Law (12:30-2:00) </li></ul><ul><li>Nicholas Einstein, VP, Strategic & Deliverability Services, PulsePoint </li></ul>
IF NOT, JOIN NOW!! <ul><li>(use code DMAWORKSHOP for a $100 discount) </li></ul>Is everyone an EEC member?
A Few Thoughts on The Evolving World of Email & Digital Marketing
Typical Email Marketing Stream Hi, are you ready to buy? Hi, are you ready to buy? Hi, are you ready to buy? Hi, are you ready to buy? Hi, are you ready to buy? Hi, are you ready to buy? Hi, are you ready to buy? Hi, are you ready to buy? Hi, are you ready to buy? Hi, are you ready to buy?
Lifecyle Email Marketing Welcome! We like you. Hi, are you ready to buy? Thanks for buying! You might also like…. Hi, are you ready to buy? Here ’s what others like! Please tell us what you like. Hi, are you ready to buy? Cool content you might like. Hi, are you ready to buy? Something special for you Any of your friends like this?
Cross Channel Marketing Welcome Email. We like you. It ’s Free Taco Tuesday. Pls RT Hi, are you ready to buy? Thanks for buying! Text in to join our party! Dear Pamela, you might also like…. Hi, are you ready to buy? Visit Facebook: What do others like?! Sale 4 U 2Day! Cool content you might like. Mobile coupon! Hurry in! Something special for you! Any of your friends like this?
Earn What You Need <ul><li>Demonstrate not just revenue, but also costs, lost opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Never go alone </li></ul><ul><li>Recruit a champion brand </li></ul><ul><li>Get your vendors on board early </li></ul><ul><li>Prove the value (POC) </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate early and often </li></ul>
<ul><li>Have data to back up your assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Stick with customers </li></ul><ul><li>Zig if competitors zag </li></ul><ul><li>Crawl > Walk > Run </li></ul><ul><li>Find (or create) a Shared Goal </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure you can measure the key success factors </li></ul>
Treat different customers differently This is difficult if you also insist on treating every customer the same. Or treating every customer the best, which is a better way to describe a similar idea. No, the only way you can treat different customers differently is if you understand that their values (and their value to you) vary. It's easier than ever to discern and test these values, and you do everyone a service when you differentiate.
The Basics <ul><li>Email Address/Domain </li></ul><ul><li>Opt-in Date/Time </li></ul><ul><li>Website Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Response History & RFM </li></ul><ul><li>Zip Code/Geography </li></ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Contact Preferences - channel, timing, format, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Birthday </li></ul><ul><li>Unsubscribe/SPAM Complaints </li></ul>
Winning Philosophy <ul><li>Invest in AUTOMATION (but realize its’ limitations) </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a tiered-messaging strategy </li></ul><ul><li>When it comes to segmentation: KISS (Keep It Simple) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 is too many segments… and 5 is pushing your luck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different Segments get different BASELINE communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everything else is personalization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each segment requires TIME & RESOURCES to target properly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content creation/curation is not automatable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Segmentation efforts deteriorates into an impractical, academic exercise </li></ul></ul>
Any Segmentation Can Work Percentage of E-mail Marketers Question: Average unique conversion rate (i.e., total number of unique orders/transactions divided by number of net e-mail delivered for all campaigns in the past 12 months), compared with question, “ Which of the following customer data attributes has your company used to segment audiences for e-mail marketing campaigns in the past six months?” Source: JupiterResearch Executive Survey (11/04), n = 649 (US only) Conversion Rate:
A Note About Preference Centers <ul><li>Good: </li></ul><ul><li>Simple path to segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Provide interest data at the time of registration </li></ul><ul><li>Bad: </li></ul><ul><li>Preferences change/evolve </li></ul><ul><li>Subscribers rarely update </li></ul><ul><li>Establish commitment to only send on established topics (regardless of relevance) </li></ul><ul><li>Net: Invest in figuring out what will be relevant ! </li></ul>
Not just segmentation…. <ul><li>SEGMENTATION: identify logical groups to which the same basic messages are likely to resonate. </li></ul><ul><li>TARGETING: align messaging to the engagement patterns of each segment. </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONALIZATION: add the finishing touches that make the communication feel personal. </li></ul><ul><li>Buyers vs. non-buyers </li></ul><ul><li>New vs. old customers </li></ul><ul><li>Kids vs. no kids </li></ul><ul><li>Deal vs. information-based </li></ul><ul><li>Lifecycle programs </li></ul><ul><li>Best time to send </li></ul><ul><li>Local store </li></ul><ul><li>Products of interest </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul>
Personalization <ul><li>Members of a segment all get an email based on the same template </li></ul><ul><li>Personalization attributes can change all of the content, but not the structure of the email </li></ul><ul><li>The next step is populating that template with content that shows you know the customer </li></ul>
The BEST personalization is based on activities tracked at the INDIVIDUAL level!
Targeting Browse Behavior <ul><li>Amazon * Based on recent browsing behavior (past month) </li></ul><ul><li>Featured products and time-based offer x% off until XX/XX </li></ul><ul><li>Directly calls out that email was triggered by browsing the site </li></ul>
<ul><li>Personalized content must be value-driven </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where they live? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What they do? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What they like? </li></ul></ul>
Plan Ahead… <ul><li>Move from content creation to curation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapting existing content is easier than creating new content! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The right email template will save time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What formats will you regularly support? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What content blocks can you regularly populate? </li></ul></ul>
6 Steps to Scalable, Relevant Email <ul><li>Identify your key segments </li></ul><ul><li>Identify core messaging products </li></ul><ul><li>Develop messaging grid that aligns segments with target messaging objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Identify activity-based personalization attributes </li></ul><ul><li>Develop flexible templates and automate the automatable </li></ul><ul><li>Devote a percentage of resources to develop triggered programs (“set it and forget it”) </li></ul>
Four Rules of Permission <ul><li>Get it. </li></ul><ul><li>Confirm it. </li></ul><ul><li>Don ’t share it. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep it current. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember: It ’s not about you . </li></ul>
If your data is dirty….. <ul><li>… you get a reputation. </li></ul>
What is good hygiene? <ul><li>Excellent data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Proper bounce management </li></ul><ul><li>Source management & tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Scrubbing/Purging </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral targeting </li></ul><ul><li>Solid acquisition program </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline! (esp. during the holidays) </li></ul>
Please, follow the law(s). <ul><li>CAN SPAM, COPPA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utah, Maine, Colorado, California </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Canadian Privacy Law(s) </li></ul><ul><li>EMEA Permission </li></ul><ul><li>Japan “Proper Transmission” Law </li></ul><ul><li>EU Cookie Directive </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese Access Rights </li></ul><ul><li>SMS/Mobile Carrier Restrictions </li></ul>
Takeaways (2) <ul><li>Email is not dead – but let ’s not kill it. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining list hygiene is critical. </li></ul><ul><li>Email marketing generates reams of data, focus on those that tie directly to core business objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>6 Steps to Relevancy </li></ul>
Social Data Value Scale <ul><li>Listening </li></ul><ul><li>Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Aggregate </li></ul><ul><li>Membership </li></ul><ul><li>Interest </li></ul><ul><li>Affinity </li></ul><ul><li>Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul>
Five Factors in Your Integrated & Cross Channel Opportunity
Making Synergy Work For You <ul><li>Never assume permission. </li></ul>
Essential Reports <ul><li>Response data (opens/renders, clicks, conversions) – How much did we make? </li></ul><ul><li>Bounces – How clean is our list? </li></ul><ul><li>Spam complaints/Unsubscribes – Was our message welcome? </li></ul><ul><li>Inbox placement – What ’s our sender reptuation? </li></ul>
Dashboards <ul><li>50,000 foot view </li></ul><ul><li>Trends/Benchmarks </li></ul><ul><li>Metrics tied directly to business objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Produced & syndicated regularly </li></ul><ul><li>Bonus: Cross-channel </li></ul>
Reports that Matter <ul><li>Tied to business goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are we making money? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the sales team happy? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enable decision making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What can I change to improve results? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What products should I lead with this week? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Am I seeing a shift in customer preference or behavior? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Timed to business need </li></ul>
Deliverability Insights <ul><li>Are our subscribers fatigued? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which subscribers are engaged? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The impact of frequency. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Are certain sources spammy? </li></ul><ul><li>This message type is less welcome. </li></ul><ul><li>Formatting takes a toll. </li></ul><ul><li>Risk assessment: Active subscribers are most active complainers. </li></ul>