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- 1. Quantitative Methods Varsha Varde
- 2. Analysis of Variance Contents. • 1. Introduction • 2. One Way ANOVA: Completely Randomized Experimental Design • 3. The Randomized Block Design Varsha Varde 2
- 3. Example. • Four groups of sales people for a magazine sales agency were subjected to different sales training programs. Because there were some dropouts during the training program, the number of trainees varied from program to program. At the end of the training programs each salesperson was assigned a sales area from a group of sales areas that were judged to have equivalent sales potentials. The table below lists the number of sales made by each person in each of the four groups of sales people during the first week after completing the training program. Do the data present sufficient evidence to indicate a difference in the mean achievement for the four training programs? Varsha Varde 3
- 4. Data Training Group 1 2 3 4 65 75 59 94 87 69 78 89 73 83 67 80 79 81 62 88 81 72 83 69 79 76 90 Varsha Varde 4
- 5. Definitions • µ1 be the mean achievement for the first group • µ2 be the mean achievement for the second group • µ3 be the mean achievement for the third group • µ4 be the mean achievement for the fourth group • X¯1 be the sample mean for the first group • X¯2 be the sample mean for the second group • X¯3 be the sample mean for the third group • X¯4 be the sample mean for the fourth group • S2 1 be the sample variance for the first group • S2 2 be the sample variance for the second group • S2 3 be the sample variance for the third group Varsha Varde 5
- 6. Hypothesis To be Tested • Test whether the means are equal or not. That is • H0 : µ1 = µ2 = µ3 = µ4 • Ha : Not all means are equal Varsha Varde 6
- 7. Data • Training Group • 1 2 3 4 • 65 75 59 94 • 87 69 78 89 • 73 83 67 80 • 79 81 62 88 • 81 72 83 • 69 79 76 • 90 • n1 = 6 n2 = 7 n3 = 6 n4 = 4 n = 23 • Ti 454 549 425 351 GrandTotal= 1779 • X¯i 75.67 78.43 70.83 87.75 • S2 i S2 1 S2 2 S2 3 S2 4 • x= = 1779/23 =77.3478 Varsha Varde 7
- 8. One Way ANOVA: Completely Randomized Experimental Design • ANOVA Table • Source of error df SS MS F p-value • Treatments 3 712.6 237.5 3.77 • Error 19 1,196. 6 63.0 • Totals 22 1 ,909.2 • Inferences about population means • Test. • H0 : µ1 = µ2 = µ3 = µ4 • Ha : Not all means are equal • T.S. : F = MST/MSE = 3.77 • where F is based on (k-1) and (n-k) df. • RR: Reject H0 if F > Fα,k-1,n-k • i.e. Reject H0 if F > F0.05,3,19 = 3.13 • Conclusion: At 5% significance level there is sufficient statistical evidence to indicate a difference in the mean achievement for the four training programs. 8
- 9. One Way ANOVA: Completely Randomized Experimental Design • Assumptions. • 1. Sampled populations are normal • 2. Independent random samples • 3. All k populations have equal variances • Computations. • ANOVA Table • Sources of error df SS MS F • Trments k-1 SST MST=SST/(k-1) MST/MSE • Error n-k SSE MSE=SSE/(n-k) • Totals n-1 TSS Varsha Varde 9
- 10. • Q.1.Suppose a manufacturer of a breakfast food is interested to know the effectiveness of three different types of packaging. He puts each kind of packaged breakfast food into five different stores. He finds that during the week the number of packages sold were as follows: • Packaging 1: 25,28,21,30,26 • Packaging 2: 27,25,25,33,30 • Packaging 3: 22,29,26,20,23 • Write Ho and H1 • Complete the ANOVA Table • Write the conclusion • F(2,12 α = 5 %) = 3.89 • Sources Sum of Squares D.f. Mean sum of Squares F-Ratio • Of Variation • Between ___ __ ____ 1.67 • Within ___ __ 12 • Total ____ Varsha Varde 10
- 11. • (i) Response Variable: variable of interest or dependent variable (sales) • (ii) Factor or Treatment: categorical variable or independent variable (training technique) • (iii) Treatment levels (factor levels): methods of training( Number of groups or populations) k =4 Varsha Varde 11
- 12. • Confidence Intervals. • Estimate of the common variance: • s = √s2 = √MSE = √SSE/n-t • CI for µi: • X¯i ± tα/2,n-k (s/√ni ) • CI for µi - µj: • (X¯i - X¯j) ± tα/2,n-k √ {s2 (1/ni+1/nj )} Varsha Varde 12
- 13. • Training Group • 1 2 3 4 • x11 x21 x31 x41 • x12 x22 x32 x42 • x13 x23 x33 x43 • x14 x24 x34 x44 • x15 x25 x35 • x16 x26 x36 • x27 • n1 n2 n3 n4 n • Ti T1 T2 T3 T4 GT • X¯i X¯1 X¯2 X¯3 4 • parameter µ1 µ2 µ3 µ4 13
- 14. FORMULAE • Notation: • TSS: sum of squares of total deviation. • SST: sum of squares of total deviation between treatments. • SSE: sum of squares of total deviation within treatments (error). • CM: correction for the mean • GT: Grand Total. • Computational Formulas for TSS, SST and SSE: • k ni • CM = { Σ Σxij } 2 /n • i=1 j=1 • k ni • TSS =Σ Σxij 2 - CM • i=1 j=1 • k • SST = Σ Ti 2 /ni - CM • i=1 • 14
- 15. • • Calculations for the training example produce • k ni • CM = { Σ Σxij } 2 / n = 1, 7792 /23 = 137, 601.8 • i=1 j=1 • k ni • TSS =Σ Σxij 2 - CM = 1, 909.2 • i=1 j=1 • k • SST = Σ Ti 2 /ni - CM = 712.6 • i=1 • SSE = TSS – SST =1, 196.6 Varsha Varde 15
- 16. • ANOVA Table • Source of error df SS MS F p-value • Treatments 3 712.6 237.5 3.77 • Error 19 1,196.6 63.0 • Totals 22 1,909.2 • Confidence Intervals. • Estimate of the common variance: • s = √s2 = √MSE = √SSE/n-t • CI for µi: • X¯i ± tα/2,n-k (s/√ni ) • CI for µi - µj: • (X¯i- X¯j) ± tα/2,n-k √ {s2 (1/ni+1/nj )} Varsha Varde 16
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