The Article Applying Common Identity and Common Bond eory to Design of Online Communities Yuqing Ren, Robert Kraut* & Sara Kiesler *Robert Kraut was the author of last week’s reading, “Applying Social Psychological eory to the Problems of Group Work”
The JournalOrganization Studies (OS) Publishes peer-reviewed, top quality theoretical and empirical research. e journal’s aim is to publish research promoting the understanding of organizing in and between societies. is article was published in March 2007.
The Authors Authors have a common interest in understanding the increasing reliance Yuquin Ren upon groups to get work done with the use of information technologies to support collaboration Bob Kraut Research came out of Carnegie Mellon University’s HCII Sara Kiesler
Designing Online CommunitiesOnline Communities are groups, voluntaryassociations, organizations and communities.Dependent on members’ voluntary contributionsand repeated visits Unlike formal work organizations, cannot generally rely upon members to show up and workOnline communities need to be designed toencourage commitment and contributions frommembers
Attaching to an Online CommunityLook at two diﬀerent ways to developcommitment to online communities – bybecoming attached to the community as a whole orby becoming attached to individual members.e authors use two theories to understand andpredict important outcomes in onlinecommunities.
Common Identity & Common Bond Common Identity eory To be attached to a group as a whole • National Riﬂe Association • Open Source Software Folks feel more attached to their group as a whole and enjoy the association Common Bond eory To be attached to a group on an individual level • BFFs in your book club • Who’s online in your chat list in IM Folks feel more attached at an individual level – if your friends leave the club, you will too Images: h*p://www.plantsciences.ucdavis.edu/
MotivationUnderstand how design choices inﬂuence members’commitment and contribution to onlinecommunities.eories taken from an oﬀ-line context andapplying them to an online context.
Causes of Common Identity-basedAttachments • Social Categorization Objective, subjective or random criteria • Interdependence Joint task, purpose, fate, or reward • Intergroup Comparisons In-group/out-group designation
Causes of Bond-based Attachments • Social Interaction with Others Frequency • Personal Knowledge of Others Personal information and self-disclosure • Interpersonal Attraction to Others rough Similarity Preferences, attitudes and values
Behavioral Outcomes:Cohesion, Commitment & Evaluation Identity-based Attachments Bond-based Attachments Both increase group cohesion Both result in positive self-group evaluation Both increase positive feelings toward the group Both increase likelihood of remaining in the group
Behavioral Outcomes:Content of Discussion Identity-based Attachments: Oﬀ-topic discussion is discouraged Bond-based Attachments: Oﬀ-topic discussion is considered acceptable
Behavioral Outcomes:Social Loafing Identity-based Attachments: Responsibility likely to be shared or assumed Members compensate for slackers/lurkers Bond-based Attachments: Less obligation for responsibility More tolerant of slackers/lurkers
Behavioral Outcomes:Response to Newcomers Identity-based Attachments: More welcoming, accepting Bond-based Attachments: More exclusive Obstacles to newcomers
Behavioral Outcomes:Reciprocity Identity-based Attachments: Prone to generalized reciprocity (community) Bond-based Attachments: Prone to direct reciprocity (dyadic)
Behavioral Outcomes:Group Robustness Identity-based Attachments: Less robust to oﬀ-topic discussion Less resilient to member turnover Bond-based Attachments: More robust against oﬀ-topic and Less resilient toturnover
Implications for DesignWhat is your online community’s goal?• Identity-based• Bond-based• Dual-purpose
Design Dimensions• Newcomer socialization• Discussion moderation• Community size• Role of core members• Community goals
Newcomer Socialization• Challenge: How to recruit new members without disrupting the ongoing community – Getting newbies up-to-speed
Discussion Moderation • Challenge: Keep it real or keep it together? – Should oﬀ-topic conversations be allowed?
Community Size• Challenge: How to get more people without losing them. – Managing membership turnover
Role of Core Members• Challenge: How to get participation from peripheral members without intimidation by the core group – Growing the participating community
Community Goals• Challenge: How to keep subgroups in-line with the overall community goals – Supporting subgroups within the community
Ren et. al. and KrautComputing as a group activity not a solitary one
Ren et. al. and KrautSocial psychology as an important inﬂuence ondesign decisions in group oriented systems
Ren et. al. and Kraut Mostly uncharted territory.
Social Psychology and HCI/HCDE Computing is becoming more group focused, thanks to the internet
Social Psychology and HCI/HCDEGroups are becoming more distributed thanks to faster internet connections and cheaper telecommunications platforms
Social Psychology and HCI/HCDE Social Psychological theories, like CommonIdentity and Common Bond, already tell us a lot about how people act in groups
Social Psychology and HCI/HCDE Future research needs to test these theories at “web scale”
Social Psychology and HCI/HCDE Future research needs to test design processes informed by these theories