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applying common bond and common identity to online communities

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hcde 501 weekly presentation

  1. 1. WEEK 6 PRESENTATIONSara DeGruttola | Jacqueline Keh | Puja Parakh | Tony Santos
  2. 2. The Article Applying Common Identity and Common Bond eory to Design of Online Communities Yuqing Ren, Robert Kraut* & Sara Kiesler *Robert Kraut was the author of last week’s reading, “Applying Social Psychological eory to the Problems of Group Work”
  3. 3. The JournalOrganization Studies (OS) Publishes peer-reviewed, top quality theoretical and empirical research. e journal’s aim is to publish research promoting the understanding of organizing in and between societies. is article was published in March 2007.
  4. 4. The Authors Authors have a common interest in understanding the increasing reliance Yuquin Ren upon groups to get work done with the use of information technologies to support collaboration Bob Kraut Research came out of Carnegie Mellon University’s HCII Sara Kiesler
  5. 5. Designing Online CommunitiesOnline Communities are groups, voluntaryassociations, organizations and communities.Dependent on members’ voluntary contributionsand repeated visits Unlike formal work organizations, cannot generally rely upon members to show up and workOnline communities need to be designed toencourage commitment and contributions frommembers
  6. 6. Attaching to an Online CommunityLook at two different ways to developcommitment to online communities – bybecoming attached to the community as a whole orby becoming attached to individual members.e authors use two theories to understand andpredict important outcomes in onlinecommunities.
  7. 7. Common Identity & Common Bond Common Identity eory To be attached to a group as a whole •  National Rifle Association •  Open Source Software Folks feel more attached to their group as a whole and enjoy the association Common Bond eory To be attached to a group on an individual level •  BFFs in your book club •  Who’s online in your chat list in IM Folks feel more attached at an individual level – if your friends leave the club, you will too Images:    h*p://www.plantsciences.ucdavis.edu/  
  8. 8. MotivationUnderstand how design choices influence members’commitment and contribution to onlinecommunities.eories taken from an off-line context andapplying them to an online context.
  9. 9. Causes of Common Identity-basedAttachments   •  Social Categorization Objective, subjective or random criteria •  Interdependence Joint task, purpose, fate, or reward •  Intergroup Comparisons In-group/out-group designation
  10. 10. Causes of Bond-based Attachments   •  Social Interaction with Others Frequency •  Personal Knowledge of Others Personal information and self-disclosure •  Interpersonal Attraction to Others rough Similarity Preferences, attitudes and values
  11. 11. Behavioral Outcomes:Cohesion, Commitment & Evaluation     Identity-based Attachments Bond-based Attachments Both increase group cohesion Both result in positive self-group evaluation Both increase positive feelings toward the group Both increase likelihood of remaining in the group
  12. 12. Behavioral Outcomes:Content of Discussion Identity-based Attachments: Off-topic discussion is discouraged Bond-based Attachments: Off-topic discussion is considered acceptable
  13. 13. Behavioral Outcomes:Social Loafing Identity-based Attachments: Responsibility likely to be shared or assumed Members compensate for slackers/lurkers Bond-based Attachments: Less obligation for responsibility More tolerant of slackers/lurkers
  14. 14. Behavioral Outcomes:Group Norms Identity-based Attachments: Non-conforming Bond-based Attachments: Conforming
  15. 15. Behavioral Outcomes:Response to Newcomers Identity-based Attachments: More welcoming, accepting Bond-based Attachments: More exclusive Obstacles to newcomers
  16. 16. Behavioral Outcomes:Reciprocity Identity-based Attachments: Prone to generalized reciprocity (community) Bond-based Attachments: Prone to direct reciprocity (dyadic)
  17. 17. Behavioral Outcomes:Group Robustness Identity-based Attachments: Less robust to off-topic discussion Less resilient to member turnover Bond-based Attachments: More robust against off-topic and Less resilient toturnover
  18. 18. Implications for DesignWhat is your online community’s goal?•  Identity-based•  Bond-based•  Dual-purpose
  19. 19. Design  Dimensions•  Newcomer socialization•  Discussion moderation•  Community size•  Role of core members•  Community goals
  20. 20. Newcomer  Socialization•  Challenge: How to recruit new members without disrupting the ongoing community –  Getting newbies up-to-speed
  21. 21. Discussion  Moderation    •  Challenge: Keep it real or keep it together? –  Should off-topic conversations be allowed?
  22. 22. Community  Size•  Challenge: How to get more people without losing them. –  Managing membership turnover
  23. 23. Role of Core Members•  Challenge: How to get participation from peripheral members without intimidation by the core group –  Growing the participating community
  24. 24. Community  Goals•  Challenge: How to keep subgroups in-line with the overall community goals –  Supporting subgroups within the community
  25. 25. Ren et. al. and KrautComputing as a group activity not a solitary one
  26. 26. Ren et. al. and KrautSocial psychology as an important influence ondesign decisions in group oriented systems
  27. 27. Ren et. al. and Kraut Mostly uncharted territory.
  28. 28. Social Psychology and HCI/HCDE Computing is becoming more group focused, thanks to the internet
  29. 29. Social Psychology and HCI/HCDEGroups are becoming more distributed thanks to faster internet connections and cheaper telecommunications platforms
  30. 30. Social Psychology and HCI/HCDE Social Psychological theories, like CommonIdentity and Common Bond, already tell us a lot about how people act in groups
  31. 31. Social Psychology and HCI/HCDE Future research needs to test these theories at “web scale”
  32. 32. Social Psychology and HCI/HCDE Future research needs to test design processes informed by these theories