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Pak steel intership report


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the internship report of pakistan steel mill located at karachi .....
the largest organization in pakistan ..
we have did internship at PPC, QCD ,MERS and IN engg and managemnt department ..

Pak steel intership report

  3. 3. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME PREFACE This report contains the information about thosedepartments which are visited by the internees. Whatever themachinery seen and the processes are observed, attracting thehuman mind and realizes the men what science has achieved andwhat kind of mericals has been done by it. Basically Pakistan steelmill is quite attention attracting industry it provides lot ofopportunities to see, to observe, to achieve and to get the lot ofexperience about the industry as well as about the machinery.The technology installed at Pakistan steel mill is the old one but dueto the hardworking labor it can compete the latest technology eventoday.This report may also contains the facts and the real figures of thevarious departments which are very beneficial for our experienceand the also for the practical knowledge. The functions and thedetails of their working and the process as well as the timing andwork break down structure is also mentioned in this report. This isedit by the students of the INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING ANDMANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT of the nominated university ofjamshoro named MEHRAN UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERINGAND TECHNOLOGY JAMSHORO SINDH PAKISTAN. Thedetails of the students are as under:- SUHAIL AHMED PALIJO (08IN36). MUHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70). WAZIR AHMED JATOI (08IN64). SAEED AHMED JANDAN (08IN34). KAMRAN AHMED MEMON (08IN43). PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 3 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  4. 4. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We are very thankful from the core of my heartto honorable CEO, Pakistan Steel, MALIK ISRARHUSSAIN for providing us opportunity for training andwhose intelligent, wise and sound leadership has convertedmanpower into wining combination by this industry into agold mine. We wish to express my deep gratefulness toMR. RIZWAN AHMED, Director (Personnel & HRD) forhis consideration and supervision. It was a memorable timein Pakistan steel due to his kind concern. We are also thankful to MR. NISAR A.KHOWAJA, Incharge (Training Wing) and MR. YOUSUFAYUB, Dy. Manager/ Incharge ( In- Plant Training) for hisprecious advice and for he great encouragement andcooperation, because of which We have successfullycompleted our internship training of PAKISTAN STEELwhere we learned a lot. PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 4 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  5. 5. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME CONTENTS UNIT’S DESCRIPTION PAGE NO.UNIT NO. 1 INTRODUCTION 07 • Brief History 08 • Location and Sites 09UNIT NO. 2 PRODUCTION PLANING & CONTROL 10 • Introduction of Production, Planning 11 and Control. • Objective of Production, Planning 12 and Control. • Roll of Production Planning and 12 Control in Pak steel. • Hot metal section. 13 • Steel making section. 16 • Rolling section. 17 • Budgeting and procurement section. 18UNIT NO. 3 QUALITY CONTROL DEPARTMENT • Quality, Quality Control. 19 • Quality Control in Pakistan steel. 20 • Quality Control section in Pakistan 20 steel. 21 i) RMHD Section. 21 ii) COBP Section. 23 iii) Sintering section. 25 iv) IMD Section. 26 v) SMD section. 28 vi) HSM section 33 PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 5 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  6. 6. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME vii) REFRACTORY Section. 35 viii) CRM SECTION 40UNIT NO. 4 MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT AND 43 REPAIR SECTION • Maintenance 44 • Objectives of Plant maintenance 44 • Importance of the maintenance 44 • Maintenance section in Pakistan steel. 45 • M.E.R.S 45 • Maintenance of HSM 46 • Maintenance of SINTERING 48UNITE NO. 5 INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING 50 DEPARTMENT • DEFINITION 51 • FUNCTION 51 • SALIENT FUNCTIONS’ OF I.E.D 51 • PRESENT EXERCISE. 51 • FUTURE PROGRAMME. 52 • WORKING OF I.E.D NOW A 52 DAYS. 52 • HAZARD ALLOWANCES PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 6 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  7. 7. INTERNSHIP PROGRAMEINTRODUCTIONSteel is the main metal in the worldwithout steel the life became incompletebecause steel is used in many places whereno metal or non-metal thing can not beused not only Pakistan there so muchdemand of in steel in world steel is thebake bone of any country it plays vital rolein the development of any country not onlyin physical sense but also economically.Similarly like other countries Pakistan hasdecided to install its own steel mill becausebefore steel mill, the steel and the relatedmetals are the imported from othercountries. Before steel mill he wasdependents of other countries. But now heis capable of producing 1.1milion ton ofsteel mill by his own which is not sufficientbut quit helpful for the country from everyaspect foundation of steel mill was kept bythe legend Qaid-e-awam ZULIFIQAR ALIBHUTTO in 1976 with the co-operation ofRussia who have transferred the latesttechnology of that time and this project ofabout billion approximately it wascompleted in 1981.first time in Pakistanthe blast furnace started in 1981 to producepig iron further it was converted into steelof different grades.Pakistan steel mill is separated over 18000acres out of which 10000 was fixed formill and rest of will be for the housing andmedical facilities Pakistan steel mill notonly provides the medicate facilities but alltype of facilities such as education, sports, completion and higher educationfacilities etc due to Pakistan steel mill thousands of people are employed andliving the prosperous life. PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 7 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  8. 8. INTERNSHIP PROGRAMEBRIEF HISTORYThe engineering goods industry is recognized the world over as most critical for thedevelopment of self reliant and vibrant economy. This industry, however, depends heavilyon basic metals industry, specially the iron & steel industry for the supply of resourceinputs. the iron & steel industry, therefore holds the key To the sustained growth of theengineering sector and hence to the development of the economy as whole. As such thesteel industry can be termed as mother industry to all modern industries, being the basicsource of metal for them.In this perspective the importance of the national assets such as PAKISTAN STEEL,which determined on their strength and ability to sustain the national growth rate, need notbe emphasized. Abundant steel, sufficient power and adequate Transport are otherwisealso absolute necessities for the rapid industrialization of developing countries today. Ifone desires to find out what PAKISTAN STEEL has done for the country, one will haveto venture back in time, into the early 70s when PAKISTAN STEEL was only a dream onpaper. By that time non-existence of an iron & steel making plant of a reasonable size inPakistan had shown its adverse effects on the industrial and economic development of thecountry which continued to suffer various set backs because of dependence on import ofiron and steel products.A stage had been reached when it had been realized that the import bill to meet all there3quirements of steel could not be supported indefinitely. In fact the idea of setting up ofa steel mill in the country had been cooking over the red hot coals of controversy since theintroduction of the first five year plan (1955-60) which laid emphasis on the domesticproduction of iron and steel.Debates over the manufacturing process, supply sources of the requisite machinery andraw materials, plant site, domestic ore versus imported ore, ownership pattern, product-mix and above all, foreign financing g credits, kept the projects simmering over as periodof two decades.In 1968 beside other factors, it was considered by the Government that a basic steelindustry should be established in the public sector as public sponsorship of the projectwould enable integrated development of steel industry in the country. in the light of this,Government decided that the Karachi Steel Project should be sponsored in the publicsector for which a separate Corporation under the Companies act be formed, in thepursuance of this decision Pakistan Steel Mills Corporation was setup as a private limitedcompany under companies act 1913 in the public sector on 2nd July, 1968 with the objectto establish and run Steel Mills at Karachi and other places in Pakistan.In January, 1969, PAKISTAN STEEL concluded an agreement with V/O Tiajpromexportof the then USSR for preparation of a feasibility report for the establishment of steel Millsat Karachi. Subsequently in January, 1971 Pakistan and the USSR signed an agreementunder which the latter agreed to provide techno-financial assistance for the construction ofa coastal-based integrated Steel Mills at Karachi. PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 8 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  9. 9. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME The foundation stone of this vital and gigantic project was laid on 30th December,1973the then Prime Minister of Pakistan., the mammoth construction and erection work, of anintegrated steel mills never experienced before in the country, was carried out by aconsortium of Pakistani construction companies under the overall supervision of sovietexperts.PAKISTAN STEEL does not only have to construct the main production units but a hostof infrastructure facilities involving unprecedented volumes of work and expertise.Component units of the Steel Mills numbering over twenty and each a big enough factoryin its own right were commissioned as they were august, 1985 with coke oven and by-product plant coming on steam the first and the galvanizing unit the last. Commissioningof blast furnace No. 1 on 14th August, 1981 marked Pakistan’s entry into the elite club ofiron and steel producing nations. The project was completed at a capital cost of Rs. 24,700million. The completion of the steel mills was formally launched by the president ofPakistan on 15th January, 1985.PAKISTAN STEEL today is the country’s largest industrial undertaking havingproduction capacity of 1.1million tones of steel. The enormous dimensions of the projectcan be visualized from the construction inputs which involved the use of unparalleled 129 million cubic meters of concrete, 5.70million cubic meters of earth work (secondly toTarbela Dam), 330,000 tones of machinery, steel structure and electrical equipment. It’sunloading and conveyor system at Port Qasim is the third largest in the world and itsindustrial water re3soervior with a capacity of 110 million gallons per day is the lar54gestconcrete reservoir in Asia. A 2.5 kilometers long sea water channel connects the plant siteto feed the sea water circulation system with 216 million gallons per day. The plant’s 2 kmlong flyover which connects the steel mills with National Highway was the largest in thecountry when built.The above figures illustrate the massive civil works, intricate erect ions, installation ofsophisticate4d electrical and mechanical and equipment with the completion ofPAKISTAN STEEL, the local contractors gained the technical ability till the unknown tothem which they utilized later to undertake works worth millions of rupees/dollars bothwithin the country and abroad specially Middle East.LOCATIOIN AND SITE:PAKISTAN STEEL is located at a distance of 40 km South East of Karachi at Bin Qasimin close vicinity of Port Muhammad Bin Qasim is a coastal site which lies on the NationalHighway is linked to the railway network. It was found to be an ecologically preferablelocation, alongside a tidal creek and having wind direction away from the city of Karachi.PAKISTAN STEEL is spread over an area of 18,600 acres (about 29 square miles)including 10,390 acres for township and 200 acres for 110 MG water reservoir. In additionit has leasehold rights over an area of 7520 acres for mining of limestone and dolomite inMakli and Jhampir areas of district Thatta. PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 9 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  11. 11. INTERNSHIP PROGRAMEINTRODUCTION:-Production planning and control as its name suggest that it is combination of threedepartments: 1. PRODUCTION DEPTT: 2. PLANNING DEPTT: 3. CONTROL DEPT:1-Production: It is the process or procedure to develop to transform a set of input element like men, material, machine and capital information and energy into ratio specified set of output elements like finished products and services in proper quantity and quantity to achieve the objectives of the enterprise PLANNING: 1. Planning all aspects of the production, selling etc, are essential in order to minimize intangibles. 2. Planning is the process by which a manager anticipates the future and discovers the alternative courses of actions open to him. 3. Planning is the economic, rational, systematic way of making decisions today which will affect the future e.g what will be done in future, who will do it and where it will be done. 4. Infect every managerial work/act whether it would be physical or mental is inexorably intertwined with planning. 5. Without proper planning the activities of an enterprise became confused. 6. Prior planning is necessary or very essential for utilizing the available facilities (Men, material, machine, etc) to the best of the advantage.CONTROL : 1. Controlling is the process that measures current performance and guides it towards some pre-determined goals. 2. controlling involves: Monitoring of the activities to make sure that the objectives are being met. The initiation of corrective actions as required overcoming problems, if any hindrance is occurred during the process. Checking and the examination is required on the periodic basis to ensure that the things are preceding as per plan. PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 11 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  12. 12. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME It is necessary to ensure that the orders are not miss-understood rules are not violated and objectives have not been unknowingly shifted. It is the continuous process that measures the progress of the operations (compares) verifies them confirms with the pre-determined plan and takes correctives actions if required. OBJECTIVES OF THE PRODUCTION PLANNAING AND CONTROL:- • Effectiveness: goods to fulfill customers’ needs • Maximizing output: maximum output with minimum input • Quality control: Product/service quality meets planned quality specifications • Minimize throughput time: conversion of RM to FG in minimum time • Capacity: full utilization of men & machines • Minimize cost: minimum cost of production • Maintaining inventory: optimal inventory • Flexibility: flexibility in production operations • Coordination: between men & machines • Capacity: plan for current & future needs • Reduce bottlenecks: solve production problems early • Maximize profit: minimize cost • Production schedules: as per plan • Routes & schedules: to optimize use of men, material & machinery • Maintain performance: maintain standardsROLE OF PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL IN STEELMILL:-It is one of the main department of the steel mill basically its main function is to makeplanning for the over all production either it is daily, weekly, monthly or annually.It plays the role of the backbone in the steel mill. Without ppc steel mill is useless if youreally want to make it useful their must be ppc department. If any org. is working withoutplanning it has to bear heavy loss as well as the lot of wastage of the time and other factorssuch as money, material, machinery. Planning is the single tool which minimizes thateffect and maximizes the profit.In steel mill under the quit capable supervision of the production planning and controldeptt: almost all production deptt: are working. Due to large numbers of the departmentppc has divided them into the three groups. By grouping system it is easy to handle andcontrol. Details of the department are as underThere are 4 major groups:- 1. Hot metal section/department. 2. Steel making department/section. 3. Rolling section. PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 12 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  13. 13. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME 4. Budgeting and Procurement section.All these sections are further divided into various units or departments. HOT METAL SECTION:- It is the main section of the ppc department. It deals with the all type of the hot metal and the raw material. It contains the following departments. 1. RAW MATERIAL AND HANDLIND DEPARTMENT. 2. SINITERING DEPARTMENT. 3. COCK OVEN AND BY PRODUCT DEPARTMENT. 4. IRON MAKING DEPARTMENT. RAW MATERIAL AND HANDLING DEPARTMENT Pakistan steel mill meets its raw material‘s requirement both from indigenous as well as foreign sources locally available materials include:- 1).Limestone 5.)Bauxites 2).Dolomite 6).Magnetite 3).Fireclay 7).Chromites 4).Fluoride Of these PAKISTAN STEEL MILL has also leasehold rights for limestone and dolomite quarries located within the convenient distance of the works. Nevertheless the basic minerals namely (iron ore, coking coal and manganese ore are imported because of the indigenous non-availability In appropriate chemistry /quality and quantity. Major raw material requirement at full production is given below:- ITEM At 1.1MTPY (IN THOUSAND TONNES). IMPORTED:- Coking coal 1050 Iron ore 1910 Manganese ore 28 Ferro-manganese 6 Ferro-silicon 3 Aluminum 2 Zinc 3 Fluorite 5 LOCAL:- Limestone 390 Dolomite(sinitert grade) 185 PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 13 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  14. 14. INTERNSHIP PROGRAMEDolomite(refractory grade) 46Refractory clay 28Silica sand 19ITEM LocationIMPORTED:-Coking coal Australia ,CanadaIron ore Australia, Canada, Iran, IndiaManganese ore CanadaFerro-manganese Canada, Iran, IndiaFerro-silicon India, IranAluminum Australia, CanadaZinc Iran, IndiaFluorite India, IranLOCAL:-Limestone Makli Distt: ThattaDolomite(sinitert grade) JhumpirDolomite(refractory grade) JhumpirRefractory clay BalochistanSilica sand BalochistanBLENDING YARD:- IT is the ground where blends are made by mixings the same material but ratio ofthe % should be different.BLEND:-It is the mountain of the mixtures of the two materials of different % ratio.Let have an example of the iron ore there are two types of the iron ore one is local andother is imported.Both these materials are mixed to attain the required % of the iron ore because theimported iron ore is the expensive one so that we cannot used the imported iron ore atall. PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 14 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  15. 15. INTERNSHIP PROGRAMESINITERING:-This plant has two sintering machines with an effectivesintering area of the 75 square meters.After BMR the sintering area has increased to 90 sq.m therebyincreasing the annual production capacity from 1.5 milliontones to 1.8 million tones of the sinter. These machinesprovide sinter to the iron making deptt: for production of thehot metal /pig iron sinter is prepared by heating up anamalgam or cake ,dolomite, limestone and iron ore.COKE OVEN AND BY PRODUCTPLANT:There two cokes over batteries in this plan and each battery consists of 49 ovens.The first battery was commissioned von 17th April, 1981 where as the second one wascommissioned on 7th may, 1985. These batteries produce metallurgicalcoke and other by by-products such as coke oven gas ammonium sulphate. Coal-tar etc. coke oven gas is used for generating electricity by thermal power plant. Coal-tar is a very useful item which can be used for producing basic chemical products. It is utilized in the manufacturingof the black carbon, insecticides and even some perfumes. PAKISTAN STEEL’S cokeis of the highest international standards. It not only sells in the local market is indemand in many foreign countries also other coke is exported to the overseas markets.IRON MAKING DEPARTMENTThere are two blast furnaces in the iron makingdeptt: each B.F with an effective volume of1033cm3 and has the capacity of the 1750 tones ofthe molten metal/iron per day the 1st B.F went intothe production on 14th august 1981 while the 2ndB.F also became operational on the independenceday in 1984.this plant also produces the by-products called the granulated slag from both theblast furnaces. It is about 250,000 tons per year.This is also utilized in the slag cement, slagwools; slag blocks for the buildings and the PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 15 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  16. 16. INTERNSHIP PROGRAMEconstruction of the roads.It also produces the gas utilized in thermal power plant for the generation of theelectricity. the molten iron produced by the iron making department called the pig ironis not only sufficient for the internal demands of the Pakistan steel mill but numerousfoundries demands the pig iron in the country. This pig iron is measures up a/c to theinternational standards and has been supplied to the various foreign countries such asIndia, Bangladesh, Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, china, south Korea and JapanSTEEL MAKING PLANT/DEPARTMENT:-In this plant two top-blown basic oxygen furnaces (linz-donawitz)Converter of 130 tones charge weight each is installed which transform molten ironinto steel. In order cast molten steel in the shapes of the blooms, slabs, and billets. Abloom caster and the billet caster are added in 1989and the two slab casters are alsoinstalled in the plant blooms of 260*260mm size are used for making the billets in thebillet mill where as the slabs of the 150to200mm and width size of 700 to1550mm aresupplied to the 1700mm or hot strip mill for the manufacturing of the hot rolled sheets.The cast billets of 80*80mm-150*150mm size produced in the billet caster are directlymarketed the first converter was commissioned on the 18th December 1982 and thebillet caster on the 22nd December 1982,first slab caster on the 10th august 1983andthe second on the 1st November 1983.BILLET MILL(800mm):-Prime quality rolled billets of the size 50*50mm to 100*100mm are being produced inthe billet mill which is most important plant of the Pakistan steel mill. Capability ofthe manufacturing of the round billets of 56mm diameter has also been attained by thePakistan steel mill steel billets are utilized for producing, besides construction bars andother products such as wire rods, nuts, bolts, balling hoops, rails, heavy structurerolled sections, seamless pipes, gas cylinders etc. The 800mm billet mill wascommissioned on 11th October 1982.CONTINOUS BILLET CASTER:-In order to meet the demands of the billets in the market as well as to balance thedesigned production capacity of the steel mill to cater for the market demandPAKISTAN STEEL has set up a six strands continuous billet caster with productioncapacity of 400,000 tones per annum, adjacent to steel making department.Billet caster can produce billets in sizes of the 50*50mm,100*100mm,125*125mm,themachinery and equipment were produced from M/s voest-alpine, Austria at the totalcost of Rs.167.7 millions .the project was commissioned on the 11th November1989,product through the billet caster is more efficient and cost effective than throughbloom casting/billet re-rolling route. PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 16 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  17. 17. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME ROLLING SECTION The rolling section has been further divided into the two sections. 1. Hot strip mill (1700mm). 2. Cold rolling mill. 3.HOT STRIP MILL (1700mm). With the commissioning of the hot stripe mill on the 25th December 1983.theproduction of the steel sheets ,strips, coil commenced in the country.The annual production capacity of the 1700mm hot strip mill is 790,000 tones. Cold rolledsheets and stripes are also produced from the hot rolled coils and sheets, strips .Hot rolledsheets and stripes are used for the manufacturing the pipes of the small, large and mediumsizes. Bodies of the cars and other vehicles, railway wagons transformers boilers big tanksocean going ships machines furniture and much more.COLD ROLLING MILL:-This plant is used for the production of the cold rolled coils which are more beneficial forvarious types of works such as sheets pf the vehicles, as well as the body of the aeroplanes and etc. An other assignment is also fulfilled which is of the slitting and shearingthese sheared sheets are used for the flouring, as well as ceiling and in various otherfunctions where there hot rolled sheets are not benefited. CRM is the one of the largest and the cleanest department in the whole steel mill.It is the one of the best deptt: which always remain clean, all the products of the steel milldepend on the CRM deptt because each and every product has to pass from that deptt:CRM contains following units or sections: 1. Continuous pickling unit. 2. Reversible unit. 3. Annealing furnace. 4. Tempering mill unit. 5. Combined slitting and shearing units. 6. Galvanizing unit. 7. Profile bending.The most important section of the CRM deptt: is the single strand reversible mill whichhas the annual production capacity of 200,000 tones .out of this 100,000tonnes can beutilized to manufacture the formed sections and 90,000 tones are salable in the market asthe cold rolled sheets /coils. Cold rolled sheets and coils are used in the those industrieswhich are manufacturing the bicycles ,steel containers, drums, barrels, jerry can bodies ofthe buses and other vehicles and steel furniture’s ,machinery parts instruments for oil andgas etc. galvanized sheets are used for the manufacturing of the trucks, buckets ,ironshuttering ceilings air-conditioning, ducts, ribbed sheets deserts, coolers utensils of the PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 17 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  18. 18. INTERNSHIP PROGRAMEdaily use, air-conditioners water heaters, and water tanks, etc all the units of the coldrolling mill were commissioned b/w the February to December 1984.the operation of themain cold rolling mill units marked the completion of the phase of producing 1.1 millionstones of steel products.BUDGTING AND PROCURMENT:-Budgeting and procurement are two different phrases each phrase has its own actualmeaning as the phrase budgeting from its name it suggest the process of the makingbudget of the org.Each and every organization must have a separate budgeting section because until andunless an organization .doesn’t prepare its budget, obviously it will bear heavy losses notonly in case of capital but due to not perfectly defined budget it’ll also remain at thebackside in all fields. Similarly in Pakistan steel mill the budgeting section is performingits duties under the kind control of the production planning and control department.FUNCTION OF THE BUDGETING SECTION:-It’s first and for most function is to make budget for the whole organization. Sometimesthe budget will be out of the situation so in that case first to overcome all types of thewaste or extra expenses then the strategy is made. This will prove better for theorganization. PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 18 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  20. 20. INTERNSHIP PROGRAMEQUALITY Quality means the degree of perfection of excellence when applied tomanufactured produces. It not necessary means “the beat”. It should imply “the best formoney” that is the product should meet the desired requirement at lowest cost.The word “quality” is meaning less until and unless the product made up of high qualityhas specified used means product serve the specified function for which it is made.Quality of product is relative terms and it can only be comparing some standards hence thequality of product may be defined as the conformance to standard and speciation. Quantityalso has a considerable effect on quality and hence it becomes more complex to manger tocontrol and to achieve the quantity output.QUALITY CONTROL Basically “Quality control” we mean that those process or operation of testingmeasuring and manufacturing components with a standard and then determining whetherit should be accepted, rejected, adjusted, or reworked.It is off course more sensible to control the process so that the standard are beingmaintained and that defective parts will not be produced instead of accepting or rejecting apart after it has been manufactured thus the quality control means the systematic control ofthose variable in a manufacturing process which affect the excessive.QUALITY CONTROL IN PAKISTAN STEEL As we have already discussed that the importance of the quality control in anyorganization in the above section so in any time of organization either it is manufacturingindustry or service industry or it any corporation all are bounded towards the quality oftheir product to meet their consumer demand and hence o increase the productivity.Pakistan steel is the largest organization of Pakistan and it produces wide variety of steelproduct to meet their consumer demand and hence the demand of customer can bechecked by ensuring the quality of product.Therefore Pakistan steel have their separate quality control department (Q.C.D) situated athe operation building of Pakistan steel mill.Q.C.D is under the supervision of various engineer’s, superidents etc those have wideknowledge and skills t check the quality of their product, process and also control thequality of whole process in each and every department involving in production in whichfurther necessary action is to be taken.In Pakistan steel mill raw iron ore is converted into the required product through variousdepartments all have different function and task to complete their job hence in everydepartment there is section or plant of quality of control namely called Q.C.D section ofparticular production side.Therefore quality control originally based on 12 sections which are as follows. 1) RAW MATERIAL HANDLING DEPARTMENT (RMHD) 2) COCK OVEN BY PRODUCT COBP 3) REFRACTORIES AND LIME PRODUCT SECTION 4) STEEL MAKING DEPARTMENT (SMD) 5) BILLET MILL PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 20 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  21. 21. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME 6) IRON MAKING DEPARTMETN (IMD) 7) SINTRING SECTION 8) HOT STRIP MILL (HSM) 9) COMBINE SHARING AND SILITING (CSSU) 10) COLD ROLL MILL (CRM) 11) FINAL PRODUCT DISPATCH CONTROL DEPARMTENT (FPDC). Above are the quality control section in every department and performing their job pleasantly. Here we are going to describe each one by one. RAW MATERIAL HANDLING DEPARTMENT INTORUDUCTION This is the very stage in which the raw material is handle that has been taken either from local resources or it taken taken from internationally. RMHD section’s basically work about two particular field i-e i) Blending ii) Primarary stock • Primarary stock is one which the various type ofraw material which is unloaded at jeetti and throughconvare comes at RMHD and then to make pile throughlayer’s of material, there are basically four type of pile arethere Pile1 and pile-2 containing material in lump form andpile-3 and pile-4 of material in fine form. • Blending is a section in which the mixture of twoor more than two material if to be mixed both of same nature. TYPES OF RAW MATERIAL Not only iron ore there is many other material that has been taken either locally or international and it can classified as follows 1) IRON ORE The iron ore used is usually taken from international market but it also taken local as well when required a) Iron ore in LUMP form b) Iron ore in FINE form 2) MAGNESSE The manganese has wide application in making of various grade therefore pak steel took manganese in two form i-e lump and fine. 3) QUARTIZIDE PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 21 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  22. 22. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME4) DOLOMITE5) LIME STONE6) SILICA SAND7) BANTONITE CLAY.PROCEDURE OF RHMD The material that has come internationally is unloaded at JT.There are two types of convare belt that has taken the unloaded materiali) 12’-1 ii)12’-2There are two sampler is installed on each convere i-eSample no. 1 on 12’-1 and sampler no. 2 on 12’-2.Whenever the ore flow over the convere the extreme of that ore is to be cutter and oneach sampler there is material box in which the cutter material is inserted until thebucket is full the material is shifted down. After all that the reversing belt is there nowif the belt is moved forward there is sieve of -6mm to + 6 mm present.The material less then under the size of 6 – 30, is to be sieved and drill down as fineand which is not sieved is also taken from the surface and hence by forward movingwe get both lump and fine form of ore. On the other hand if the material is moved in reversed direction there iscombine crusher to crushes further into the size of -10 to +10 mm. Now all these ore(material) is further crushing & girding the metal is becomes very much powder likesand is shifted to the process so that through various analyses they may get therequired %age of Fe content in crushed ore and hence observed the quality.RAW MATERIL QUALITY CONTROL SECTION At RMHD the quality control section is responsible to taken the sampleof raw material and make it in proper form by following a particular process and thensend it to the process lab so that to analyze the content of material and % age of theirpresence in the material is also taken. PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 22 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  23. 23. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME COCK OVEN BY PRODUCT (COBP )INTRODUCTION COBP abbreviated as cock ovenby products. It’s the one that provide the cock asa basicwith various other by products those werenecessary to regulate in various section as a fuelas some of them also sell into the market after littleprocessing as a extra profit to the organization.COBP FUNCTION COBP works on to performs the followingactions,COCK to convert COAL COBP has major works to produce coalthrough cock so that it provided facility in the blast furnaceand in converter as well as a fuel. When the coal is to be taken from the battery one by one after thatquenchingof coal is to be done in two different fashion i-e dry or wet quenching.After quenching sieve analysis is to be done if the sizeof cock is in b/w 25-80 mm the cock is continuously transferred to the blast furnaceand more the 80 mm size mean’s +80 mm is to be sell out and -25 mm is lying downand make use of it if required.BY PRODUCT OF COBPCOAL TAR, COCO ONE GAS, AMMONIA GAS. • Ammonia gas after passing through sulfuric acid is to be manufactured as a by product which is used fertilizers. • Similarly coco one is also collected and this gas used as a burned in various even it is also used in cock battery. The coco one gas has low colorific value then natural gas but it is the by product so its provide facility as a fuel. • Coal tar is major by product it is used as a fuel in various section and also used in refractory bricks. PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 23 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  24. 24. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME COBP QUALITY CONTROL SECTION COBP has a continuous process the cock comes through battery and send it of required size to B.F but through sampler the sampler is also be taken after every 6 hours and check the quality of the coal and then gives specification of the B.F operator observers so now its depends upon B.F’s operator either he satisfied with the specification given by COBP quality section or don’t he. The quality of manufactured coal is to be checked by following process as we have done in RHMD. The sampler take’s the sample of cock and sample is to crushed , grind and then make it into powder form which is then send to the process lab so that to understand the chemical composition. The most preferable composition of coal is as Chemistry % age of material involved Ash 12.2 % Volatile 1.3 % Sulphur 0.5 % Carbon Remaining %ageIn the quality section of COBP the strength of the coal is also checked through the used ofthe drum tester.At this stage the sampler of 25 mm to 80 mm is to be filled into the drum and revolve itabout 10 revolution now we have 2 types of sieve’s namely the 40 M and 10 M sieve therefore the drum cock is to be spread over 40 M sieve.Hence in sieving of the cock taken from the drum so to be passé most of particle down the40 M sieve to 10 M sieve and further from 10 M to -10 M so the strength of the coal is tobe called is poor strength but on the other hand if the drum of cock present more of it pastover the 40 M sieve and some of the 10 M sieve so in this case it is called good strengthcoal. PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 24 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  25. 25. INTERNSHIP PROGRAMESINTERING INTRODUCTION Sintering is one of the most important plant in pak steel sintering with its material provide basis to B.F so that it may produce the molten iron. The raw material either comes locally or it may internationally in fine or lump form so sintering basically make use of fine form of raw material. PROCESS OF SINTEIRND Q.C.D SECTION First of all through conver’s raw material comes and it put into the mixture. When the mixture is to be filled by burner’s the quality observer has to observe how to operate the mixture and this mixture is also called the ball because it converts the fine forms of raw material into the balling drum which revolves, the quality observer observed the mixture or sinter is properly mixed or not and if he issue so that mixture to is send to the sintering machine now this mixture is to be burned by applying heat from up side after wards these mixture cake is fully burned and continuously cooling when of away from the hot blast and then this cake is diminish by jaw crusher and tend the sinter to the blast furnace now remember quality of sinter has major importance and hence it produce wonderful type of raw iron. SINTER COMPOSTION As we know that nowadays the Pakistan steel facing a lot of problem dueto the lankness of raw material and many of its so now a day the composition of sinteringwhich is send to the B.F is as follow, Chemistry % age of material involved Fe 55.85 - 57.85 MnO 0.90 – 1.10 MgO 1.85 – 2.05 CaO 1.19 – 1.39 FeO 11.0 – 13.00 Al2O3 1.65 – 1.85 PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 25 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  26. 26. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME SiO2 6.50 – 6.70IRON MAKING DEPARTMENTINTRODUCTION In this department the raw iron is to be prepared through sinter and lumpform of iron ore means it is a stage in which the ore (fine + lump) form is to beconverted a metal form. The metal obtain from IMD is generally serve two purposeeither molted material is shipped into the SMD or it may go to foundry section toshape it into the pig called the pig iron.PROCEDURE OF IMD SECTION At this stage the raw material or ore form is to be converted into the rawmetal from hence all the further process is based on this stage i-e when the coal ofrequired size (25 – 80) mm similarly various material’s taken from variousdepartment depends upon the requirement and the order giving by PPC.When the sinter of some composition is come from the sintering section and lumpform of iron ore is come from the RMHD both form as a charge in blast furnace andhence when the charge in inserted into the blast furnace the operation of the blastfurnace is start by employing high pressure gas through tuyers. The operation of blastfurnace is depends greatly on the zones of blast furnaces because each zone havedifferent temperature to other. PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 26 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  27. 27. INTERNSHIP PROGRAMEZone’s of Blast FurnaceThe blast furnace has the following zones with their temperature Zones Temperature Hearth 1700 – 1800 Bosh 1600 - 1500 Bally 600, 700, 800 Stack 800 – 1000 Throat 600 – 1000High pressure in employed through tuyers and all charge inside reaction and hence asa result it is to be converted into two things i-e molten iron or slage. The iron has the high density and hence it is to be shifted down the blast furnacewhere as the slag has low density is placed above the molted iron. Now through tapingwhole first the iron is to be taking and filled it in the bowl and after that the slag isalso taken and it is also taken into the bowl.Major Specification Of Typical B.F Specification Value Capacity 1750 tonn dailyVolume 1033 cubic mheight 96 mStack 800 – 1000Throat 600 – 1000BLAS FURNANCE QULAITY SECTION Strictly speaking there is no quality section in blast furnace only the molten ironwhose sample is to be taken and that sample is send it the process labs so that theyapplied very technique and using various parameters and then gives the specificationof he molten metal like to how much %age of carbon is places %age of sulpure,phosphorus etc and give the report to the SMD section. PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 27 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  28. 28. INTERNSHIP PROGRAMESTEEL MAKING DEPARTMENT SMDINTRODUCTIONIt is the one of the most important department ofPakistan steel it’s not wrong if we called it as a heartof Pak Steel. At this stage we prepared the steel ofrequired grade and shape into the various form castingprocess slabs, blooms are the product of this stage.PROCEDURE OF SMDSTEEL MAKING PROCESS THROUGHCONVERTER Hot metal is transported from the twp blast furnace by rail cars in 140 tones open transfer ladlesand charged into the mixer by crane. The mixer actsas a buffer storage vessel to accommodate variation b/w iron production and the steel making operation.To maintain the temperature in the mixer natural gas burners heat the surface of the hot metal.Hot metal is poured from the mixer into a charging ladle mounted on the self –propelled rail car. During pouring the ladle car is positioned on a weighbridge.The hot, metal is charged into the converter by crane.After charging, the converter is rotated to a vertical position and one of the two water-cooled oxygen lances nozzle relative to the liquid metal surface is important in orderto create the optimum reaction conditions.To attain the desired carbon content in the refined and to oxidize other impurities acalculated volume of oxygen is blow into the converter at a controlled flown rate.During blowing process a pre- determined quantity of calcinated lime is added to thevessel to produce a slag which aids the refining process. Fluoride is added for slagfluidity control. Iron ore is sometimes added for temperature control. Coke can beadded for carbon control. If the desired steel temperature and carbon contents are not attained then a re blow isundertaken. When the end-point conditions are achieved, the converter is tilted ispoured into a 130 tones steel ladle through a tap hole. Alloying materials are added tothe ladle during tapping. Ladle additives, namely for ferromanganese and ferrosilicon,are weighed out of storage bins and loaded into boxes which are transported by a forklifter truck to the steel ladle side of the converter. Two boxes can be positionedtogether on a discharging device and the contents added to the ladle. Aluminum bars PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 28 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  29. 29. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME by bags of cokes breeze are added to the ladle by hand. For certain steel speciation calcium silicates is also added to the ladle. On completion of tapping, the steel ladle is moved by a self- propelled rail car into the ladle bay of casting area. The converter is tilted in the opposite direction and the slag is discharge into the slag pot, which is taken by a self- propelled a rail car to the slag bay. STEEL CONVERTER SPECFICATION The various specification of steel converter’s used in SMD shop is as follows,No. of converter’s 2 No.’sType Top blown oxygen converterCapacity 130 tons capacity Working volume 93 M³Specific volume M³/T 0.68Ration H/L 1.68Mouth Dia 2430 mmInner Dia 4240 mmInner Height 7125 mmTotal thickness of wall brick work 920 mm No. of bottoms 3 No.s for two converter’sTotal thickness of the safety lining Chrome magnesitebottom brick workWorking lining Ten bonded dolomiteLining life 400 heatsRate of oxygen blowing 450 M³/minOxygen blowing time 18 minute (average)Oxygen consumption 58 Cu.M/Ton.Tap – to – Tap blowing time 40 Min/Heat 60 Max / Heat MIXER The mixer used has the following specificationsNo. of Mixer One PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 29 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  30. 30. INTERNSHIP PROGRAMECapacity 1300 tones CONTINOUS CASTING PROCESS There are three machines, a 4-stand blooms caster and 2 stand slab caster and 6 stand of billet caster. The bloom and slab casters are similar in operation and the difference b/w the instruments and control systems of the two types of machine are described in the individual zone reports. The ladle from the steel making shop is moved by crane to a prepared caster. When stabilization of chemical composition or temperature of the steel is necessary the ladle is taken to a stirring station and nitrogen is blown through and immersed lance. The temperature of the steel is measured before the ladle is placed on a caster turret. When the ladle is positioned correctly on the turret arms the crane is unhooked and an operating cylinder is fitted to the slide gate valve of the discharge nozzle. The turret can accommodate two ladles, one in the casting position and the other in reserve or awaiting removal. A prepared tundish on a tundish car is positioned over the stands of the caster and the immersion nozzle for each water-cooled copper mould id fixed in position. A mould is sealed by the head of a dummy bar inserted through the rollers of the stand. The turret is rotated to bring the ladle into the casting position above the tundish. The slide gate valve of the ladle is opened and the tundish is filled to require level. The tundish stoppers are opened and when the liquid steel in each mould reaches the required level the respective mould oscillating mechanism and with drawl drive are started. The continuous cast bloom or slab, on being withdrawn iron the mould, is sprayed with water in the secondary cooling zone. During casting the levels in the tundish and moulds are regulated. The casting speed is set according to the steel temperature; the latter being measured periodically in the tundish by means of an expandable immersion thermocouple. Water flow to the secondary cooling zones is regulated as a function of casting speed. Samples are taken, from the steel flowing into the tundish, for analysis at the express spectrographic laboratory. The continuous cast bloom or slab is cut to specified length the gas cutting section. A gas cutter clamps onto the cast steel at a pre-set length and moves in synchronism until cutting is completed. The cut lengths are moved by roller table, transfer car and crane to the stock yard. Series casting can be undertaken if the interval b/w converter tapings allows a new ladle to be placed on the turret before the slide-gate valve of the previous ladle is close. CASTING MACHINE SPECIFICATION The various specification of continuous casting machines in SMD section are as follows PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 30 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  31. 31. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME SLAB CASTERNo. of Machines 2 No.’sNo. of Strands Two strands eachSize : thickness 150- 200 mm Size : width 700-1550mmType of machine Radial CurvilinearMachine radius 10 meterCasting speed 0.6-0.9 m/minutesCapacity 825,000 T/yearMachine lengthMould top to last roller 22 meterMould top to cutter 36.5 meterMetal flow control in mould Mono- block tundish stopper BLOOM CASTERNo. of Machines 1 NoNo. of Strands 04 No.s eachSize : 200 x 200 mm 260 x 260 mmType of machine RadialMachine radius 12 meterCating speed 1.1-1.2 m/minutesCapacity 400,000 T/yearMachine lengthMould top to last roller 20 meterMould top to cutter 30 meterMetal flow control in mould Hydraulically operated mono-block tundish stopper QUALITY CONTROL SECTION OF SMD PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 31 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  32. 32. INTERNSHIP PROGRAMEThe quality section of SMD containing no. of quality plant a various place taken fro thematerial from IMD and shape into other slabs, blooms etc.When the molted iron is to be taken from the IMD and then insert it into the mixer theone of the quality observer has to look after the mixing process because any delay causesthe reduce the temperature. When the molted iron through ladle insert into the converter the quality observer has to take the sample of hot metal for analysis as it poured and the temperature of the charge in the ladle is measured using an expandable immersion thermocouple. After blowing the converter is tilled and the temperature of the steel is measured using an expandable immersion thermo couple. A sample is to be taken for analysis at he express spectrographic laboratory with in the SMD building. The prepared steel in casting section to cast the blooms, slabs the quality observer taken the temperature of steel and also see the tendish of mould is properly positioned or not, the cooling system is also ok or not and afterwards the ladle tap is open steel is casted in various blooms, slabs. When the casted slabs, blooms getting cooled the quality observer received various defects of casting because of cooling system these defects are as o Longitude straight crack o Longitudinal corner crack o Auxiliary crack o Technical o Mixing o Ballet etc the quality observer mark the error and sent the casted slabs to yard section. At the yard section the length and thickness (which is verifying) and also the scarfing process is to be done through gas welding to determine the stability of the crack slab after wards the verifying slab is going to HRM or hot rolling section. SUGGESTION Whatever we observe in SMD section through whole analysis we found the following those are needed to be change in order to increase the production. The must be computerized application those gives the perfect composition of manufactured steel when the air in blowing through lance because to observe the composition’s specially the %age of carbon (C) and volume or air blowing to get the required grade of steel through the observation of flame produce during blowing is totally logical and requires too much experience on the other hand if the blowing system is computerized which gives the minute to minute to change in composition. Latest technology should be installed in order to prepare various type of steel instead to produced steel of various grade. PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 32 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  33. 33. INTERNSHIP PROGRAMEHOT STRIP MILL (HSM)INTRODUCTION It is one of the most important departmentof pak steel. It is situated nearly to the SMD section. It works to produce the coils of various grad, quality, variety of the sheets / plates. The coils produced atthis section is either dispatch to sell or it may send to the CRM for further processing. The manufacturedcoil can also be send to the CSSU section if theshearing or silitted bundle is required. The coilsproduced through HSM which is dispatch into themarket varies in thickness and some time more thickcoil can also be dispatch if the required demand is receive.PROCEDUREIt is basically a forging process as a namesuggest hot rolled mean the red hoted slab of variousgrade is rolled by high pressure and shape it into thecoil by passing through various pressing stand under aheavy pressure. It can be started when the verified slabs is to be takenthrough yard section hence ensure slabs going over the rolling section. First one by one slab are put it down on the rollers now these slabs are measured and then put it into the furnace, thefurnace has a capacity to carry 32 slabs at a time and to heated them at a temperaturemore then 1500 degree centigrade therefore rolled the quality observed obtain thetemperature of slab so that it may sustain the roller’s action and hence through controlroom it is allowed to perform job.Now at rolling action there are various stage over which the red- hoted coil has passesthrough the following, PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 33 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  34. 34. INTERNSHIP PROGRAMEVERTICAL STAND Its function first to remove all the scrapfrom the slab and 2nd the compressed the slab b/wtwo rollers, the vertical also controls the width ofthe slabs because when the slabs is to becompressed through passes the width of it needed to be maintain. After the water from a huge pressure130 kg is to be applied on the compressed slab andhence to avoid the compressed to stick each other.UNIVERSAL STAND It is one of the basic and it has the capacity to produce 35mm, 30mm,25mm of thickness of coil (sheet) from 200mm. It also the width as well which isnecessary because when the sheet is to be compressed the width controlling isnecessary. Universal stand contain two type roller i-e back or press roller and workingroller. The coil obtain from universal stand is quit thick but it also has demanded inmarket and many times pak steel has provided 35mm thickness of coil to shipping co-corporation mostly , shipping corporation requires thick coil in making the body ofship which is need to be to thick.It is to be remembering that after universal stand the continuous supply of water isnecessary in order to avoid the sheets in the coil to stick each other.FINISHING STAND There are 7-finishing stand in this shop which produced the coil ofthickness 2, 3 mm from 30-35mm on final stand. Each stand has two rollers i-eworking rollers and back rollerThe quality inspector at this is responsible to watch either posses is successfully doneor not the water which is supplied in proper manner or not and hence watch through allthis can we achieve the required thickness with tolerance or not. PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 34 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  35. 35. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME REFRACTORIES SHOP INTRODUCTION o The main purpose of the department is to produce • Calcined lime for SMD and others. • Tar bonded dolomite bricks for SMD. • Fire clay bricks for different uses all-over the Pakistan steel mil.o The department also deals with repair and installation of refractory bricks lining all over the plant. It has also a limited capacity to undertake thermal insulation wherever necessary.MAJOR SECTIONS OF FIRE-CLAY SHOP Raw material storage with Crushing Section. Fire-clay Calcinations Section (Rotary Kiln). Milling, Mixing and pressing Section. Brick firing section (Tunnel kiln Finished Product stockyard.)MAJOR SECTION OF DELOMITE SHOP Raw Material Storage with Crushing Section. Dolomite Calcinations Section (Rotary Kiln) Milling, Mixing and pressing Section. Brick Firing Finished Product stockyard.MAJOR SECTIONOF LIME SHOP PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 35 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  36. 36. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME Lime stone storage section. Lime calcinations section (rotary kiln). Waste heat boiler section. Lime storage section. a. FIRE CALY SHOP Installed capacity = 30,000 M.Tons No. of production lines = 05MAIN EQUIPMENTSNo. of toggle pressure = 02, Pressing force = 630 tonsNo. of friction pressure = 04, Pressing force = 200 tonsNo. of Tube mills = 03 capacity = 2T / HrNo. of rotary kiln = 01, charging rate = 2.50- 3.0 tons / hr b. DOLOMITE SHOPInstalled capacity = 7,600 M.tonsNo. of production lines = 02.MAIN EQUIPMENTSNo. of hydraulic presses = 02, Pressing force = 1600 TNo. of Tube mills = 01, capacity = 2 T/hrNo. of roll crusher = 01, capacity = 2.5 T/hrNo. of rotary Kiln = 01, charging rate = 2.3 – 2.5 T/hr C) LIME SHOPInstalled capacity = 87500 M.tonsNo. of production lines = 02MAIN EQUIPMENTSNo. of rotary Kilns = 02, capacity = 20 T/hrLength = 75 mDia = 3.6 mNo. of heat recovery boilers = 02, capacity = 16-18 T/Hr eachNo. of shaft coolers = 02, = steam generation PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 36 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  37. 37. INTERNSHIP PROGRAMECHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF RAW MATERILAS The raw material used for production of fire- clay bricks, Tar bondedDolomite Bricks and Lime should meet the following requirement. FIRE CLAY BRICKS Semi flint Clay Plastic ClayAl2O3 48.0 % (Min) 36.0 (Min)Al203+ Ti02 content 51.0 % (Min) 39.0 (Min)Fe203 content 2.0 % (Max) 35.0 (Max)SiO2 content 30.0 % (Max) 50-55 %Alkali 0.005 % (Max) 0.05 % (Max)L.O.I (lost of ignition) 15.0 % (Max) 14.0 % (Max)Refractoriness 1790°C 1710°CFraction size if in coming material 0.300 mm 0-300 mmSource KUNDIAN KUNDIAN (Mianwali) (Mianwali)RAW DOLOMITE RAW DOLOMITEMgO 19.0 % (Min)CaO content 33.0 % (Max)SiO2 content 1.0 % (Max)Al2O3 + Fe203 + 2.0 % (Max)Ti02+ Mn3O4L.O.I (lost of ignition) 45-47 % (Max)Fraction size if in 3-80mmcoiming materialSource PAIKHEL (Mianwali) PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 37 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  38. 38. INTERNSHIP PROGRAMELIME STONE LIME STONE CaO content 53.5 % (Min)MgO content 1.2 % (max)SiO2 + Al2O3 content 1.2 % (max) Fe203 content 0.8 % (max)L.O.I (lost of ignition) 43-45 %P contents 0.060 % (max)Fraction size if in coiming material 20-50mmTi02 content 0.25 % (max)S content 0.025 % (max)Source MAKLIFIRE CLAY BRICKS (Finished Products) Chemical composition and propertiesFe203 content 2.4 %SiO2 content 42 %Al2O3 content 47.8 % CaO content 0.9 %MgO content 1.3 %Ti02 content 3.4 %L.O.I (lost of ignition) 0.18 %Size variation +1 to -1 mmPorosity 22.0 % (min)Density 2.3 g/cm³Mechanical strength 150 Kg/Cm² (min) 230 Kg/Cm² (average) PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 38 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  39. 39. INTERNSHIP PROGRAMEDOLOMITE BRICKS The chemical composition of calcined dolomiteMgO 34 % (min)SiO2 2 % (max)Al2O3 + Ti02+ Mn3O4 4 % (max) L.O.I (lost of ignition) 1 % (max)Density 3 g/Cm³ Properties of Tar bonded dolomite bricks / blocks areDensity 2.9 g/Cm³ (min)Mechanical strength 250 Kg/Cm³ (average)Size variation Length = +3 to -3 mm Width = +2 to -2 mm Height = +1 to -1 mm PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 39 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  40. 40. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME COLD ROLLING MILL (CRM): This plant is used for the production of the cold rolled coils which are more beneficial for various types of works such as sheets pf the vehicles, as well asthe body of the aero planes and etc. an other assignment is also fulfilled which is of the siliting and shearingthese sheared sheets are used for the flouring, as well as celling and in various other functions where there hot rolled sheets are not beneficial. CRM is the one of the largest and the cleanest department in the whole steel mill. It is the one of thebest department which always remain clean, all theproducts of the steel mill depend on the CRMdepartment because each and every product has to pass from that departmentCRM contains following units or sections, i) Continuous pickling unit. ii) Reversible unit.iii) Annealing furnace.iv) Tempering mill unit.v) Combined slitting and shearing Galvanizing unit.vii) Profile bending. Any type of raw material or coil come to CRM department it has to pass allabove mentioned units then that product can be said that it is the completely finishedproduct. The coil at time of entering in the CRM department is of about 14 tons but at thetime of discharging is of 5 tons sometime for special purpose its weight is increased from5 tons to 10 tons and the thickness of the coil is below 4 mm ,at CRM it is further reducedto 1.4 - 1.6mm.DISCRIPTION OF THE VARIOUS SECTIONS AND THE QUALITYCONTROL PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 40 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  41. 41. INTERNSHIP PROGRAMECONTINOUS PICKLING UNIT. It is the unit where the coil came from the hot strip mill (1700mm) by theunderground conveyer belt which directly connects the HSM and the CRM. when thecoil reach at the pickling section there is lifter fixed in the machine whose work is to liftthe coil and wear it on the uncoiler which uncoils the coil and stretch it to the length ofabout 5-6m through the coils after that these coils are dipped into the acid bath where alltypes of scales has been removed and then goes to the an other stand where its width ismaintained by trimming the rough edges, it is set as follows: 1250 1220 1030 1000 950 900.After that it passes through gracing stand where it is grecced / oil is applied to coil as itcan be kept prevented from the corrosion and the natural effects.FUNCTION OF THE PICKLING UNIT:- The most important function is defined as “hot rolled coils are pickled in order toremove the scales and layers of the “FeO”iron oxide by the emersion of the sheet into thehydrochloric acid (HCL)”.QUALITY CONTROL IN THE PICKLING UNIT. In the pickling unit quality control only keep an eye on few of important things whichare mentioned as under:the coil coming from the hot strip mill either it is usable or defective.the coil’s specifications written on the heat card are correct or not. such aso heat numbero slab numbero length, width and thickness.the width at the time of trimming is as per requirement or not.proper greecing is done at end of the pickling unit. It is done for prevention of thecorrosion.REVERSIBLE STRAND:- It is the machine where thickness of the coil is further reduced to the requiredsize. The is passed through the reversible strand its length is minimized from 3.5mm to1.45mm or 1.4mm,the coil is passed through the strand according to its thicknesssometimes it passed three times and sometimes it is passed 5 times but counting alwaysshould be in odd numbers not in even. The emulsion solution is used in which 40% of oil PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 41 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  42. 42. INTERNSHIP PROGRAMEand 60% of the water is included. The solution used is so much expensive aboutRs.750/lit.Parts of the reversible strand:-i) uncoilerii) working rollersiii) supporting/back up rollers. These are the main parts of the reversible strand. it produces the two types of the coils oneis seen to the galvanizing plant and an other send to the annealing furnace.QUALITY CONTROL AT REVERSIBLE STRAND. At the reversible machine mostly there are two most important things to be checked. The width of the coil The surface of the coil There are so many defects sometimes appears on the 0surface of the coil. Edge waveness Buckling Marking Bubbles Coil break PoresANNELING FURNACE:- It is the furnace which is used to improve the internal structure of the coil or toincrease the strength of the material.MAIN PARTS OF THE ANNELING FURNACEMain stand .TowerFurnace (moveable).Stove In annealing furnace at a time there are 4 coils of width 950mm and 3 coils ofthe width 1220mm can kept. Duration of the furnace is minimum 18-44 hours dependingon the grade of the coil. Internal atmosphere of the furnace is of nitrogen gas and theheating process takes places in absence of the oxygen/air. After discharging from thefurnace these coils are cooled PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 42 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  44. 44. INTERNSHIP PROGRAMEMAINTENANCE Today, in modern industry, equipment and a machinery are a very important part of the total productive effort than was the case years ago. Moreover, with the developments of special purpose and sophistical machines, equipment and machinery cost a lot more money and there fore their and does time becomes much more expensive. For this reason, it is vitally important that the plant machinery should be properly maintained. OBJECTIVES OF PLANT MAINTENANCE i) The objective of plant maintenance is to achieve minimum breakdown and to keep the plant in good working condition at he lowest possible cost. ii) Machines and other facilities should be kept in such a condition which permits them to be used at their optimum (profit making) capacity without any interruption or hindrance. iii) Maintenance division of factory ensures the availability of the machines, buildings, and services required by other section of the factory for the performance of their function at optimum return on investment whether this investment be in material, machinery or personnel.IMPORTANCE OF THE MAINTENANCE i) The importance of the plant maintenance is varies with the type of the plant and its production. ii) Equipment breaks down leads to the inevitable loose of production. iii) An improperly maintained or neglected plant will sooner or later requires expensive and frequent repairs, because with the passage of the time all machines or other facilities (such as transportation facilities), buildings, etc wear out and need to be maintained to function properly. iv) Plant maintenance plays a prominent role in production management the plant break down create problems such as, • Loss in production • Rescheduling of production • Spilet material (because sudden stoppage of process damages in- process materials). • Failures to recover overheads (because of loss in production hours). • Need for over time. • Temporary work shortage- workers require alternative work. PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 44 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  45. 45. INTERNSHIP PROGRAMEMAINTENANCE SECTION IN PAK STEEL MILL Basically the maintenance section of pak steel can be divided invarious sections or shop depends upon the nature of work which is under consideration. The maintenance section of pak steel mill can be classified as i)Pulse mechanical ii) Central maintenance department (CMD) iii) Mechanical Equipment and Repair Shop (M.E.R.S) and various other section those involve in providing the facilities to the production side fortheir smooth production run. Maintenance can be done in the following fashion in any production side, • Prevantory maintenance • Break down / emergency maintenance • Capital maintenance • Modernize maintenance Preventary Maintenance It is one in which we check the plant before starting production either is it ok orit is not before as we know that the production giving section those were interlink to each otherand hence any type of damage in one part causes to stop the continuality of production andhence the productivity. Capital maintenance The designer of plant section observing the actual life of plant and it can be done whenplant fully maintain, such type of maintenance can be done in year, a month, a day, its upon thenature of the plant whose maintenance is to be done. Modernize maintenance It is one in which the modernize method require to handled the situation hence provide theflexibility in the plant in order to increase the productivity. MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT AND REPAIR SECTION ( M.E.R.S) It is one of the most important maintenance section in pak steel mill. As the name suggest mechanical equipment repair section means they are involved in repairing the equipment those are necessary in order to run the smooth production. The shop work can be start when plant observer observes the lack in a machine by varying the product and hence obtain the defects now he is responsible to submit these defects to the plant top management (DM/GM) now the letter is to be issued through the plant with the machine which requires necessary maintenance and send it to the MERS section. PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 45 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  46. 46. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME Once the letter has been received by maintenance section now the concerned maintenance section is responsible to arrange all the resources, manpower’s and those necessary things and after that are schedule for the team now these team ether general or shift. The requires is to be taken by logistic section If the maintenance is large so the maintenance authority analysis the wholeproblem and then planned the huge maintenance by using the following networktechnique’s • Critical path method (CPM) • Program evaluation and review technique (PERT) Once the schedule is made and according to that schedule the maintenance team has to work over the concerned section. Now we discussing the department in which we went with MERS maintenance team one by one. HOT STRIP MILL (HSM) As we know that they HSM is one of the most important department because it converts the red- hoted slab into various coils and hence it produce the coil. In order to achieve the maximum efficiency the maintenance of HRM is necessary. The procedure as we have already discussed the plant technician observer the defect in the running plant and submit the report to the official and then official send letter to the concerned maintenance section and hence the maintenance team’s then responsible to comes in the concerned department. MERS assign’s the in charge of maintenance observe the nature of the job and hence schedule the manpower according to their skill about the specific job. e.g FURNANCE The furnace used in HSM is one which converts the slab into red hoted form so that the slabs easily further to roll and hence in last the coil is produce. The furnace have its own importance and any lacks in furnace may causes to stop the smooth production therefore in order to achieve maximum productivity in maintenance of furnace is necessary. PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 46 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  47. 47. INTERNSHIP PROGRAMEThe maintenance section involves major to remove the defects in furnace like to changethe bricks i-e refractory inside the furnace and it is very to look after the active life of therefractory.VERTICAL STANDVertical stand is one of the most important it is the first which causes to compress 200mmthick red hoted slab into the 35mm thickness means it provided basis to other stand for thefurther reduce in thick, the key feature of the vertical is that with reducing the thickness italso control the width of the coil.The importance of vertical is also to the great extent and properly handled it necessarywhich requires a lot of effort by department as well as the maintenance section.The defect’s occur in vertical stand are mostly as follows the rollers used are some timesreplaced and some times sanded for the polish the surface of the roller, sometimes defectsoccur and hence some guiding provided by welding and some time the punk plates has tochange and many other defects that can occur and hence the maintenance section isresponsible to over all this defects in order to increase the life of the vertical stand andhence to increase the productivity.UNIVERSAL STANDAfter vertical the sheet is further rolled in universal stand therefore maintenance section isalso to look after the universal stand and replaced the necessary parts if required and henceto remove the defects that can be occur during processing. The one of the most majordefect is that the roller is to replaced when their life to be end when they are not in aposition for further grinding and many other parts and things are there depends upon thenature of the defects.FINISHING STANDOnce the sheet is obtain from the universal stand the next step is to finishing stand tofurther reduce the thick ness and 3mm approximately hence the finishing stand has its ownimportance hence the maintenance of the finishing is necessary mostly the maintenanceteams work to change the damp working role and also change the taper rolling heatinginside the cup etc there is many other parts that’s has been replaced or may be welded ifrequired.In HSM there is various other part which requires maintenance but here we are notconcerned with all that. PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 47 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  48. 48. INTERNSHIP PROGRAMESINTERINGIt is also the one of the most important section is uses the fine form of ore and convert it into the sinter from bypassing through various process and hence this sinter is used in blast furnace in order to obtain the molted raw iron.To avoid complete break down because of the maintenance in sintering plant machine -1 is allowed to running and machine -2 is lying down steadly for maintenance purpose similarly other concerned part to machine-2 are also lying down for maintenance purpose where as the machine-1 performing for the continuityof the work.On maintenance day the maintenance has come from various of its section is responsible to perform thevarious some of them that we have seen in sintering shop which are as follows.BALLING DRUMIt is used to mixed the sinter and also make the fine into the ball form, now these ballinghas to be done by removing flaws and replacing various tools and also fastening variousparts, some of the few important consideration in balling are as follows,Ring belt is checked and replaced if possibleGear (driven) and pinion (driver) which rotates the drum is also check and make certainoperation in order to improve their workability.To adjust the alignment up and down, left and right to support the wheel.CHRGING DRUMThe material come from conveyer is to be charge over the charging drum so itsmaintenance is also much necessary, some necessary action which is to be taken are asfollows • To check the bearing , map • Electric arc welding is used to insert flaws PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 48 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  49. 49. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME • Scraper is used to clean the cut and check the charge • Charge gate has to check and to set it.PILOT CARIt is also important part for the continuously of sintering process and hence requiresmaintenance as few achieve those have been takenTo check slide plate bars wheel, bearing, and proper lubrication.CRUSHERWhen cake is prepared and is totally burned now the cakes is crushed through jaw crusherand insert it into the conveyer bucket and now the sinter which crushed sent to the B.F.The maintenance section is responsible to take the following necessary action.To check all the jaw’s and hence to repair the jaw’s as well. PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 49 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  52. 52. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENTDEFINITION:- Industrial engineering can be defined as the “The engineering whichmaximizes the profit by reducing the resources by the best utilization of the tools,equipments and the industrial techniques.”FUNCTION:- Industrial engineering department encompasses activities, which are concernedwith the organized and effective utilization of the manpower with the aim of increasingthe productivity of the organization.SALIENT FUNCTIONS OF I.ED:- 1. To analyze the requirement of the temporary manpower demaned on the regular basis by the different departments and to curtail wherever possible. 2. To prepare the directorate-wise daily attendance of the Pakistan steel mill for a bird eye view of the competent authority. 3. To collect the monthly manpower returns from all departments of the Pakistan steel for the various studies of the cases and analytical comparisons of the man power. 4. To asses’ requirement of the temporary workers demanded for the different projects/specific works. 5. To monitor and allocation of the hazards allowance. 6. Analysis and recommendation for the various types of the contract manpower including through heeded trust. 7. Monthly recommendation for the allocation of the department-wise overtime limits. 8. Time-to time preparation of the analytical comparison of the rationalized, regular, temporary and other holding manpower on the department /directorate basses directed. 9. Category-wise revision of the wages of the daily wagers and salaries of the contract employees, whenever desired.PRESENT EXERCISE:-IED is conducting an exercise for the requirement of daily wages workers to completeeach project/assignment on the basis of the nature of the job, its inevitability and numberof the persons/duration required for. PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 52 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  53. 53. INTERNSHIP PROGRAMEFUTURE PROGRAMME:-Conduction of the exercise to find out the shortcomings in the area where theirdeployment is not in accordance to their suitability and induction of the qualifiedengineers with respect to required disciplines.WORKING OF THE I.E.D NOW A DAY:-Now a days it is working on the following things;- 1. Attendance. 2. Hazards allowances. 3. Control on the distribution of the uniforms among the employees. 4. Controlling the man power. 5. Keeping the records of the temporary and daily wages employees. HAZARDS ALLOWNCES;- There are four categories:- 1. A-ONE(Most hazardous place) 2. A(less than A-one) 3. B(less than A). 4. C(less than B).There is lot of difference in allowances rates between these categories. These type ofincentives are introduced first time in the Pakistan steel mill in 1984.the committee isformed whose is responsible for the hazard allowances. PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 53 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED
  54. 54. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME PREPARED BYName: Mohammad YounusFathers Name: Mohammad Anwar QureshiSurname: QureshiNationality: PakistaniDate of birth: 24th November 1988Place of Birth: HyderabadDomicile: Hyderabad UrbanProfession: StudentDegree: Graduation (B.E Industrial Engineering & Management)Year of Study: Final year.Roll No. 08IN70University: Mehran University of Engineering and Technology (M.U.E.T) Jamshoro. PAKISTAN STEEL MILL KARACHI 54 PREPARED BY :MOHAMMAD YOUNUS & SUHAIL AHMED