Lucky cement factory internship report


Published on

the internship report at lucky cement factory plant at karachi near nooriabad .......
we see no. of activitise over here and we enjoy alot ........
this report include all process and activites to make the cement ..........!!!!

Published in: Business, Technology
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Lucky cement factory internship report

  2. 2. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITED PREFACE This report has been give by theauthors to convey the information about differentdepartments of lucky cement limited , which has beenvisited during our industrial training. We havediscussed the different specifications , processing andproduction of the department we visited. Wehave tried to give some history of the processes , literature , survey and importance of the processingas well. MOAHAMMD YOUNUS (08IN70) SUHAIL AHMED PALIJO (08IN36) & MANSOOR AHMED SOLANGI (08IN106) PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 2 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  3. 3. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITED ACKNOWLEDGEMENTFirst of all we would like to thanks Al-mighty Allah , The MostBeneficent and Merciful . We are very happy to avail thisgolden opportunity of getting training at lucky cement plant .We are thankful to General Manager of Lucky cement plantat Karachi Mr. Mashkoor Ahmed who provided us such avaluable opportunity.A lot of thanks to MECHANICAL Manager M.K PASHA whoprovided us assistance in such a friendly environment. We are Also thankful toASSISTANCE MANAGER SHAHID ZAMANASSISTANCE MANAGER SAADSENIOR ASSISTANCE MANAGER HAFEEZ SHAHAB For providing us information about the plants.This report is a result of handwork of not a single person butmany persons have aided by volunteering their services tocreate this text . Their kindness thus improving this reportwith their Additional technical knowledge has contributedmightly to the quality of this work. We got much practicalknowledge which was not possible to gain in the universityduring studies.Overall , we are thankful to all the Officers & the workers of Lucky cement Ltd. PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 3 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  4. 4. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITED CONTENTSUNIT’S DISCRIPTION PAGE INTRODUCTIONUNIT NO. 1 • INTRODUCTION TO CEMENT. • TYPES OF CEMNT • LUCKY CEMENT LIMITED CONCRETE PROGRESS, KARACHI. • PRODUCTS. 7 to 11 • Quality policy , vision , mission & values. • Overall flow diagram of lucky cement plant. RAW MATERIAL USED…UNIT NO. 2 • Limestone • Clay • Laterite 12 to 16 • Bauxite • Slag • Gypsum • Coal • Furnance oil PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 4 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  5. 5. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITED LABORATORYUNIT NO. 3 • Coal testing • Limestone sample • Latirite sample • Bauxite sample 17 to 23 • Clay sample CRUSHERUNIT NO. 4 • Hammer crusher 24 to 27 • Production of crusher • Limestone yard •UNIT NO. 5 PROPORTIONING TOWER 28 to 29 • Way feeder • Decision of percentage of raw materialUNIT NO. 6 GRIDING OF COAL 30 to 31 • Coal grinding • Pulverize coal • Coal mill • Coal storage bin • Fire extinguisher system • Coal transportation to • Pre-calciner • main burner (klin) PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 5 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  6. 6. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITED GRIDING OF RAW MATERIAL • Transportation of ingredients • Rotary valve 32 to 36UNIT NO. 7 • I.D fan • System fan • Vertical raw mill • Inlet of hot Air • Outlet of Air • Cyclones • Air slides • Bag house • Bag house fan • Outlet of extra gases • Storage of powder grinded raw material to the Silo • Homogenization of grinded raw material CALCINATION AND HEAT EXCHANGER • Pre-heaterUNIT NO. 8 • Inlet of feed to pre-heater 37 to 39 • Construction of feed silo • Rizor • Cyclones of pre-heater • Pre-calciner burner • Pre-calcination • Heat exchange • Primary duck PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 6 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  7. 7. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITED KILN AREA • Introduction to kilnUNIT NO. 9 • Ignition of kiln 40 to 48 • Reaction at kiln • Formation of clinker • Hard burning and soft burning • Outlet of clicker COOLING AND STORAGEUNIT NO. 10 OF CLINKER • Construction of cooler • Cooler crusher • Pan conveyer • Storage of clinker CEMENT MILLUNIT NO. 11 • Proportionating tower • Flow diagram of cement mill • Roller crusher • Crushing Separator • Storage bin • Ball mill • Grinding aid • Storage of cementUNIT NO. 12 PACKING PLANT • Loose cement • Packed cement • Loose cement storage and ship PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 7 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  8. 8. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITED loading terminal at Berth – 25 west wharf , Karachi PortUNIT NO. 13 QUALITY CONTROL LAB • Collection of sample • Testing of sample at different stagesUNIT NO. 14 POWER GENERATION • Furnace oil generator • Natural gas generator • Dual fuel generator • Generation of power houseUNIT NO. 15 OVER ALL PERFORMANCE OF LUCKY CEMENT FACTORY • Aims and missionsUNIT NO. 16 ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY • Global warming and the dangers of GHGUNIT NO. 17 CONCLUSION PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 8 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  10. 10. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDINTRODUCTION TO CEMENTCement is the non metallic bonding material used for construction OrCement is binding material which is used in constructionHISTORY OF CEMENT History of cement is very old as human civilization. Romansused volcanic tuff mixed raw material for their construction .Egyptiansused it for the construction of PYRAMIDES. In 1824 English man Joseph Aspdin, patented artificialcement made by the calcinations of an argillaceous lime stone. He caledit “Portland” because concrete made from it resembles with a famousbuilding stone obtained from land near EnglandTYPES OF CEMENTASTM C150There are five types of Portland cements with variations of the first threeaccording to ASTM( AMERICAN SOCITY OF TESTING MATERIAL )C150.1.COMMON or GENERAL PURPOSE CEMENT It is generally assumed unless another type is specified. It iscommonly used for general construction especially when making precastand precast-prestressed concrete that is not to be in contact with soils orground water. The typical compound compositions of this type are:55% (C3S), 19% (C2S), 10% (C3A), 7% (C4AF), 2.8% MgO, 2.9% (SO3),1.0% Ignition loss, and 1.0% free CaO. PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 10 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  11. 11. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDA limitation on the composition is that the (C3A) shall not exceed fifteenpercent.2. SULPHATE RESISTANCE CEMENTType II is intended to have moderate sulfate resistance with or withoutmoderate heat of hydration. This type of cement costs about the same asType I. Its typical compound composition is:51% (C3S), 24% (C2S), 6% (C3A), 11% (C4AF), 2.9% MgO, 2.5% (SO3),0.8% Ignition loss, and 1.0% free CaO.A limitation on the composition is that the (C3A) shall not exceed eightpercent which reduces its vulnerability to sulfates3. RAPID HARDENING CEMENTType III is has relatively high early strength. Its typical compoundcomposition is:57% (C3S), 19% (C2S), 10% (C3A), 7% (C4AF), 3.0% MgO, 3.1% (SO3),0.9% Ignition loss, and 1.3% free CaO.This cement is similar to Type I, but ground finer. Some manufacturersmake a separate clinker with higher C3S and/or C3A content, but this isincreasingly rare, and the general purpose clinker is usually used, groundto a specific surface typically 50-80% higher. The gypsum level may alsobe increased a small amount4.LOW HEAR OF HYDRATION CEMENTType IV Portland cement is generally known for its low heat of hydration.Its typical compound composition is:28% (C3S), 49% (C2S), 4% (C3A), 12% (C4AF), 1.8% MgO, 1.9% (SO3),0.9% Ignition loss, and 0.8% free CaO. PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 11 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  12. 12. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDThe percentages of (C2S) and (C4AF) are relatively high and (C3S) and(C3A) are relatively low. A limitation on this type is that the maximumpercentage of (C3A) is seven, and the maximum percentage of (C3S) isthirty-five.5. SULPHATE RESISTANCEType V is used where sulfate resistance is important. Its typical compoundcomposition is:38% (C3S), 43% (C2S), 4% (C3A), 9% (C4AF), 1.9% MgO, 1.8% (SO3),0.9% Ignition loss, and 0.8% free CaO.This cement has a very low (C3A) composition which accounts for its highsulfate resistance. The maximum content of (C3A) allowed is five percent About YUNUS Brothers Group Lucky Cement Limited has been sponsored by YunusBrothers Group (YB Group) which is one of the largest business groups ofthe Country based in Karachi and has grown up remarkably over the last50 years. The YB Group is engaged in diversified manufacturing activitiesincluding Textile, Spinning, Weaving, Processing, Finishing, Stitching andPower Generation. The Group consists of a number of industrialestablishments other then Lucky Cement Limited, they include:1. Lucky Textile Mills2. Fazal Textile Mills Limited3. Gadoon Textile Mills Limited4. Lucky Energy (Private) Limited5. Yunus Textile MillsLucky Textile Mills - established in 1983 PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 12 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  13. 13. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITED- Fully computerized weaving and stitching unit- Consists of 3 weaving plants comprising of 800 looms, 250 stitchingmachines, 3.4 million meter/month Grey fabric capacity, 83 millionmeters/ annum processing and 15 million meters/ annum made upscapacity- Power generation capacity 6.20 MW- Expertise in ready-made curtains and accessories for foreign marketsFazal Textile Mills Limited - established in 1987- One of the top spinning mill in the country with 59,508 installed spindles- Produces 100% Grey Cotton Ring Spun Yarn and wide range of Blendedand Heather Yarns?- ISO – 9001:2000 certifiedGadoon Textile Mills Limited - established in 1988- First of the only two mills in the world producing Compact Core Spunyarn- 194,392 installed spindles. Produces high quality Compact yarn, MurataJet Spinning yarn, Core Spun yarn and 100% Grey Cotton Ring Spun yarn- Also has a power plant of 34 MW- OKO – Tex Standard 100 certifiedLucky Energy (PVT) Limited - established in 1993- Captive power unit- Supplies uninterruptible power to Lucky Textiles, Fazal- Textiles & Lucky Knitwear- Generation capacity of 17.4 MWYunus Textile Mills Limited - established in 1998- State of the art machinery for weaving, printing and dyeing PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 13 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  14. 14. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITED- Self power generation capacity of 14 MW- 250 Air Jet looms installed- Completely vertically integrated textile mill- Major Player in home textile and garment exportsBUSINESS STRATEGY To be the leading exporter of cement from Pakistan for theregional countries as well as to explore other potential export markets. Ourfuture strategy is to explore investment possibilities outside Pakistan in thecement industry to become a leading global producer.EXPLORING AND ESTABLISHING EXPORT MARKETS We have a firm commitment in exploring new markets forsustainable business growth. Lucky Cement has been successful inestablishing its brand in several export markets including Middle East,India, Sri Lanka and East and South African countries. We are alsoplanning to setup some offshore facilities to further strengthen our exportbusiness on regular basis.ABOUT LUCKY CEMENT LIMITED CONCRETEPROGRESS, KARACHI.Founder Mr. Abdul Razzak Tabba Lucky cement limited concrete progress is Sponsor by wellknown “Yunus Brothers Group” – one of the largest export houses ofPakistan, Lucky Cement Limited currently has the capacity of producing25,000 tons per day of dry process Cement. Lucky Cement came into existence in 1996 with a dailyproduction capacity of 4,200 tons per day, currently is an omnipotentcement plant of Pakistan, and rated amongst the few best plants in Asia. PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 14 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  15. 15. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDWith production facilities in Pezu (Production capacity: 13,000 Tons perday) as well as in Karachi (Production capacity: 12,000 tons per day), ithas the tendency to become the hub of cement production in Asia. LuckyCement Limited has been sponsored by Yunus Brothers Group (YBGroup) which is one of the largest business groups of the Country based inKarachi and has grown up remarkably over the last 50 years.PRODUCTS PF LUCKY CEMENT Lucky Cement aims at producing cement to suit every user. Thefollowing types of cement are available:1. Ordinary Portland Cement2. Sulphate Resistant Cement3. Slag CementORDINARY PORTLAND CEMENT (OPC) Ordinary Portland cement is available in darker shade as well asin light shades in Lucky Star with different brand names to suit therequirement of users. It is used in all general constructions especially in majorprestigious projects where cement is to meet stringent qualityrequirements; it can be used in concrete mortars and grouts etc. OrdinaryPortland cement is compatible/consumable with admixture/ retarders etc.SULPHATE RESISTANT CEMENT (SRC) Sulphate resistant Cement’s best quality is to provide effectiveand long lasting strength against sulphate attacks and is very suitable forconstructions near sea shores as well as for canals linings. It provides veryeffective protection against alkali attacks.SLAG CEMENT Slag cement is also available for specific user requirements. Slag cement, has been incorporated into concrete projects for overa century to improve durability and reduce life cycle costs. Among itsmeasurable benefits in concrete are better workability and finish ability, PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 15 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  16. 16. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDhigher compressive and flexural strengths, and improved resistance toaggressive chemicals.BRANDS AVAILABLE AT LUCKY CEMENT • Lucky CEMENT (REGULAR) Lucky STAR • Lucky GOLD Lucky SULPHATE RESISTANT CEMENT (SRC)QUALITY POLICYQuality of cementISO CERTIFICATION Luckys Cement plant is one of the best maintained plants ofPakistan and is managed by qualified and expert cement field specialists.The Company has also got ISO 9001:2000 certifications, formanufacturing and sales of cement by UKAS Quality Management,Pakistan National Accreditation Council and Moody International.QUALITY MANAGEMENT Lucky Cement always gives major emphasis in manufacturinghigh quality cement through stringent quality control techniques andcomputerized control systems using state of the art sophisticatedequipments like Distributed Control System (DCS), Programmable LogicControllers (PLCs) and on line X-Ray Analyzers. The Company has gotone of the best equipped laboratories, having all facilities for the analysisof raw material, semi furnished product, furnished product and fuel, toensure the supply of high quality product to market.The quality of Company’s cement has been tested and found to be superiorin many respects to the specifications mentioned in Pakistan and BritishStandards. PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 16 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  17. 17. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDSUPERIOR STRENGTH, OPTIMUM SETTING TIMES ANDMINIMUM EXPANSION These are the three benchmarks adopted by Lucky CementLimited which is emerging to be the largest cement plant of Asia andcommitted to provide the best quality cement to its customers around theglobe through stringent quality control and application of most modernquality control techniques.SUPERIOR STRENGTH The compressive strength is a very important factor of cement.The Ordinary Portland Cement achieves its maximum strength in 28 days.The Pakistan standard PSS 232-1883 (R) & British Standard EN 197 Class42.5 N provides for 28 days strength of 5000Psi and 5950 Psi respectivelyfor mortar cubes. As compared to this Lucky Cement has a 28 dayscompressive strength of more than 7,000 psi to bear heavy loads.OPTIMUM SETTING TIME Optimal initial & final setting times are ensured by adoptingspecial production parameters using most modern control techniques.SOUNDENESS By using most modern Kiln feeding system, it is ensured thatlime entering into the Kiln should be in such a shape that it should totallycombine with oxides during the burning process. The result is that thefrees lime content is very low and soundness of Lucky Cement is less than1 mm which is far better than 10 mm prescribed by Pakistan Standard PSS232-1983 ( R) and / or British Standard EN 197 Class 42.5 N. Lucky Power Generators is one of the best maintained powergeneration facilities of the country and is maintained and operated roundthe clock by expert engineers and technicians.VARIETY TO SUIT EVERYONE Lucky Cement aims at producing cement to suit every user. Atpresent, it is producing Grey Portland Cement and also Sulphate Resistantcement. The customers are able to get Portland Cement both in dark shade PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 17 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  18. 18. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDas well as in light shade with different brand names to suit the requirementof user. The Portland cement specifically made for prefabrication industrywith a lower setting time is also available. In addition, the plant alsoproduce Slag cement for specific users.Overall flow diagram of lucky cement plant. PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 18 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  19. 19. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDSchematic explanation of Portland cement productionThere are three fundamental stages in the production of Portland cement: 1. Preparation of the raw mixture 2. Production of the clinker 3. Preparation of the cement PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 19 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  21. 21. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDRAW MATERIAL’SCement is manufactured into two stagesFirst stage : from crusher to kilnSecond stage : from clinker yard to cement millThat’s why raw material is also divided into two stages First stage raw material Second stage raw material Lime stone Clinker Clay or Lucky clay Gypsum Latirite Slag Bauxite Following basic raw materials are generally used in the manufacture ofcement LIMESTONELimestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the mineral calcite(calcium carbonate: CaCO3). The deposition of limestone strata is often aby-product and indicator of biological activity in the geologic record.Calcium (along with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) is a keymineral to plant nutrition: soils overlying limestone bedrock tend to bepre-fertilized with calcium. Limestone is an important stone for masonryand architecture, vying with only granite and sandstone to be the mostcommonly used architectural stone. Limestone is a key ingredient ofquicklime, mortar, cement, and concrete. The solubility of limestone inwater and weak acid solutions leads to important phenomena. Regionsoverlying limestone bedrock tend to have fewer visible groundwatersources (ponds and streams), as surface water easily drains downwardthrough cracks in the limestone. While draining, water slowly (overthousands or millions of years) enlarges these cracks; dissolving the PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 21 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  22. 22. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDcalcium-carbonate and carrying it away in solution. Most well-knownnatural cave systems are through limestone bedrock.uses include: • The manufacture of quicklime (calcium oxide) and slaked lime (calcium hydroxide); • Cement and mortar; • Pulverized limestone is used as a soil conditioner to neutralize acidic soil conditions; • Crushed for use as aggregate—the solid base for many roads; • Geological formations of limestone are among the best petroleum reservoirs; • As a reagent in desulphurization; • Glass making, in some circumstances; • Added to paper, plastics, paint, tiles, and other materials as both white pigment and cheap filler. • Toothpaste • Suppression of methane explosions in underground coal mines • Added to bread and cereals as a source of calcium SEDIMENTARY ROCKSedimentary rock is one of the three main rock types (the others beingigneous and metamorphic rock). Sedimentary rock is formed by depositionand consolidation of mineral and organic material and from precipitationof minerals from solution. The processes that form sedimentary rock occurat the surface of the Earth and within bodies of water. Rock formed fromsediments covers 75-80% of the Earths land area, and includes commontypes such as limestone, chalk, dolostone, sandstone, conglomerate, sometypes of breccia, and shale.) CLAYClay is a naturally occurring material composed primarily of fine-grainedminerals, which show plasticity through a variable range of water content, PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 22 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  23. 23. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDand which can be hardened when dried and/or fired. Clay deposits aremostly composed of clay minerals (phyllosilicate minerals), mineralswhich impart plasticity and harden when fired and/or dried, and variableamounts of water trapped in the mineral structure by polar attraction.Organic materials which do not impart plasticity may also be a part of claydeposits. LATRITE Latrite is redish brown color and it contains iron content ,.It is less harder than gypsum but harder than limestone. BAUXITEBauxite is the most important aluminium ore. It consists largely of theminerals gibbsite Al(OH)3, boehmite γ-AlO(OH), and diaspore α-AlO(OH), together with the iron oxides goethite and hematite, the claymineral kaolinite and small amounts of anatase TiO2. It was named afterthe village Les Baux in southern France, where it was first discovered in1821 by the geologist Pierre Berthier. SLAGSlag is the mixture of iron and some metallic impurities. It is obtainedfrom steel mills. The cement made from slag is full of strength. GYPSUM (Ca SO4)It is obtained from the N.W.F.PAnd 5% is added with clinker obtained from kiln in cement mill and thengrinded to get cement.It is used for refresh ness of cement. PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 23 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  24. 24. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDMANUFACTURING AIDS • COAL In lucky cement industry coal is the major source of fuel, for thispurpose coal is imported from 1. south Africa 2. IndonesiaSome time lucky also uses a mixture of south African and Indonesian coal. • FURNANCE OIL Furnace oil is also used in cement industry for burning the kiln initially. It help us to maintain the temperature of the kiln. PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 24 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  26. 26. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITED LABORATARY When plant is designed it is decided that which type and quality of raw material is used for the manufacture of desired product. So a laboratory is established that take care of the raw material which is suitable for the plant. For this purpose the samples of raw material is checked at the time of purchasing. For ensuring the good quality of the product. TITRATION Laboratory also decide the titration or ratio of raw material used in the plant . In practice, the raw material for rawmix is controlled by frequent chemical analysis (hourly by X-Ray fluorescence analysis, or every three minutes by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis). The analysis data is used to make automatic adjustments to raw material feed rates. TESTING In lucky cement industry a laboratory is also working for the same purpose that every sample of raw material is checked before and After purchasing the raw material. Fuel used for burning in the kiln is also tested because of some safety reasons. TESTING OF COAL Coal is the main fuel in cement industry that why it is testedvery .Testing of caol has been didvided into three stages • Presence of moisture To find the moisture in coal a coal sample is get from the fresh supply or last day or present morning truck Then sample is divided into two categories 1. Crushed coal PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 26 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  27. 27. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITED 2. Grinded coalCrushed coal is used to find the RM (Received Moisture) by usingmoisture analyzerPowdered or Grinded coal is used to find the TM (Total Moisture) byusing moisture analyzerAir moisture is find by taking the coal in a glass dish and weight and placeit in decicator to remove moisture with the help of silica gel and after 30minutes put out the dish and weight it .Inherent moisture is the moisture which is possessed by the coal it self soit can be calculated as follows Total moisture - Air moisture = Inherent moisture • Loss on ignitionTo calculate the loss on ignition we have to first calculate the volatilematterThen by using formula we can calculate loss on ignition • Presense of sulphur TESTING OF RAW MATERIALFollowing basic raw materials are used in the lucky cement industry tocheck this thing that the purchased raw material is suitable or not for plantraw materials are tested . • Limestone • Bauxite • Latrite • Clay • Gypsum • Slag PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 27 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  28. 28. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITED For testing the above raw material X-Ray Flourescence Spectrometry method is used it is a Computer operated machine in which a ring sample is introduced . This machine takes few minutes and give as two things 1. name of compound or element present in the sample 2. concentration of the element or compound some X-Ray Flourescence Spectrometry results are given below lime stone at crusher L.O SiO Al2 Fe2 Ca Mg SO Na2 K2 Cl LS S A .I 2 O3 O3 O O 3 O O F M M 42. 3.8 0.77 0.92 52. 1.1 0.0 0.19 0.1 0.0 4.3 2.2 0.8 69 68 7 1 3 5 3 4 3 ClaySiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaO MgO SO3 Na2O K2O Cl LSF SM AM68.57 12.48 4.29 4.3 1.48 0.01 0.84 2.43 0.14 0.02 4.09 2.9174.06 11.29 5.15 2.82 1.39 0.02 0.89 2.16 0.16 0.02 4.51 2.19 LatriteSiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaO MgO SO3 Na2O K2O Cl LSF SM AM17.81 7.41 48.51 7.79 0.51 0.11 0.34 0.08 0.05 0.09 0.32 0.1529.22 9.25 45.05 4.32 0.47 0.04 0.35 0.11 0.36 0.03 0.54 0.21 PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 28 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  30. 30. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDCRUSHERHAMMER CRUSHERIn lucky cement industry hammer crusher are used for crushing the limestoneThe hammer crusher contain 5 rows and 9 hammers in each row it meansthat hammer crusher has 45 hammers.A hammer mill is a machine whose purpose is to shred material into fineparticles. They have many sorts of applications in many industries,including:WORKING AND CONDITIONThe basic principle is straightforward. A hammer mill is essentially a steeldrum containing a vertical or horizontal rotating shaft or drum on whichhammers are mounted. The hammers are free to swing on the ends of thecross, or fixed to the central rotor. The rotor is spun at a high speed insidethe drum while material is fed into a feed hopper. The material is impactedby the hammer bars and is thereby shredded and expelled through screensin the drum of a selected size.Small grain hammer mills can be operated on household current. Largeautomobile shredders can use one or more 2000 horsepower (1.5 MW)diesel engines to power the hammer mill.The Screen less hammer mill uses air flow to separate small particles fromlarger ones. It is designed to be more reliable, and is also claimed to bemuch cheaper and more energy efficient than regular hammer mills.PRODUCTION OF CRUSHERIn lucky cement industry two lime stone crusher are Assembled both arehammer crusherHammer mill at lucky reduces the size of I meter stone into 70 to 80 mm PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 30 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  31. 31. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDThe crushing capacity of hammer mill is 800 to 900 ton/hour .The weight of each hammer is 120 kg .LIMESTONE YARD A yard is made for the storage of crushed limestone in form ofpiles .A limestone pile being built by a boom stacker and prehomogenization ofpile is made with the help of reclaimer.Crushed limestone is transported by a 90 m long belt to the storage yardthen it drop the material on chand belt then chand belt drop on boom beltthen with the help of boom stacker piles are made then afterprehomogenization the lime stone is transported to the proportionatingbuilding by buckets then on long belt . PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 31 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  33. 33. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDPROPORTIONATING TOWERINTRODUCTIONIn lucky cement there is a Proportionting tower. It is a building whichstore raw material Silos of individual raw materials are arranged. It hashoppers which provide feed to weigh-feeder. Accurately controlledproportions of each material are delivered onto the belt by weigh-feeders.The proportion of raw material is decided by Laboratory usually luckcement industry works on following titration . • limestone 75 to 85 % • purchase clay 6 to 7 % • lucky clay 5 to 6 % • bauxite 1 to 2 %WEIGH FEEDERWeigh feeder is a machine which weigh’s the material according to thedefined composition and supply to the conveyer belt which take thematerial to the work place.Decision of proportion of raw material for grinding.. In practice, the raw material for rawmix is controlled by frequentchemical analysis (hourly by X-Ray fluorescence analysis in thelaboratory, or every three minutes by prompt gamma neutron activationanalysis). The analysis data is used to make automatic adjustments to rawmaterial feed rates. PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 33 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  34. 34. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDVERTICAL RAW MILL or RAW MILLThese are the standard form in modern installations, occasionally calledvertical spindle mills. In a typical arrangement, the material is fed onto arotating table, onto which steel rollers press down. A high velocity of hotgas flow is maintained close to the dish so that fine particles are sweptaway as soon as they are produced. The gas flow carries the fines into anintegral air separator, which returns larger particles to the grinding path.The fine material is swept out in the exhaust gas and is captured by acyclone before being pumped to storage. Feed size can be up to 100 mm.Roller mills are efficient, using about half the energy of a ball mill, andthere seems to be no limit to the size available. Roller mills with output inexcess of 800 tonnes per hour have been installed. Unlike ball mills, feedto the mill must be regular and uninterrupted; otherwise damagingresonant vibration sets in.. In the case of a dry process, the rawmill also dries the raw materials,usually by passing hot exhaust gases from the kiln through the mill, so thatthe rawmix emerges as a fine powder. This is conveyed to the blendingsystem by conveyor belt or by a powder pump.VRM section in Lucky cement plant In lucky cement plant the Vertical raw mill is used for the grindingof Raw material and coal. Approximately 180 to 210 tons of feed per hour is provided to theVRM . According to the introduction of VRM there are some rollers in themill. VRM at lucky has 4 rollers weight of each roller is 22 ton. Inlet temperature of VRM is 287 C for 230 ton/h feed acorrdingto design capacity PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 34 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  37. 37. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITED GRIDING OF COALCOAL MILLIn Lucky Coal mill is the place where coal is grinded into fine powder forthis purpose a small Roller mill or VRM (Vertical Raw Mill) is used.COAL GRINDINGGrinding of coal Also take place in a small roller mill or VRM (VerticalRaw Mill) but it has only two Stationary Rollers other working is same asdefine above for the VRM .Coal mill design capacity is 25 tons/h and its inlet temperature is 92 C .PULVERIZE COALFine powdered coal is called Pulverize coal. The coal is grind to finepowder because the fine coal is very easy to burn in the kiln or PC (pre-calciner)COAL STORAGE BINAfter Grinding the coal is stored in a bin whose capacity is 100 tonn but inlucky cement only 25 to 30 % bin is filled because coal can catch fire fromthe surrounding.FIRE EXTINGUISHER SYSTEMA latest fire extinguisher system is installed in the Coal mill area which isfully automatic and can Also be control through the PLC(ProgrammableLogic Controller). PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 37 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  38. 38. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDCOAL TRANSPORTATION TO 1. Pre-calciner (PC) 2. main burner (kiln)The Grinded coal is used as a fuel in PC and kiln so it is transported tothem through the Delta Blowers.In Lucky 4 Delta Blowers are used , 2 are used for transportation of coal tothe PC and 2 are used for the transportation of coal to the main Burner atkiln PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 38 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  40. 40. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDGRINDING OF RAW MATERIALAfter deciding the ratio of raw material at proportioning tower the nextstep is grinding of raw material.In Lucky cement Industry Vertical Raw Mill is used for Grinding the rawmaterial.VERTICAL RAW MILL USED FOR GRINDHING THERAW MAERIALThe raw materials are next ground together in a rawmill.VRM used here is consisting of 4 continuously moving Rollers. Thefineness of rawmix is specified in terms of the size of the largest particles,and is usually controlled so that there are less than 5%-15% by mass ofparticles exceeding 90 µm in diameter. It is important that the rawmixcontains no large particles in order to complete the chemical reactions inthe kiln,TRANSPORTATION OF INGREDIENTS The Silos of individual raw materials are arranged (Proportionting tower)over the feed conveyor belt. Accurately controlled proportions of eachmaterial are delivered onto the belt by weigh-feeders. Passing into therawmill, the mixture is ground to rawmix.ROTARY VALVERotary valve is a valve which control the flow of feed at raw mill andhelps in maintaining the pressure in the mill.I.D FANI.D fan or induce Draft fan is the fan which provides hot air to the VRMfrom the preheater. It also produces negative pressure in the kiln andpreheater. PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 40 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  41. 41. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDSYSTEM FANSystem fan is also an I.D fan but it is used for the suction of air from theVRM through the cyclones. It sucks the hot air from the VRM and send itto Bag house. It also works for maintaining the negative pressure into theVRM.TRAVELING OG HOT AIRIn the plant area or VRM area the hot Air flows from one place to anotherthrough the Ducts.Ducts are pipe lines of very big dia which are used for transportationpurpose.CYCLONEA cyclone is a conical vessel into which a dust-bearing gas-stream is passed tangentially. This produces a vortex within the vessel. The gas leaves the vessel through a co-axial "vortex-finder". The solids are thrown to the outside edge of the vessel by centrifugal action, and leavethrough a valve in the vertex of the cone. Cyclones were originally used to clean up the dust-laden gases leaving simple dry process kilns.In lucky cement plant 4 cyclones are used in the VRM area which purifythe hot gas which is coming from VRM . PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 41 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  42. 42. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDAIR SLIDESAir Slides is a mean of transportation in the cement plant it take thematerial from one place to another with the help of air. Bags and blowersare used in air slides. Air slides are normally used at the bottom ofcyclones.BAG HOUSEBag house is a collective name of many bag filters. Bag house has 20chambers and each chamber contains 104 bags. It is also known as DustCollector or Fabric filters.In lucky the most common type of bag filters are used which operates witha velocity of about 0.01 m/s across the bag surface.BAG HOUSE FANBag house fan is a suction fan which helps the bag house in filtering thehot air from cyclones. If it does not work properly then there is a need toshutdown the plant because it also helps in producing the negative pressureand prevention of atmosphere from pollution.OUTLET OF EXTRA GASESThe bag house remove fine raw mix particles from the hot air thenremaining extra gases containing SOx , NOx , CO and CO2 released in theatmosphere.STORAGE OF POWDER GRINDED RAW MATERIAL TOTHE SILORaw material in required ratio is grinded by the Vertical Raw mill isseparated by the cyclones is sent to the __65__ m silo having capacity PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 42 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  43. 43. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITED__3300___ tons with the help of air slides, screw conveyers and bucketelevators .This silo is also used to give feed to the pre-heaterHOMOGENIZATION OF GRINDED RAW MATERIALAs the raw mix is stored in the silo that’s why its need to homogenize itfor this purpose heavy compressor are used which throughs air from thedownward due to which a continuous motion occurs in the material andHomogenization of grinded raw material takes place. PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 43 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  45. 45. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDCALCINATION & HEAT EXCHANGERaw material enters the pre heater for pre heating before sending to therotatary kiln it is also known as four stage tower it is about 87m high,consisting of cyclones , riser duct (gas duct) and pre calciner,(pc). To conserve energy most modern cement plants pre heat raw materialbefore they enter the kiln using the exhaust gases from kiln itself.In Lucky cement plant a 5 stage pre-heater is used.Pre-heater is divided into two section • Cyclones of pre-heater . Where heat exchange takes place between the feed (raw mix) and hot air . • Precalciner (P.C)Where calcinations takes place . In pre calciner abut 75-80% calcination(formation of cao) take place by decomposition of CaCO3 into CaO &CO2. CaCO3___________CaO+CO2 (calcination)To understand a pre-heater completely I have given a 4 stage pre-heaterdescription with diagram.Gas-suspension preheatersCutaway view of cyclone showing air pathThe key component of the gas-suspension pre-heater is the cyclone and the precalciner. A cyclone is a conical vessel into which a dust-bearing gas-stream is passed tangentially.This produces a vortex within the vessel.The gas leaves the vessel through a co-axial "vortex-finder". The solids are thrown to the outside edge of the vessel by centrifugal action,and leave through a valve in the vertex of the cone. Cyclones wereoriginally used to clean up the dust-laden gases leaving simple dry processkilns. If, instead, the entire feed of raw mix is encouraged to pass through PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 45 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  46. 46. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDthe cyclone, it is found that a very efficient heat exchange takes place: thegas is efficiently cooled, hence producing less waste of heat to theatmosphere, and the raw mix is efficiently heated. This efficiency is sphere,further increased if a number of cyclones are connected in series.4-Stage preheater, showing path of feed Stage PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 46 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106 (08IN106)
  47. 47. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDThe number of cyclones stages used in practice varies from 1 to 6. Energy,in the form of fan-power, is required to draw the gases through the stringof cyclones, and at a string of 6 cyclones, the cost of the added fan-powerneeded for an extra cyclone exceeds the efficiency advantage gained. It isnormal to use the warm exhaust gas to dry the raw materials in the rawmill, and if the raw materials are wet, hot gas from a less efficientpreheater is desirable. For this reason, the most commonly encounteredsuspension preheaters have 4 cyclones. The hot feed that leaves the base ofthe preheater string is typically 20% calcined, so the kiln has lesssubsequent processing to do, and can therefore achieve a higher specificoutput. Typical large systems installed in the early 1970s had cyclones 6 min diameter, a rotary kiln of 5 x 75 m, making 2500 tones per day, usingabout 0.11-0.12 tonnes of coal fuel for every tones of clinker produced.A penalty paid for the efficiency of suspension preheaters is their tendencyto block up. Salts, such as the sulfate and chloride of sodium andpotassium, tend to evaporate in the burning zone of the kiln. They arecarried back in vapor form, and re-condense when a sufficiently lowtemperature is encountered. Because these salts re-circulate back into therawmix and re-enter the burning zone, a recirculation cycle establishesitself. A kiln with 0.1% chloride in the rawmix and clinker may have 5%chloride in the mid-kiln material. Condensation usually occurs in thepreheater, and a sticky deposit of liquid salts glues dusty raw mix into ahard deposit, typically on surfaces against which the gas-flow isimpacting. This can choke the preheater to the point that air-flow can nolonger be maintained in the kiln. It then becomes necessary to manuallybreak the build-up away. Modern installations often have automaticdevices installed at vulnerable points to knock out build-up regularly. Analternative approach is to "bleed off" some of the kiln exhaust at the kilninlet where the salts are still in the vapor phase, and remove and discardthe solids in this. This is usually termed an "alkali bleed" and it breaks therecirculation cycle. It can also be of advantage for cement quality reasons,since it reduces the alkali content of the clinker. However, hot gas is run towaste so the process is inefficient and increases kiln fuel consumption. PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 47 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  48. 48. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDCement plant pre heater Designed by Polysius, this new plant includes afour-stage precalciner with a 158-foot (48-meter) long by 13-foot (4-meter) diameter two-station kiln to produce 2,500 tons per day of clinker.Air Cannons were not included in the design of this new plant. But basedon his 25 years in the cement industry, Production Manager Tom Messerknew they would be required to avoid shutdowns due to blockages of thematerial flow through the kiln pre-heater. “I’ve seen the problems that canarise from plugs and choking of the pre-heater,” Messer explains. “I’veseen the high labor costs and the production losses that come from havingto shut down the tower to break up a blockage.”Messer and Martin Engineering developed a plan for the installation of 45big blasters and air canons on the brand new pre-heater. Crews fromMartin Engineering’s Martin Services group installed the pre-heater aircannon system. Feed is entered from feed silo to risor of cyclone 2. Pre calciners % of North American Capacity using Precalciners PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 48 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  49. 49. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITED Mean Daily Output (tonnes) of North American KilnsIn the 1970s the precalciner was pioneered in Japan, and has subsequently , subbecome the equipment of choice for new large installations world world-wide[7].The precalciner is a development of the suspension preheater. Thephilosophy is this: the amount of fuel that can be burned in the kiln is edirectly related to the size of the kiln. If part of the fuel necessary to burnthe rawmix is burned outside the kiln, the output of the system can beincreased for a given kiln size. Users of suspension preheaters found that preheatersoutput could be increased by injecting extra fuel into the base of thepreheater. The logical development was to install a specially designedcombustion chamber at the base of the preheater, into which pulverizedcoal is injected. This is referred to as an "air through" precalciner, because "air-through"the combustion air for both the kiln fuel and the calciner fuel all passesthrough the kiln. This kind of precalciner can burn up to 30% (typically20%) of its fuel in the calciner. If more fuel were injected in the calciner,the extra amount of air drawn through the kiln would cool the kiln flameexcessively. The feed is 40 60% calcined before it enters the rotary kiln. 40-60%The ultimate development is the "air separate" precalciner, in which the "air-separate"hot combustion air for the calciner arrives in a duct directly from the ustioncooler, bypassing the kiln. Typically, 60 75% of the fuel is burned in the 60-75%precalciner. In these systems, the feed entering the rotary kiln is 100%calcined. The kiln has only to raise the feed to sintering temperature. In feed PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 49 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106 (08IN106)
  50. 50. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDtheory the maximum efficiency would be achieved if all the fuel wereburned in the preheater, but the sintering operation involves partial meltingand nodulization to make clinker, and the rolling action of the rotary kilnremains the most efficient way of doing this. Large modern installationstypically have two parallel strings of 4 or 5 cyclones, with one attached tothe kiln and the other attached to the precalciner chamber. A rotary kiln of6 x 100 m makes 8,000–10,000 tonnes per day, using about 0.10-0.11tonnes of coal fuel for every tones of clinker produced. The kiln is dwarfedby the massive preheater tower and cooler in these installations. Such akiln produces 3 million tonnes of clinker per year, and consumes 300,000tones of coal. A diameter of 6 m appears to be the limit of size of rotarykilns, because the flexibility of the steel shell becomes unmanageable at orabove this size, and the firebrick lining tends to fail when the kiln flexes.A particular advantage of the air-separate precalciner is that a largeproportion, or even 100%, of the alkali-laden kiln exhaust gas can be takenoff as alkali bleed (see above). Because this accounts for only 40% of thesystem heat input, it can be done with lower heat wastage than in a simplesuspension preheater bleed. Because of this, air-separate precalciners arenow always prescribed when only high-alkali raw materials are availableat a cement plant.TARGET OF PRE-HEATER Pre-heater is used for heat exchange and calcinations .In lucky cement plant Pre-heater’s inlet temperature is 800 to 1000 C andout let temperature is 250 to 280 C .The raw material is burned in the pre-heater for 52 seconds and then it issent to kiln . 75-80 % calcination is done..It increases the production capacity, it reduces the specific heatconsumption also reduces specific power consumption.ADVANTAGE OF PRE-HEATER • Improved kiln operation efficiency. • Reduced production cost. PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 50 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  51. 51. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITED • Environmental protection.INLET OF FEED TO PRE-HEATERFeed is entered through the feed silo in the risor of cyclone 2 with help ofbucket elevators.CONSTRUCTION OF FEED SILOThe capacity of this silo is mentioned above here I want to tell u thatbelow the silo there is a bin where feed to pre-heater is homogenized andweighed the capacity of this bin is 100 ton .This bin is connected to 8 gates of air slides which opens in the oppositepair of two and provide feed to the main air slide on the rate of 215 Ton/h.BIN STORAGE AND SILOSBins are cylindrical or rectangular vessels of concrete or metals .a silo istall and relatively small in diameter .a bin is not so tall and usually fairlywide .silos and bins are loaded from top by some kind of elevator.Discharging is done from the bottom .PRESSURE IN BINS AND SILOSWhen solid or semi solids are placed in a bin or silo the lateral pressureexerted On the wall at any point is less than predicted from the head ofmaterial above that point .there usually is friction between walls andsolids. The friction Force at the wall tends to off set the weight of solidand reduces the pressure exerted by mass on the floor of container .ingeneral when height of solids column is greater than about 3 timesdiameter of the container ,additional solids have no effect on the pressureat the base. PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 51 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  52. 52. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDFLOW OUT OF BINSsolids tend to flow out of any openings near the bottom of bin but are bestdischarged through an opening in the floor .flow through a side openingstends to be un certain an increase the lateral pressure on the other side ofbin while the solids are flowing. When out let at bottom of a bin containing free flowing is opened , thematerial immediately above the opening begins to flow . one of two flowpattern will develop , depending on steepness of the walls in the bottomsection of the bin and on the coefficient of friction between the solids andthe bin walls. tunnel flow develops in the bins with a shallow cone angleor with vertical walls and central opening in the floor. here a verticalcolumn of solids above the openings moves downward with out disturbingthe material at the sides. eventually lateral flow begins ,first from the topmost layer of solids. The rate of flow of solids by gravity through a circular opening in thebottom of a bin depends on the diameter of the openings and on theproperties of the solid With cohesive solids it is often hard to start flow .once flow does start,however, it again begin in the material directly above the dischargeopening. sticky solids and even some dry powder adhere strongly tovertical surfaces and have enough shear strength to support a plug ofconsiderable diameter above an open discharge .thus to get flow startedand to keep the material moving , vibrators on the in walls , internal plowsnear the bin floor, or jets of air in the discharge opening are often needed.PRE-CALCINER BURNER Pre calciner burner is composed of two chambers vortex chamber andreaction chamber ,the vortex chamber is situated at the end of tertiary airduct ,close to the entry to the kiln gases , they can therefore getpreliminarily mixed. the tertiary air is drawn from the middle part of theburner and is therefore of medium temperature about 750 to 850 C. inthese conditions a condensations of volatile components of the feed occurs PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 52 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  53. 53. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDon the grains of raw material and they are recycled to the kiln ,whichallows the formations of accretions on the walls of precalciner to beavoided. the raw mix is fed to side upper part of reaction chamber, whilein lower part 2 burners are arranged readily round the shaft of the chamber. Due to vortex motion of the gases in the of the gases in the axis ofreaction chamber negative pressure is developed, facilitating theintroduction of the grains of the fuel and meal to the fuel and meal to theinside chamber.PRE- CALCINATIONSA first principle model of cement precalcination system is developed forthe purpose of controller’s design and synthesis. The dynamic model isbased on the mass and energy balance principle and consists of a set ofordinary differential equations. Based on some logical assumptions, themodel not only considers the reaction mechanisms but also reduces thecomplexity of precalciner system. The model is divided into a preheatersub model and a calciner sub model. Separate sub model for preheater andcalciner are initially developed and coupled together to build an integratedmodel. The model takes the gas content into account and can obtain thevalues of all key output variables in precalcination process.OVERALL PRE-HEATER PROCESSIn lucky cement plant feed is entered in the risor of cyclone 2 than hot airtake the feed to Cyclone 1A and 1B,outlet of cyclone 1A and 1B drop the material in risor R-3 than hot airtake the material to C-2 ,out let of C-2 drop the feed into R-4 than hot air takes the material to C-3 ,outlet of C-3 drop the material into R-5 than hot air takes the feed into C-4,the outlet of C-4 drops the material in P.C. where calcinations of raw mixtake place . here two burners are used for this purpose fresh air is alsogiven to the burners. Burners use pulverize coal for burning . thetemperature of P.C is 850 to 900 C and has an pressure of -813 pascal , PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 53 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  54. 54. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDAfter the calcinations hot air takes the material in C-5 through the gooseneck of P.C. ,This reaction takes place in the calcination zone CaCO3 → CaO + CO2 (lime stone) (lime)The outlet of C-5 drops the material into KILN INLET OR SMOKECHAMBER OR INLET CHAMBER .S:NO STAGES TEMPPRESSURE1 Klin 900-9502.6-3.62 Riser duct 10-113 P.C 900-930 8-104 Cyclone -4 810-85018-125 Cyclone-3 750-77030-356 Cyclone -2 550-60040-557 Cyclone -1 350-38055-658 I.D fan 350- 37065-709 Secondry 1100-1150 ------10 Tertiary 630-670 ------ PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 54 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  55. 55. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDPRIMARY DUCT A method and apparatus for controlling the combustion of fuelmodules charged into a preheater or precalciner kiln above the transitionshelf, typically into the riser duct, is described. The apparatus includes asensor for providing signals indicative of the status in the region ofcombustion of the fuel modules, and a controller for a fuel module feedmechanism is provided to receive signals indicative of the status of thecombustion region and adjust the rate of delivery of the fuel module intothe combustion region responsive to the sensed conditions in thecombustion region. PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 55 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  57. 57. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDKILN AREAINTRIDUCTION TO KILNCement kilns are used for the pyroprocessing stage of manufacture ofPortland and other types of hydraulic cement, in which calcium carbonatereacts with silica-bearing minerals to form a mixture of calcium silicates.Over a billion tonnes of cement are made per year, and cement kilns arethe heart of this production process: their capacity usually define thecapacity of the cement plant. As the main energy-consuming andgreenhouse-gas–emitting stage of cement manufacture, improvement oftheir efficiency has been the central concern of cement manufacturingtechnology.Kiln is consist of 4 zones ; • Calcinations zone • Transition zone • Burning zone • Cooling zoneKiln used at Lucky cement plant is • 64 meter in length , • total dia of kiln is 4.3 meter and effective dia is 3.9 meter . • Slop of kiln is 3.5 %. • Migration of kiln is 4-5 rpm. PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 57 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  58. 58. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITED THE ROTARY KILN General layout of a rotary kilnThe rotary kiln consists of a tube made from steel plate, and lined withfirebrick. The tube slopes slightly (1 . (1–4°) and slowly rotates on its axis atbetween 30 and 250 revolutions per hour. Rawmix is fed in at the upperend, and the rotation of the kiln causes it gradually to move downhill to theother end of the kiln. At the other end fuel, in the form of gas, oil, orpulverized solid fuel, is blown in through the "burner pipe", producing alarge concentric flame in the lower part of the kiln tube. As material movesunder the flame, it reaches its peak temperature, before dropping out of the beforekiln tube into the cooler. Air is drawn first through the cooler and thenthrough the kiln for combustion of the fuel. In the cooler the air is heatedby the cooling clinker, so that it may be 400 to 800 °C before it enters thekiln, thus causing intense and rapid combustion of the fuel.Kiln are typically stopped only for a few days once or twice a year foressential maintenance.IGNITION OF KILN Some time once or twice in a year kiln is shutdown for maintenance purpose . after the the completion of maintenance the kiln is again ignited. PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 58 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106 (08IN106)
  59. 59. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITED For the ignition of kiln first of all furnace oil is used because it has higher calorific value 9760 cal Furnace oil used for kiln main burner is first treated in a boiler to decrease its viscosity at minimum level due to which it flows very well. when the required initial temperature of kiln is maintained than kiln is burned on pulverize coal whose calorific value is 5800 cal . As we know that oxygen is necessary for ignition that’s why blowers are used which provides fresh air to the main burner.KILN PROCESSIN LUCKY CEMENT PLANTAfter pre heating and pre calcinated material enters in burning and clinkerzone of kilns where temp ranges from 1000C-1350C. Here CaO reactswith other oxides to form cementeous materal. Burning of kiln involvesthe following steps ; 1. evaporation of free water at temperature upto 100 C 2. removal of absorbed water in clay material 100-300 C 3. removal of chemically bounded water 450-900 C 4. calcinations of carbonate materials 700-850 C 5. formation of C2S, Aluminates and ferrite’s 800-1250 C 6. formation of liquid phase melt > 1250 C 7. formation of C3S 1330-1450 C 8. cooling of clinker to solidify liquid phase 1300-1240 C 9. final clinker microstructure frozen in clinker < 1200 C 10. clinker cooled in cooler 1250-100 Cthe final product as it comes out the kiln is known as clinker .REACTION AT KILN Following major reactions take place inside the kiln. ) PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 59 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  60. 60. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITED2CaO + SiO2 → 2CaO.SiO2 (Dicalcium silicate)3CaO + SiO2 → 3CaO.SiO2 (Tri Calcium Silicate) 3CaO + Al2O3 → 3CaO.Al2O3 (TRI CALCIUM ALUMINATE).4CaO+AlO3+Fe2O3 → 4CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O3 (Tetra Calcium Aluminum Ferrate)FORMATION OF CLINKER At about 1280 0C And above clinker is formed which is in the form ofcompound that is known as cement compound. The composition of clinkeris as followed .COMPOSITION OF CLINKERC3S 55-56%C2S 21-22%C3A 5-6(FOR OPC)C3A <3.5(FOR SRC)C4AF 12-13(FOR OPC)C4AF 16-17(FOR SRC PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 60 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  61. 61. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDOUTLET OF CLINKER AT ABOUT 1280 C And above clinker is formed which is in the formof compound that is known as cement compound . hot clinker is droppedinto the cooler.OUTER VEIW OF KILN PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 61 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  63. 63. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITED COOLING AND STORAGE OF CLINKERIn lucky cement a grate cooler is used to cool the clinker . These coolershave two main advantages: they cool the clinker rapidly, which is desirablefrom a quality point of view, and, because they dont rotate (rotatingcoolers used in early ages) , hot air can be ducted out of them for use infuel drying, or for use as precalciner combustion air.FAN FOR COOLER.8 Fans are also used to force air through the cooler bed or grates.CONSTRUCTION OF COOLERThis consists of a perforated grate through which cold air is blown,enclosed in a rectangular chamber. A bed of clinker up to 0.5 m deepmoves along the grate. The grates are moved with the help of a hydraulicsystem.COOLER CRUSHERRotary crushers are used at the out let of a cooler. These crushers crush thebig pieces of cooled clinker into small ones.PAN CONVERYERPan conveyer is the medium used for transportation of material in heavyamount. It consist of a chain of pan joined with each other in the form of abelt. Motors are used to run them.STORAGE OF CLINKERCooled clinker from the cooler is transported to the clinker storage yardwith the help of pan conveyer. PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 63 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  65. 65. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDCEMENT MILLCement mill is the area where finally cement is manufacture by theaddition of second stage raw materials (Slag , Gypsum and clinker) itconsist of following partsDiagram of CEMENT MILLFlow diagram of cement millRoller press or crusherCrushing SeparatorStorage binBall millIn lucky cement plant the cement mill is used is actually a ball mill. PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 65 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  66. 66. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDThe length of ball mill is 13 meter . it is divided into two chambers .Its 1st chamber is 3 meter long and 2nd chamber is 10 meter long .The efficiency of ball mill depends on the size and weight of media orgrinding medium.Media size in 1st chamber is 30,40,50 and 60 mm and in 2nd chamber is 10x12 , 12x14 mm .Weight of media in ball mill is 180 ton .Grinding aidGlycol is used as grinding aid in ball mill . due to high temperaturegypsum under goes hydration so lumps form in the mill which chock theout let of ball mill so glycol stops this phenomenaStorage of cement PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 66 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  68. 68. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDPACKING PLANTLOOSE CEMENT Lucky cement also export loose cement by loading it into throughbunker. Daily it export ton per day. loose cement storage and ship loading terminal at berth -25 westwharf karachi portPACKED CEMENT PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 68 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  70. 70. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDQUALITY CONTROL LABCOLLECTION OF SAMPLEFor quality management samples of material and cement is taken fromfollowing places , • Query • Limestone yard • Proportionating building • Vertical Raw mill Air slide • Raw mix silo • Preheater • Cooler • Ball millTesting of sample at different stagesANALYSIS OF COAL In order to access the quality of the coal the following two types ofanalyses are made. • PROXIMATE ANALYSES • ULTIMATE ANALYSESPROXIMATE ANALYSISIt is the analyses on compound basis which involves the followingdeterminations.1.moisture PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 70 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  71. 71. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITED2.volatile matter3.ash4.fixed carbon1. MOISTURE: about 1gm of finaly powdered air dried coal sample is weighed in acrucible . the crucible is placed inside an electronic hot air ovenmaintained at 105_110 0C the crucible is allowed to remain in oven for 1hour and then taken out. (with the help of pair of tongs) cooled in adesecator and weighed . loss in weight is reported as moisture on % basis.FORMULA FOR FINDING MOISTURE% of moisture =( loss in weight / weight of coal taken )*1002.VOLATILE MATTERthe dried sample of coal left in a crucible in crucible in (1) is then coveredwith a lid and placed in an electric furnace(muffle furnace) maintained at925+25oC or 925-25oC .the crucible is taken out of the oven after 7minutes heating. The crucible is cooled 1st in air then inside dedicator andweighed again loss in weight is reported as volatile matter i,eFormula For Finding Volatile Mattervolatile matter (v m) = loss in weight due to removal of volatile matter x100 wt of coal sample taken3.ASH the residual coal in the crucible in (2) is then heated without lid in amuffle at about 500C for half an hour .the crucible is taken out cooled 1stin air then in desiccators and weighed ,heating, cooling and weighing isrepeated till a constant weight is obtained the residue is reported as ash on%basis.FORMULA FOR FINDING % OF ASH The % of ash = wt of ash left x 100 PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 71 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  72. 72. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITED wt of coal taken4.FIXED CARBON% of fixed carbon = 100 -% of (moisture + volatile matter +ash)ULTIMATE ANALYSISIt is the analysis on elemental basis which involves the followingdeterminations.1. carbon and hydrogen2. Nitrogen3. sulpher4. oxygen1. CARBON AND HYDROGEN; about 0.2gms of accurately weighed coal sample is burnt in acurrent of oxygen in a combustion apparatus .C and H of the coal areconverted into CO2 and H2O respectively. The gaseous products areabsorbed respectively in KOH and CaCl2 tubes of known weights, theincrease in weight of these tubes are then determined C + O2 → CO2 2KOH + CO2 → K2CO3 + H2O CaCl2 + 7H2O → CaCl2 .7H2O% OF C = Increase in weight of KOH tube x 12 x 100 Weight of coal sample taken x 44 PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 72 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  73. 73. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITED% of H2= increase in weight of CaCl2 tube x 2 x 100 weight of coal sample taken x 18 1. NITROGENAbout 1 gm of accurately weighed powdered coal is heated withconcentrated H2SO4 along necked flask called kejeld’s flask, after thesolution becomes clear it is treated with excess of KOH and LIBERATEDAMMOUNT is distilled over and absorbed in a known volume of standardacid solution. The unused acid is then determined by lack titration withstandard NAOH FROM the volume of acid by ammonia liberated % of Nin coal is calculated as follows % OF N =volume of acid used x normality x14 x 100 weight of coal taken 3.SULPHER Sulpher is determined from washings obtained from the known mass sample of coal used in a bomb calorimeter for determination of calorific value during determination. Sulpher is converted into sulphate , the washings are with barium chloride solution BaCl2, when BaSO4 is precipitated this filtrate washed and heated to constant weight. % of sulphur in coal = wt of bariam sulphate obtained x 32 x 100 233 x wt of coal sample taken in bomb 4.Oxygen Oxygen determined by % of oxygen = 100 - % of (C + S + H + N + Ash PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 73 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  75. 75. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDPOWER GENERATIONThere is also a power generation plant in lucky cement industry. 11generators are used some of them required furnace oil and some Naturalgas.Furnance oil generator or Dual fuel generatorThere are 2 dual fuel or furnace oil generators are used. Dual fuelgenerators are those which uses furnace oil and natural gas as fuel forpower generation. Each generator produces 7.4 Mega Watt electricity.Natural gas generatorThere are 9 other generators used to generate electricity by natural gas. • 5 of them is of CAT MAC company and has an efficiency of generating electricity nearly 5.9 Mega Watt. • 3 of Roll Royce company having efficiency of 6.9 Mega Watt. • 1 of Roll Royce company having efficiency of 8.5 Mega WattGeneration of power houseIn lucky cement industry total power consumption is 48.5 Mega Watt .Power house can generate 75 Mega Watt electricity. PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 75 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  77. 77. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITED OVERALL PERFORMANCE OF LUCKY CEMENT LIMITED Aims and missions F uture plan Expansion planOur Company has emerged as the largest exporter of cement in Pakistan.We have been able to capture new markets where our brand is now verywell established and known for its high quality of cement produced by us.The location of our Karachi project is ideal for exports by sea for whichwe have already setup state-of-the-art infrastructure at Plants & KarachiPort.Currently the total production capacity of Lucky Cement is 25,000 tonsper day. Our Company has adopted the same hybrid technology experiencefor this expansion plan which was earlier used for the existing productionlines by acquiring the latest technology fuel consuming components fromEuropean suppliers with the combination of Chinese plant and machinerywhich helps to minimize expansion cost. It will ensure great efficiency forproducing cement at lower cost.The power requirement for the expansion lines will be met through captivegas based power generation for which additional supply of gas has beenarranged. PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 77 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  79. 79. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDENVIRONMENTAL SAFETYGLOBAL WARMING AND THE DANGERS OF GHGWASTE HEAT RECOVERYLucky Cement, being aware of Global warming and the dangers of GHG,has decided to play an active role in participating in reduction of globalwarming and creating an environmental friendly atmosphere. In this regardLucky cement has taken a step to contribute in this Global effort to controlcarbon emission.Lucky Cement Limited is now in the process of installing a waste heatrecovery system which will utilize the waste heat generated during clinkerproduction into electrical power with zero emission of carbon and withoutconsuming any fuel. This effort of producing 25 MW electricity, althougha costly effort , but looking at the circumstances both nationally andinternationally will help in contributing in production of electricity in anation where the power generation sector is in crisis and in a world whichfeels the dangers to environment and global warming. PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 79 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)
  80. 80. INTERNSHIP PROGRAME LUCKY CEMENT COMPANY LIMITEDCONCLUSION Lucky cement industry is a day by day growing industry and counted in Pakistan’s most biggest and popular industry. We have observed all units process and operations used in a chemical industry and got good working experience in lucky. Internship is most important for the engineering students as it develops confidence and practical knowledge in students during their studies. As far as the production of lucky concrete progress plant is concerned, it is in very huge quantity and of good quality. Lucky is famous for manufacturing OPC of very good quality. PREPARED BY MOHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) 80 SUHAIL AHMED (08IN36) & MANSOOR ALI SOLANGI (08IN106)