Sc workshop topics 5 6 community energy and liquid fuels

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South Carolina Local Government Energy Assurance Workshop: Community Energy Profile & Community Liquid Fuel Plan

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Sc workshop topics 5 6 community energy and liquid fuels

  1. 1. SC LOCAL GOVERNMENTSC LOCAL GOVERNMENTENERGY ASSURANCEENERGY ASSURANCEWORKSHOPWORKSHOPCommunity Energy Profile&Community Liquid Fuel Plan
  2. 2. Who Moved My Cheese?
  3. 3. AgendaAgenda• Energy Systems•Electricity•Petroleum•Natural Gas• Energy Assurance Workbook•Community Profile•Community Liquid Fuel Plan
  4. 4. What is electricity?What is electricity?• Theory vs. practice– Flow of charged particles– What powers your iPhone• Secondary form of energy– Medium of transfer, notan original sourceGraphic source: Department of Energy
  5. 5. How is it used?How is it used?• Ubiquitous• Expected• Essential– Core governmental functions– Economy– Welfare
  6. 6. Who is producing it?Who is producing it?• Investor-Owned Utilities:– Duke / Progress Energy (legacy)– SCE&G– Lockhart Power (Hydro & Renewable)• State Owned Utility– SC Public Service Authority (Santee Cooper)* Remember to record your provider in your CommunityEnergy Profile
  7. 7. How is it generated?How is it generated?• Base Load………………………………92%– Coal-40%– Nuclear-52%• Auxiliary………………………………….4%– Natural Gas– Petroleum• Renewables……………………………..4%– Solar– Wind– Biomass
  8. 8. CoalCoal• 9 plants in-state– Base load•Duke•SCE&G•SC PSA (Santee Cooper)Graphic source: EPA
  9. 9. NuclearNuclear• ~52% of Base Generation• Operated by Duke Power, Progress Energy andSCE&GName Utility Location Reactor DesignOconee 1 Duke Energy Oconee County Pressurized WaterOconee 2 Duke Energy Oconee County Pressurized WaterOconee 3 Duke Energy Oconee County Pressurized WaterRobinson Duke Energy Hartsville Pressurized WaterSummer SCE&G Jenkinsville Pressurized Water
  10. 10. Natural GasNatural Gas• Traditionally used for auxiliary generation– Accounts for ~ 4% of Electric Generation– Rapid spin-up to manage high demand• Increasingly used for base generation– Changing economics and environmental regulation willencourage new construction and conversion
  11. 11. Natural GasNatural Gas• SCE&G– Beech Island– Jasper County• Duke– Darlington– Cherokee (Mill Creek)
  12. 12. How does it get to consumers?How does it get to consumers?• The U.S. electrical grid is thelargest, most complex machineon Earth• The “integrated grid”transfers power betweenregions as needed tobalance demand• High voltage transmissionimproves efficiency• Voltage steps down as linesapproach end-users
  13. 13. How does it get to consumers?How does it get to consumers?• Transmission lines carry bulk power (up to 800kV)• Voltage is stepped down at substations• Distribution lines carry between 1kV and 70kVGraphic source: Maryland Chapter of the Sierra Club
  14. 14. How does it get to consumers?How does it get to consumers?• Who distributes it?– Investor Owned Utilities•Duke/Progress, Lockhart, SCE&G etc…– 1 State Owned Utility•SC Public Service Authority aka. Santee Cooper– 21 Municipal Utilities•Georgetown, McCormick, Rock Hill etc…– 21 Electric Cooperatives•Aiken Electric Coop, Palmetto Electric Coop etc…
  15. 15. PetroleumPetroleum• Energy System Vulnerabilities– Does a butterfly flapping its wings in Brazil really set offa tornado in Texas???
  16. 16. PetroleumPetroleum• This module is about petroleum, the source of motorfuels that power our transportation system. We willcover:– What petroleum is– Global Supply– Domestic production– Transportation of petroleum– Crude oil and refined product markets– South Carolina’s distribution system– Vulnerabilities and interdependencies
  17. 17. What is petroleum?What is petroleum?• Crude Oil– Unit of Measure is the barrel– Equivalent to 42 U.S. Gallons– Processed into 45 gallons of petroleum products:•Gasoline- 19 gals•Diesel- 10 gals•Kerosene•Petrochemicals
  18. 18. What is petroleum?What is petroleum?• Crude Oil– Extracted by a drilling rig– Transported via pipeline– Transported by ship
  19. 19. What is petroleum?What is petroleum?• Classifications of Crude Oil– Light– Sweet– Heavy– Sour
  20. 20. Global SupplyGlobal Supply
  21. 21. Global SupplyGlobal Supply
  22. 22. Domestic ProductionDomestic Production• 5 PADD’s• PADD-1– PADD-1A New England– PADD-1B Central Atlantic– PADD-1C-Lower Atlantic
  23. 23. Domestic ProductionDomestic Production• PADD-1 ~0.4%• PADD-2 ~16%• PADD-3 ~56%• PADD-4 ~ 6.6%• PADD-5 ~ 20%Graphic source:EIA
  24. 24. Domestic ProductionDomestic Production
  25. 25. Transportation of petroleumTransportation of petroleumStrait ofHormuzSuezCanalBab El-MandadBosphorus
  26. 26. Crude MarketsCrude Markets• Benchmark Crude Markets- WTI V Brent
  27. 27. Refined MarketsRefined Markets• NYMEX– RBOB– CL– NG
  28. 28. Refined MarketsRefined Markets• Basis– Difference between Futures and Cash market
  29. 29. Refined MarketsRefined Markets10- 20 days
  30. 30. Refined MarketsRefined MarketsInstantaneous market reactionBy Close of Business same day2 days after event, if that
  31. 31. South Carolina’s PetroleumSouth Carolina’s Petroleum• Petroleum Demand– Gasoline ~ 72%– Diesel ~ 20%
  32. 32. PipelinesPipelines• Pipelines that serve SC– Colonial Pipeline– Plantation Pipeline– Dixie Pipeline• Considerations– Safety– Regulation– Common Carrier– Time
  33. 33. TerminalsTerminals• 6 Terminals in SC– Belton– Blacksburg– North Augusta– Charleston– North Charleston– Spartanburg• Temporarily store finished petroleum products• Re-injects product back into pipeline
  34. 34. TerminalsTerminals• Ethanol Blending•Belton•North Augusta•Spartanburg• Inserts “special” components into gasoline– Its what makes BP, Exxon, Shell “Special”• Serves local markets
  35. 35. JobbersJobbers• Contract– May cost more for contract– Security of contract• Non-Contract– May be inexpensive sometimes– Other times may be very expensive– More susceptible to market fundamentals
  36. 36. JobbersJobbers• Branded-– Only branded fuel can go into the tank– Special additives– At times, can be more expensive• Unbranded– Can put any fuel in tank– May not have branded additive*Remember to record your providers in your Community EnergyProfile
  37. 37. VulnerabilitiesVulnerabilities• Geopolitical-– OPEC-Non-OPEC– OECD and Non-OECD demand
  38. 38. VulnerabilitiesVulnerabilities• Environmental-– Severe weather such as hurricanes– Weather events in the Gulf of Mexico•Systematic response– One week prior to landfall- reduce port operations– Self protective volumes•Market response– Speculation
  39. 39. VulnerabilitiesVulnerabilities• Local-– Availability of product•May be affected events occurring else ware– Electric•May affect the ability to pump fuel•May affect the ability to pay for fuel- i.e. credit card, fuel key…– Consumer response– Top off tanks
  40. 40. InterdependenciesInterdependencies• Electricity-– Affects pipeline pumping stations– Affects SCADA systems– Affects financial systems•Point of sale transactions•ATM’s
  41. 41. InterdependenciesInterdependencies• Transportation– Rail system- Ethanol deliveries– Roadways• Communications and Data– Place and receive orders• Agriculture– Corn• Ethanol• Water– Irrigation– Refining process-steam
  42. 42. Conclusion and questionsConclusion and questions• We have discussed:– What petroleum is– Global Supply– Domestic production– Transportation of petroleum– Crude oil and refined product markets– South Carolina’s distribution system– Vulnerabilities and interdependencies
  43. 43. Natural GasNatural Gas• Energy System Vulnerabilities
  44. 44. What is Natural Gas?What is Natural Gas?• Fossil fuel– Hydrocarbon– Commonly associated with oil• Composed of several gases– Primary: Methane– Others: Ethane, Propane, Butane, Pentane• Colorless, odorless• “Wet” vs. “Dry” gas
  45. 45. What is Natural Gas?What is Natural Gas?• Measurement– Cubic Feet•BCF- Billion Cubic Feet•MMCF-Million Cubic Feet– BTU•British Thermal Unit•MMBTU- Million British Thermal Units– Therm•100,000 BTU
  46. 46. The Natural Gas IndustryThe Natural Gas Industry• Natural Gas Activities– Production– Transmission– Distribution
  47. 47. The Natural Gas IndustryThe Natural Gas Industry• NC Natural Gas Operators– Production-None– Transmission•Interstate Pipeline•Williams Transcontinental (Williams-Transco)– Distribution•SCE&G•Piedmont Natural Gas Company*Remember to record your providers in your Community EnergyProfile
  48. 48. Global SupplyGlobal Supply• In some cases natural gas is liquefied and shippedvia LNG tanker ships
  49. 49. Domestic SupplyDomestic Supply• Conventional Production Areas• No production in SCGraphic source: Geology.com
  50. 50. Domestic SupplyDomestic Supply• Non-Conventional Production Areas• No production in SCGraphic source: National Energy Technology Laboratory
  51. 51. Types of Natural Gas PipelinesTypes of Natural Gas Pipelines• Pipelines– Gathering Lines- Not used here– Transmission-3,000 PSI– Distribution-200-1500 PSI– Service lines-2-60 PSI
  52. 52. Pipeline serving SCPipeline serving SC
  53. 53. DistributionDistribution• Intrastate Supply System
  54. 54. StorageStorage• LNG
  55. 55. The Natural Gas MarketplaceThe Natural Gas Marketplace• Exports?– Supply on the rise– Prices on the decline
  56. 56. VulnerabilitiesVulnerabilities• Pipelines are the only vehicle that transports theproduct to South Carolina– Commercial, industrial and residential sectors aredependent upon delivery– Currently, there is no mechanism to inject from the north
  57. 57. VulnerabilitiesVulnerabilities• Pipelines Infrastructure– How old is it– Who monitors it
  58. 58. VulnerabilitiesVulnerabilities• Gas Transmission line– Excavation- $855,353 in damage– Natural Forces-$360,700 in damage• Gas Distribution Lines– Excavation-$1.89 Million– Outside Forces- $620,976•Fire, Explosion, Electrical
  59. 59. InterdependenciesInterdependencies• Pipeline• Production• Storage• Gas-Fired Generation• SCADA
  60. 60. Contingency PlanningContingency Planning• Contingency Planning for Energy– Disruptions will happen– Two basic strategies•Extend the life of current supply•Acquire additional supplies– Extending buys time for acquisition
  61. 61. Energy Assurance WorkbookEnergy Assurance Workbook• Community Energy Profile– Outlines who your suppliers are and how to contact them– Know your annual demand
  62. 62. Energy Assurance WorkbookEnergy Assurance Workbook• Community Energy Profile– Do you have agreements?
  63. 63. Energy Assurance WorkbookEnergy Assurance Workbook• Community Liquid Fuel Plan– Do you own fuel tanks?
  64. 64. Energy Assurance WorkbookEnergy Assurance Workbook• Community Liquid Fuel Plan– Who provides you bulk fuel?
  65. 65. Energy Assurance WorkbookEnergy Assurance Workbook• Community Liquid Fuel Plan– Vehicle Fuel Usage- Municipal Tanks
  66. 66. Energy Assurance WorkbookEnergy Assurance Workbook• Community Liquid Fuel Plan– Vehicle Fuel Usage- Private Stations
  67. 67. Energy Assurance WorkbookEnergy Assurance Workbook• Community Liquid Fuel Plan– Generator Inventory
  68. 68. Energy Assurance WorkbookEnergy Assurance Workbook• Community Liquid Fuel Plan– Generator Re-suppliers
  69. 69. Conclusion and questionsConclusion and questions• During this module we discussed:– Electricity, Petroleum and Natural Gas– Vulnerabilities– Interdependencies– Energy Assurance Workbook•Community Profile•Liquid Fuel Plan

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