Major Complexity Challenges on the Big Dig: Project Integration – (150 Major Employers – One Team) 5,000 workers, thousands of complex processes Risk Management – World’s Largest Wrap-up Program Ambiguity and Uncertainty – Subsurface conditions Technology Integration – Monitoring the Critical Path Claims and Changes - Partnering
Project Integration Management Close Project Project Charter 7 1 Integrated Scope Change Statement Control 2 6 Project Monitor Mgmt And Direct and Plan Control Manage 3 5 Execution 4Project ManagementInstitute, PMBOK, 4th ed.
What is Integration?Requires each project and product processto be appropriately aligned and connectedwith the other processes to facilitate theircoordination. These process interactionsoften require tradeoffs among projectrequirements and objectives.
Integration on Large and Complex ProjectsOrganizational Structure– The People– The ProcessesCommunity and Public ConcernsInternal and External Stakeholders
Why are Mega Projects Consistently Underestimated?A review of large public works projectsover the last century concluded thatcosts are consistently underestimated,a phenomenon attributed to the desireof the project advocates to have theirprojects approved.(Flyvbjerg, Megaprojects and Risk: An Anatomy of Ambition, 2002)
National Transportation Research BoardIn 2006, the Transportation Research Board’s Final Reportfor Cost Estimation and Management for Highway Projects,identified eight strategies to address cost escalation, andlinked these strategies to 18 different causes of costescalation on highway projects in the United States.Notably, the research concluded that most efforts in costestimation have focused on creating tools to improve costestimates with less emphasis on tools for cost estimationmanagement.(Anderson et. al. 2006).
Complexity and Project Management Trade-offsDesign, Risk, Safety, and QualityDecisions!!