Outline to first draft0331

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Patty Tymon's Outline to First Draft

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Outline to first draft0331

  1. 1. EXPANDABLE OUTLINE TO PAPER A Step-by-Step Approach
  2. 2. IT’S A PROCESS . . .Creating a first draft is a process beginning withthe pre-abstract and the expandable outline.This presentation describes that process step-bystep.Move forward for Step One.
  3. 3. THE PRE-ABSTRACT The pre-abstract is a brainstorming technique. Write the thesis on a sheet of paper and ask, “how do I know?” Generate a sentence to answer the question. Ask after that sentence, “How else do I know?” and create anothersentence. Continue this process until you have about 7-8 sentences. These will be working topic sentences for body paragraphs.
  4. 4. UNDERSTANDING A BODY PARAGRAPH Your outline at each level should have everything you need tobegin crafting body paragraphs for the research paper. As always, the body paragraph has three purposes: introduce thetopic for the paragraph (support the thesis), prove the topic sentence’svalidity with your ideas and primary and secondary support, and closethe paragraph effectively. The following slides demonstrate this process . . .
  5. 5. THESIS Note: This thesis is an example not dealing with our anti-herotheme and is a student example from a previous semester.In Daphne Du Maurier’s Rebecca, money represents greatpower, a power that remains even after death. Abuse of thispower creates strongholds over many relationships; moreover,this power creates fear throughout the book’s characters.
  6. 6. FIRST BODY PARAGRAPH LEVEL FROM OUTLINE: Topic Sentence: The narrator begins as an innocent character; this innocenceappears early in the novel and gives others power over her. Primary source support:A. Mrs. Van Hooper is the first character to exploit the narrator’s innocence,primarily because the narrator has no family of her own.B. The narrator soon realizes that Mrs. Van Hooper has a strong power over herbecause of Van Hopper’s experience as it contrasts with the narrator’s naiveté:“Funny to think that the course of my existence hung like a thread upon that qualityof hers [Mrs. Van Hooper]” (Du Maurier 12).
  7. 7. CONTINUED . . .C. Although the narrator recognizes Van Hopper’s manipulation, theyounger woman admits powerlessness in the face of Van Hopper’sdomination as the narrator notes the financial hold the other woman hason her.Note: These three examples from the primary source establish thebalance of power predicated on the narrator’s innocence: theysupport the topic sentence, which in turn supports the thesis.
  8. 8. SECONDARY SOURCES . . .Note: Now we bring in the outside sources.a. Elaine Showalter observes that “innocence in female characters often becomes a basis for other characters’ immediate power sources” (235).b. One critic points out, “nothing allows the predators to swoop like the naïve damsel in distress” (Gilbert 45).c. According to Susan Gubar, “the line between innocence and helplessness has always been a narrative dilemma for female characters” (129).Note: Sources must be worked grammatically into your own sentences. Seehttp://www.bergen.edu/faculty/ljonaitis/style_dropped_quotations.htm forhelp.
  9. 9. LET’S MAKE A PARAGRAPH! With a thesis, topic sentence, and sources in place, you can craft a paragraph with only your connections and observations to add. Your argument is the most important element in the paper, so everything serves to support it: primary and secondary sources. Once you have these sources, you will need to point out to the reader WHY they support your argument.
  10. 10. THE PARAGRAPH:The narrator begins as an innocent character; this innocence appears early in the noveland gives others power over her. According to Susan Gubar, “the line between innocence andhelplessness has always been a narrative dilemma for female characters” (129). Mrs. Van Hooper isthe first character to exploit the narrator’s innocence and sets the stage for Maxim, primarily becausethe narrator has no family of her own. One critic points out, “nothing allows the predators to swooplike the naïve damsel in distress” (Gilbert 45). The narrator soon realizes that Mrs. Van Hooper has astrong power over her because of Van Hopper’s experience as it contrasts with the narrator’s naiveté:“Funny to think that the course of my existence hung like a thread upon that quality of hers [Mrs.Van Hooper]” (Du Maurier 12). Further, Elaine Showalter observes that “innocence in femalecharacters often becomes a basis for other characters’ immediate power sources” (235). Mrs. VanHopper is the readers’ first glimpse into the dooming innocence of the second Mrs. De Winter andthe power others use to control her.
  11. 11. AN EFFECTIVE OUTLINE IS CRUCIAL: From the previous slides, one can see clearly how the expandableoutline makes writing the drafts a more manageable task. Use the concepts on the previous slides to work through the draftone paragraph at a time. Begin with body paragraphs based on the thesis. The introductionand conclusion paragraphs often are best developed after the writerknows the content of his or her own essay.
  12. 12. I AM HERE FOR YOU: Please reach out with preliminary paragraph drafts or full drafts sothat I can help you throughout the process. I will provide as much feedback as possible if you send work tome via e-mail.

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