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Underground utility detection

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Nota Kuliah

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Underground utility detection

  1. 1. ptsb/jka/burgerCG605
  2. 2.  Underground Utility Detection?? Utility Detectionptsb/jka/burg/dis11 2
  3. 3.  Safety on site is a necessary ingredient of all civil works.  Information provided by locating before digging is an essential contribution to safe digging.  Spiking a buried power cable or fracturing a pipeline is a cause of serious and dramatic danger that can mutilate or even kill.  Knowing their presence and position helps avoid the possibility of damage.ptsb/jka/burg/dis11 3
  4. 4.  Trenching Damagesptsb/jka/burg/dis11 4
  5. 5. What’s all this about locating?  It’s about ; • reducing unnecessary cost • efficient working • site safety • maintaining essential services to the community  Information is the end product of locating buried utility pipes and cables.  Positive, accurate and precise information is the only kind of information worth having or worth paying for.ptsb/jka/burg/dis11 5
  6. 6.  Faulty or incomplete information can misled, it can be the cause of unnecessary cost and it can expose people to danger.  Underground Utility Mapping is a process to determine the utilities beneath the ground surface.  Such as : telephone line, power distribution cable, natural gas pipeline, fiber optic line, street light cable, water pipes,sewerage etc. Faulty 01 Faulty 02ptsb/jka/burg/dis11 6
  7. 7.  Electromagnetic induction was discovered by Michael Faraday in 1831  The earliest record of using electromagnetic technology to locate buried cables dates from around 1910Michael Faraday 1791-1867 7 ptsb/jka/burg/dis11
  8. 8. The photograph shows a cable locator from a coil wound round a wooden truss; the coil is just visible at the front of the trussptsb/jka/burg/dis11 8
  9. 9.  Survey and Mapping Department are responsible to manage utility mapping for Malaysia (24th August 1994)  To handle disruption of existing utility services due to excavation works  Follow the ‘ Standard Guideline for Underground Utility Mapping ’ptsb/jka/burg/dis11 9
  10. 10.  Underground utility installations involved the use of different materials and sizes and can be placed at different depths.  In addition, the environment in which it is buried can vary from one place to another and can be packed with a variety of utility placement.  This makes possible the need for using more than one technique to detect its position.  The selection of appropriate techniques is essential to ensure effective detection.ptsb/jka/burg/dis11 10
  11. 11.  In general, the detection techniques that can be used can be classified as follows: • Electromagnetic  Pipe and Cable Locator (PCL)  Terrain Conductivity  Resistivity Measurements  Metal Detectors  Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)  Optical Methods  X-ray Methods (Penetrating Radiation)ptsb/jka/burg/dis11 11
  12. 12.  In general, the detection techniques that can be used can be classified as follows: • Magnetic  Magnetometer  Total Field Measurements  Gradiometric Measurements • Elastic Wave  Seismic Reflection  Seismic Refraction However, utility detection activity typically  Acoustic Emission involve two types of equipment * Pipe and Cable Locators (PCL) * Ground penetration radar (GPR).ptsb/jka/burg/dis11 12
  13. 13. ptsb/jka/burg/dis11 13
  14. 14.  A PCL does not locate buried pipes or cables  It detects a magnetic field around the line created by an alternating current-ac-flowing along the line.  This magnetic field forms a cylindrical shape around the line and is known as the ‘SIGNAL’  PCL should be able to provide accuracy of ± 5% from the true value of location and depth.ptsb/jka/burg/dis11 14
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  17. 17.  Signal; • Active Signal  Is produce by a signal transmitter and applied to a line so that it can be located and traced with a receiver.  The signal transmitter can also flood an area with signal so that all the lines in the area can be located • Passive Signal  Occur ‘naturally’ on lines as an effect of 50/60Hz electric power energy or VLF radio energy ** Despite the existence of passive signals the best signal to locate and trace a line is an active signal which has been deliberately applied for the purpose of locating and tracingptsb/jka/burg/dis11 17
  18. 18.  Active Signal; • An active signal is applied to a line from a transmitter so that the line can be traced and located with a receiver. • To ensure more accurate result, these mode should be used;  Direct Connection  Induction  Clampingptsb/jka/burg/dis11 18
  19. 19.  Direct Connection • The output ac voltage from the signal transmitter is connected directly to the pipe or cable at an access point such as a valve, meter or end of the conductor, and the circuit is completed by a connection to a stake or the ground connection pointptsb/jka/burg/dis11 19
  20. 20.  Direct Connectionptsb/jka/burg/dis11 20
  21. 21.  Induction • The aerial in a signal transmitter fed with an ac voltage sets up a magnetic field through the coil returning through the earth below it. • In the first drawing the transmitter aerial lies parallel to line AB and its field links around the line which therefore has a signal induced on it. • There is no linkage and no signal induced on line CD at right angles to the aerial.ptsb/jka/burg/dis11 21
  22. 22.  Clamping • Uses the induction principle to give similar result to direct connection, but without electrical contact to the line. • The output from the signal transmitter is applied to a target line by clamping round it with a split toroidal magnetic core, which carries a primary winding magnetizing the core with the ac signal • The line becomes the secondary of a transformer, and will carry a strong signal, provided that it is adequately grounded on each side.ptsb/jka/burg/dis11 22
  23. 23. ptsb/jka/burg/dis11 23
  24. 24.  Passive Signal; • Are ‘naturally’ present on many buried pipes and cables.  Eg. Power cables which carry currents as part of their normal duty. • Current flowing in a cable produces a magnetic field or passive signal.ptsb/jka/burg/dis11 24
  25. 25.  Passive Signal; • Very low frequency long wave radio energy from distant transmitters is present in the atmosphere world-wide. • The ground provides return paths for this energy, and burried metallic lines form preferred paths. • They then act as aerials re-radiating these signals. • The signals are strong enough to be located in most part of the country. • This can be check by trial and error before relying on them for location work.ptsb/jka/burg/dis11 25
  26. 26.  Passive Signal;ptsb/jka/burg/dis11 26
  27. 27.  Sweeping • To locate any conductor underground • Walk in grid pattern as shown on illustration • Sweeping in two perpendicular directions • ‘STOP’ when you get a response • Move the transmitter to that point and trace the conductor you’ve found out of the area of interest, marking as you go. • Return to your starting point and resume sweeping, looking for more conductors to trace. • When finished sweeping using the inductive method, sweep again using passive power mode. • This technique will reveal all grounded metal pipes and cables, and non-conducting lines with properly installed tracer wires.ptsb/jka/burg/dis11 ptsb/jka/burg/dis11 27
  28. 28.  SWEEPING Sweepptsb/jka/burg/dis11 28
  29. 29.  TRACING • To trace an individual pipe or cable, it’s best to apply signal to the targeted line with the conductive method or the inductive clamp method. • If this isn’t possible, you can still use the inductive method but other conductors are more likely to pick up a signal. • Move slowly while tracing the cable, moving the receiver side toside over the trace path. Pay attention to handle alignment. • Mark the path as you go, and, if in manual gain mode, remember to adjust gain periodically as you move away from the transmitter and signal strength declines.ptsb/jka/burg/dis11 29
  30. 30.  PCL RD 7000/8000 Demoptsb/jka/burg/dis11 30
  31. 31. ptsb/jka/burg/dis11 31
  32. 32.  Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a geophysical method that uses radar pulses to image the subsurface.  This nondestructive method uses electromagnetic radiation in the microwave band (UHF/VHF frequencies) of the radio spectrum, and detects the reflected signals from subsurface structures.  GPR can be used in a variety of media, including rock, soil, ice, fresh water, pavements and structures. It can detect objects, changes in material, and voids and cracks.ptsb/jka/burg/dis11 32
  33. 33.  Depending on the depth and soil conditions, a range of frequencies should be used:ptsb/jka/burg/dis11 33
  34. 34. ptsb/jka/burg/dis11 34
  35. 35.  GPR 01 02 03ptsb/jka/burg/dis11 35
  36. 36. The American Public Works Association (APWA) Uniform Color Codes for temporary marking of underground utilities are listed below:ptsb/jka/burg/dis11 36
  37. 37. Marking on siteNormally Marked:Power Line - PWater - WSewer - STelephone Line - TGas Pipe - Gptsb/jka/burg/dis11 37
  38. 38.  ABC & XYZ of Locating Buried Pipes and Cables (for the beginner and the specialist) • Radiodetection Limited  Locating 101- A quick guide to underground locating • Schonstedt  Pekeliling KPUP bil. 1/2006 – Garis Panduan Pemetaan Utiliti Bawah Tanah • Jupem  Pekeliling KPUP bil. 1/2007 – Garis Panduan Ukuran Pepasangan Utiliti • Jupemptsb/jka/burg/dis11 38

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