T he Jews added to their clothes some elements which let them distinguish from other people and stress their national belonging. The Jews completed their local clothes with some Jewish accessories .
Daily apparel of the Jews was not too rich, which was connected with both religious principles and with everyday activities .
Men used to wear clothes in western European style and women used to wear dresses patterned after the ones worn by middle- class or gentry or just as men they accepted western European fashion .
The Jews used to wear black color i n order to distinguish themselves from other people. They thought that their main aim of life is to reproduce.
Clothes of Jewish women did not differ much from clothes of typical middle- class woman. It consisted of a skirt, apron, blouse, corset or dress and in case of a married woman – of a bonnet. The Jewish women were distinguished only by a bib or a special kind of a headgear- a kind of a decorative band worn only by unmarried women.
After wedding women had their hair cut and their heads were covered .
They used different headgear. The most popular and decorative one was a bonnet which became a symbol of a married woman and according to Jewish custom it covered the whole head. Bonnet was worn all the time- for a typical day it was very modest and during holidays they put one more decorative one. Different bonnet was used at night for sleeping .
An important element of Jewish women’s clothes was an apron which was put on the skirt . Poorer Jewish women put on plain skirts and printed aprons . Richer Jewish women wore aprons made of silk or cambric.
In the 18 th century the Jews were often dressed in żupan (a very long dress with sleeves and a row of small buttons, made of rich textiles), delia (a kind of coat worn on żupan), kiereja ( a kind of loose coat with fur underside) or szuba (a kind of huge overcoat with fur underside and with a fur collar)
They were also willing to wear typical Polish clothes because of their length and foldings. Jews usually wore black jerkins or overalls and wide round black hats. Jerkins and overalls were tied with belts.
In 19 th century they wore long trousers. Legs had to be fully covered so people put on long socks or stockings. The Jews wore leather boots, flat shoes and shoes called gaiters.
During Sabbath and other holidays men wore more decorative apparels such as long black, silk coats called bekiesz, and as a headgear they had small round velvet hat hemmed with fur. Youngest men often wore a cap called kaszkiet.
Hassidic Jews- married men who wore ‘shtreimels’ (hats made of genuine fur from a sable or a fox) on Shabbat .
Orthodox Jews wore yarmulkah all the time- at home, on the street, in synagogue, no matter if other caps were also worn at the same time. yarmulkah
During the prayers in synagogue men put 'tałes’ on their heads, w chich was a rectangular white scarf with symbolic black or navy-blue stripes. Tałes was sewn from one kind of material- wool or silk. It was also decorated with ‘atara’- a decorative strip with silver embroidery.