Western Energy Corridor -- Full Study

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Tom Kaiserski, Program Manager, Energy Promotion and Development Division, Montana
Department of Commerce
Northern Task Force Meeting on April 2, 2012, Billings, MT

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Western Energy Corridor -- Full Study

  1. 1. Western EnergyCorrid r
  2. 2. We s t e r n E n e r g y C o r r i d o r Executive SummaryT he energy resources con- In 2009, WEC oil production was Coal production within the WEC Significant quantities of uranium centrated along the Rocky approximately 2.3 million barrels was approximately 620 million found in the WEC supply a number Mountains and northern per day, with continued produc- short tons (~560 million metric of nuclear power plants interna-plains in Canada and the United tion growth anticipated from the tons) with approximately 15 billion tionally. Saskatchewan currentlyStates (U.S.) are world class, Alberta oil sands and the Bakken short tons (14 billion metric tons) dominates uranium production andas measured by their diversity, Formation. Proven reserves, domi- in recoverable reserves from active hosts the largest uranium mine inmagnitude, and longevity. This nated by Alberta oil sands, cur- mines in 2009. WEC coal supplies the world. The province contrib-area, informally referred to as rently place the region third in the much of the electricity produc- uted 18% of world production inthe Western Energy Corridor world with approximately 170 bil- tion for Canada and the U.S., and 2009, and is complemented by lion barrels. Undeveloped potential the WEC hosts the largest coal- growing production south of the(WEC), is strategic to meeting oil resources within the WEC are producing area (the Powder River U.S.-Canada border.the increasing energy demand in estimated at over 4 trillion barrels Basin) in Canada and the U.S.Canada, the U.S., and interna- (in-place). This includes oil shale Although large amounts of WECtionally. These energy resources, reserves in the Green River Forma- The WEC also contains several raw energy resources are exported,collectively, also provide a tion that spans parts of Wyoming, large river systems, which host these resources also contribute tofoundation for regional economic Colorado, and Utah. a number of hydropower dams local electricity and transportationdevelopment, including a plat- within and outside the WEC. Brit- fuel production. In 2009, electric-form for moving the region’s en- Natural gas production in the WEC ish Columbia alone produced over ity generation within the WEC wasergy products up the value chain. was approximately 10.5 trillion cu- 62 GWh of hydropower in 2009. over 370 million MWh. Of this,To provide a foundation and bic feet (297 billion cubic meters) Significant electrical generation more than 70% came from fossilstimulus for a bi-national regional in 2009, which places the WEC potential remains untapped, espe- energy plants (primarily coal anddialogue, Idaho National Labora- third in natural gas production cially in the north. natural gas), approximately 24%tory (INL) created this document worldwide. Although conventional from hydropower, and approximate-with input from representatives of gas production is declining, new Other renewable energy resources, ly 4% from other renewables withparticipating states and provinces. techniques and technological ad- such as some of the greatest wind no contribution from nuclear energy.Further data was gathered from vances have enabled development and bioenergy potential in Canadareliable internet and print sources of unconventional gas resources and the U.S., are available, but Transportation fuels productionand compiled to provide an over- within the area (i.e., shale gas, remain mostly untapped in the in the WEC is primarily from oilview of energy resources within tight gas, and coal bed methane), WEC. Efforts are underway to refining, with small amounts ofthe WEC. increasing overall natural gas also develop geothermal and solar biofuels (i.e., biodiesel and etha- production. potential within the region. nol). Plans are underway to build
  3. 3. We s t e r n E n e r g y C o r r i d o r Executive Summarycoal-to-liquids (CTL) and liquid wildlife, and climate change. In ad- WEC states and provinces are criti-natural gas (LNG) plants. dition, energy resources are critical cal players in supplying the U.S. for developing other natural re- and Canada with energy resourcesEnergy delivery infrastructure is sources in the region such as water, this century and beyond. Givenrapidly expanding. Oil and gas minerals, agricultural, and fertil- the importance of these resourcespipelines are both planned and izer. Also, technological innovation there is an unprecedented opportu-built to provide access from newly continues to play a pivotal role in nity for these states and provincesdeveloped fields such as the Bak- accessing energy resources andken Formation to both traditional mitigating environmental impacts.and nontraditional markets, includ- And energy demand and invest- The Western Energy Corridor contains a world-classing Asia. There are also plans to ment from Asia will continue to concentration of energy resources critical to ensuringexpand CO2 pipelines to enhance impact markets around the world.oil recovery and CO2 sequestration. regional, U.S., Canadian, and international energy securityNew transmission lines are being The outlook for the WEC’s eco-planned and built to access and nomic prosperity is both timely and economic development. The states and provincesintegrate more remote renewable and promising. Vast natural within the Corridor have an unprecedented opportunityenergy sources, such as wind. Rail resources, strong commitmentexpansion continues to be essen- to economic development and a to collaborate with each other relative to challenges andtial to coal development. New rail pledge to maintain quality of lifelines could also support delivery place the WEC in a unique posi- opportunities associated with developing these resources.of biomass feedstock as well as tion to capitalize on its riches andproduct from the Alberta oil sands become an international leader to collaborate and more effectivelyand the Bakken Formation to new in energy resource development. address pertinent energy chal-markets. Realizing the potential for devel- lenges and opportunities including opment, distribution, and utiliza- policy, regulation, technology de-Sustainable energy development tion of the WEC’s energy resources ployment, and regional economicwithin the WEC relies on a num- will present both opportunities and development. Such an approachber of interdependent factors. For challenges that will require more may be advantageous to these low-example, energy development sophisticated and regionally inte- population jurisdictions given theirincreasingly requires mitigating grated approaches, enabling policy, sometimes limited political influ-impacts on air, water, landscape, and continued investment. ence at the national level.
  4. 4. We s t e r n E n e r g y C o r r i d o r ContentsContents Electricity Power Generation . . 22 Energy-Resource Nexus . . . . . . 38Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Coal-Fired Electric Power Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Fertilizer Production . . . . . . . 38 Natural Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24Fossil Energy Resources . . . . . . . 4 Water Resources . . . . . . . . . . 39 Renewable Energy . . . . . . . . 24 Crude Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Fossil Energy Development . 39 Nuclear Energy . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Conventional Crude Oil . . . 5 Influences on WEC Energy Liquid Fuels Production . . . . . . 26 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Unconventional Oil Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Petroleum Refineries and Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Upgraders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Natural Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Energy Supply . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Liquid Natural Gas Conventional Natural Energy Environment . . . . 41 Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Existing and Emerging Coal-to-Liquids . . . . . . . . . . 27 Unconventional Export Markets . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Natural Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Biofuels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Price . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 WEC Energy Delivery . . . . . . . 28 Investment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41Renewable Energy Resources . . 12 Electricity Transmission . . . . 28 Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Hydropower . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Natural Gas Pipelines . . . . . . 29 Technological Innovation . . . 42 Wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Oil Pipelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Research Assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Solar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 CO2 Pipelines . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Biomass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Rail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Appendix A—References . . . . . 48 Geothermal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Energy and Environment . . . . . 36 Appendix B—Tables . . . . . . . . . 57 Tidal/Ocean Energy . . . . . . . 19 Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73Uranium Resources . . . . . . . . . . 20 Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Landscapes and Wildlife . . . 37 Climate Change . . . . . . . . . . 37
  5. 5. We s t e r n E n e r g y C o r r i d o r AcronymsAECO Alberta Energy Company CSUG Canadian Society for IPPBC Independent Power SAGD steam-assisted gravity (trading symbol) Unconventional Gas Producers of British drainageARRA American Recovery and CTL coal-to-liquids Columbia TCF trillion cubic feet Reinvestment Act DOE Department of Energy ,6* LQ VLWX FRDO JDVLÀFDWLRQ U308 triuranium octoxide 2ATR Advanced Test Reactor EEI Edison Electric Institute kWh/m kilowatt-hours per square UHOP Utah Heavy Oil Programbbl/d barrels per day meter EIA Energy Information USGS United States GeologicalBCF billion cubic feet Administration /1* OLTXLÀHG QDWXUDO JDV SurveyBCFD billion cubic feet per day EOR enhanced oil recovery MMCFD million cubic feet per WCI Western Climate day InitiativeBDt/yr bone dry metric tonnes EPA Environmental per year Protection Agency MMst million short tons WEC Western Energy CorridorBOE barrel of oil equivalent EPAct Energy Policy Act MRO Midwest Reliability WECC Western Electricity Organization Coordinating CouncilBP British Petroleum FERC Federal Energy Regulatory Commission MW megawatt WGA Western Governors’Bst billion short tons GIS geographic information MWh megawatt-hour AssociationCAPP Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers system NERC North American Electric GW gigawatt Reliability CorporationCBM coal bed methane GWh gigawatt-hour NETL National EnergyCCEI Canadian Center for Technology Laboratory Energy Information IEA International Energy Agency NPP nuclear power plantCCS carbon capture and sequestration ,* LQWHJUDWHG JDVLÀFDWLRQ NYMEX New York Mercantile combined cycle Exchange (trade symbol)CEA Canadian Electricity Association IJHD International Journal of RD research and Hydropower and Dams developmentCHA Canadian Hydropower Association INL Idaho National 5027 5RFN 0RXQWDLQ 2LOÀHOG Laboratory Testing CenterCO2 carbon dioxide IPCC Intergovernmental Panel RPS renewable portfolioCPV concentrator photovoltaic on Climate Change standard 1
  6. 6. We s t e r n E n e r g y C o r r i d o r IntroductionW orld-class energy As world energy demand increases resources strategic in the 21st century, the U.S., to North American Canada, and likely Asia will be-energy security and economic come more dependent upon WECdevelopment are concentrated resources. Development, distribu-along the Rocky Mountains and tion, and utilization of these re-northern plains in Canada and gional resources will present boththe U.S. This region is informally opportunities and challenges thatreferred to as the Western Energy will require more sophisticated and integrated approaches. StrategicCorridor [WEC; Figure 1]. The energy development and steward-fossil energy resources in this ship will be required to ensureregion are rivaled in only two energy security, regional economicother regions, and the proven development, and quality of lifeuranium reserves are among throughout the region. In addition,the world’s largest. Renewable the enormous quantity of energyresources including wind power, resources in the region provideshydropower, bioenergy, geother- a foundation for attracting value-mal energy, and solar energy are added industrial enterprises.also concentrated in this region.Substantial existing and planned The states and provinces hostingenergy infrastructure, including these resources can build a greater,refineries, pipelines, electrical more prosperous and sustainabletransmission lines, and rail lines future based on their supplies. Toprovide access to these resources stimulate a bi-national regionaland facilitate their development. dialogue on the current and future Figure 1. Approximate boundary of the WEC and outline of participating provinces and states. [M1] 2
  7. 7. We s t e r n E n e r g y C o r r i d o r Introductionuse of these resources, Governor strategy with common goals and provinces, and even Canadian ter-Brian Schweitzer of Montana and policies that promote a balance ritories can potentially be added inPremier Brad Wall of Saskatche- between environmentally-sound the future, which would increasewan solicited interest from several development, energy security, and to the collective energy resourceregional governors and premiers to a competitive industrial base. This wealth of the WEC.engage further on this topic. This document provides a foundationgroup subsequently determined and framework for governors and Finally, the energy sector mar-that it requires additional informa- premiers to focus their dialogue on ketplace is dynamic, meaningtion about the regional resources leveraging each other’s resources information can quickly becometo foster a productive dialogue. and capabilities within the bi-na- obsolete and need to be updated asTo address this need, Gov. Sch- tional WEC region. research and dialogues progress.weitzer, on behalf of a number ofincumbent governors and pre-miers, requested that INL prepare Strategic energy development and resource stewardship area inventory of energy resourceswithin the WEC. paramount to ensure energy security, regional economicWith the assistance of representa- development, and quality of life throughout the region.tives from participating states andprovinces, INL prepared this docu- The WEC’s boundary, as currently This document provides the latestment highlighting general energy outlined for this discussion, is available information at the timeresource information, conversion approximate, designed to encour- the research was done, which hasmethods into marketable forms, age dialogue built around a novel been extracted from public sourcesand infrastructure required to geographic perspective, and should with references provided. Mapsdeliver it to users. A select num- be considered preliminary. This included in the document typicallyber of affiliated topics have been document focuses on addressing represent compilations of mapsincluded to facilitate the dialogue the following states and provinces: produced at various levels of detailaround interdependent aspects of Alberta, British Columbia, Colora- and should be considered qualita-developing these resources. These do, Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, tive graphical overviews.topics, whether technical, social, Saskatchewan, South Dakota,or economic, must rely on a sound Utah, and Wyoming. Other states, 3
  8. 8. We s t e r n E n e r g y C o r r i d o r Fossil Energy ResourcesS ubstantial crude oil, natu- Crude Oil ral gas, and coal resources exist throughout the WEC. Conventional and unconventionalCrude oil contributes substantial- oil reservoirs exist throughout the WEC [Figure 2]. Combinedly to U.S. and Canadian transpor- proven reserves of both conven-tation needs, while natural gas tional and unconventional oil areand coal contribute substantially estimated to be 175 billion barrels,to electricity production. Both dominated by Alberta oil sands atconventional and unconventional approximately 170 billion barrelsWEC oil and gas resources are and the province’s conventionaldiscussed below. Oil and gas that crude reserves of approximatelycan be recovered through meth- 1.4 billion barrels [1]. This estimateods in use for decades are con- places Alberta’s reserves (and thussidered “conventional” resources. the WEC) third behind VenezuelaHowever, fossil resources that (211 billion barrels) and Saudi Ara-require recently developed and bia (267 billion barrels) in proveninnovative recovery technologies oil reserves [2; Figure 3]. Provenare deemed “unconventional” reserves provide a conservativeresources. As the “easier-to-get” estimate of the amount of oil (orconventional resources are de- gas) that will be produced. Cur-pleted, unconventional resources rent overall crude oil productionwill make up a greater proportion from the region is approximatelyof the oil and gas portfolio in the 2.3 million barrels per day, 36% ofWEC. which comes from conventional sources and 64% from the Alberta oil sands [Table 1]. Figure 2. WEC crude oil reservoirs. [M2] 4
  9. 9. We s t e r n E n e r g y C o r r i d o r Fossil Energy Resources 300 tion, the Cardium Formation in development of this resource is still 267 Alberta is generating significant in its infancy. As a result, reserve 250 211 interest given the potential to apply estimates for the Grosmont Deposit 200 fracturing stimulation techniques, have not been released because 175 Billion bbl of Oil similar to those employed in the there are no commercial projects 150 Bakken, which may dramati- operating in the area. In 2009, total 100 cally increase oil recovery in these bitumen production in Alberta was fields. There are also emerging approximately 1.5 million barrels 50 opportunities within the Viking per day [7]. Utah’s in-place bitu- 0 Formation in Alberta and Shauna- men reserves are between 12 and Saudi Arabia Venezuela WEC von Formation in Saskatchewan. 19 billion barrels [8].Figure 3.Conventional and unconventional proven crude oil resources. Unconventional Oil Resources In Place: 1,800 B bbl Oil SandsConventional Crude Oil An “oil boom” has recently In 2009, proven bitumen oil sands Ultimate Recoverable: 315 B bbl Proven: 170 B bbl emerged around development of reserves within the WEC wereSome of the larger conventional the Bakken Formation, which approximately 170 billion barrels.oil reserves are located in Alberta, encompasses portions of Montana, Ultimate recoverable reserve esti-Saskatchewan, and North Dakota North Dakota, and Saskatchewan. mates for this Alberta resource are[Table 2]. Collectively, the WEC The Bakken Formation’s estimated as high as 315 billion barrels. Esti-is estimated to contain proven re- proven reserves are between 3.1 mates of Alberta’s in-place resourceserves of approximately 5.4 billion billion barrels (95% probability of are about 1.8 trillion barrels of bitu-barrels as of 2009 (excludes oil recovery) and 4.3 billion barrels men [Figure 4]. It is estimated thatsands), which accounts for about (5% probability) [3]. In the fall of the Grosmont Carbonate Deposit21% of total Canada/U.S. conven- 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey contains approximately 406 billiontional reserves. Production of con- will initiate a new assessment of barrels of bitumen resource in placeventional crude oil within the WEC the recoverable oil in the Bakken and is the second largest bitumen-is just under 1.3 million barrels per Formation [4]. In 2010, from North bearing formation in Alberta [6].day, based on 2009 data, which is Dakota alone, production averaged Technologies and techniques to Figure 4.about 35% of total U.S./Canadian nearly 310,000 barrels per day [5]. recover bitumen from carbonates Alberta’s unconventional oilproduction in 2009 [Table 1]. In addition to the Bakken Forma- are not finalized, and commercial reserves from oil sands. 5
  10. 10. We s t e r n E n e r g y C o r r i d o r Fossil Energy ResourcesOil Shale room-and-pillar mining)yields a behind a much heavier crude oil tional production and decliningOil shale is another immense recoverable resource estimate of [11]. Heavy/extra heavy oils have onshore conventional production inyet relatively undeveloped WEC 1.58 trillion barrels of oil, which higher densities and viscosities the U.S. through 2035 [Figure 3].resource. Approximately 70% of is close to the 1.82 trillion barrels than light oil, but their densities Shale gas will be the largest con-the world’s oil shale is found in the suggested by the Department of and viscosities are lower than those tributor to the projected increaseGreen River Formation in Colo- Energy [10]. Estimates of recover- of bitumen. Approximately 1.25 in gas production. Tight gas andrado, Utah, and Wyoming—nearly able oil shale resource are 17-33% billion barrels are found in the U.S. CBM will contribute significant3.15 trillion barrels in place [Table greater than current estimates of portion of the WEC, primarily in fractions to the projected total [12;3; Figure 5]. Oil shale deposits also world-wide proven conventional Wyoming. Alberta and Saskatch- Figure 6].exist in Saskatchewan and British oil resources. ewan have significant resources ofColumbia. However, these deposits heavy oil, primarily in their car- Total reserves of conventionalare not well characterized and are Heavy Oil bonate formations; Wyoming and and unconventional natural gas inconsidered small relative to the Heavy and extra heavy oils are un- the rest of the WEC have relatively the WEC are at least 680 trillionGreen River Formation resource. conventional sources that have lost minor amounts. The WEC’s total cubic feet (TCF), primarily as tight their lighter oil fractions, leaving heavy oil reserves are estimated at gas and coal bed methane. This isOil shale is rock containing 550 billion barrels [Table 4]. equivalent to more than 64 years ofrelatively high amounts of organic production, based on current pro-matter known as kerogen. When Natural Gas duction rates. Alberta, Wyoming,kerogen is heated, it can be con- and Colorado rank first through The WEC contains abundant third in the WEC. Almost 98%verted to petroleum products that conventional natural gas resources of Canada’s proven conventionalcan be upgraded and refined. The WEC 3,100 (70%) including more than 38% of the natural gas is located within theoil shale may be treated in place combined remaining reserves of WEC [Table 5].(in-situ retort) or in a surface facil- Canada and the U.S. [Table 5]. Inity (ex-situ retort). Not all of this addition, the WEC has vast uncon-resource, however, is recoverable. Rest of World ventional gas resources includingEstimates of the recoverable frac- 1,300 (30%) coalbed methane (CBM), shaletion range from 45-80% for mining gas, and tight gas. The relative im-operations. There are currently no portance of these reserves is clearlysuch estimates for in-situ methods Figure 5. illustrated by the U.S. Energy In-[9]. Assuming a recoverable factor In-place oil reserves from shale formation Administration’s (EIA’s)of 50% (near the lower end for (billion bbl of oil). estimates for increased unconven- 6
  11. 11. We s t e r n E n e r g y C o r r i d o r Fossil Energy ResourcesWEC natural gas production esti- make up almost two thirds of the In 2009, 57.4 billion cubic feet per the next 25 years due to enormousmated in 2009 was approximately WEC’s production, which ranks day (BCFD), or 85%, of natural North American quantities.10.5 TCF per year, which is ap- third behind Russia and the U.S. gas consumed in the U.S. cameproximately one third of the com- [Table 6]. from domestic sources. More than Coalbed Methanebined U.S. and Canadian produc- 10% came from Canada, and about Nearly 63% of the U.S. and Cana-tion, and almost 8% of the world 5% came from international sourc- da’s total CBM reserves are locatedproduction. Alberta and Wyoming es in the form of liquefied natural in the WEC. Approximately 44% gas. Nearly 59% of Canada’s of established U.S. reserves are production is exported to the U.S., located in Colorado and Wyoming,Natural gas production in the WEC is approximately 10.5 with Alberta alone exporting over while 64% of established Cana- 71% of that (approximately 1.85TCF per year, which places it third behind Russia and the TCF) in 2009 [13]. Figure 8 showsU.S. in world ranking the locations of these reserves. Colorado and Wyoming 54% British Columbia and Alberta 46% History 2009 Projections Conventional Natural Gas 30 Rest of WEC 10% Established conventional natural 25 gas reserves in the WEC exceed Total 127 TCF — nearly 40% of the re- Total 20 Shale gas maining established reserve totals Trillion cubic feet [TCF] 60 TCF for Canada and the U.S. [Table 5; 15 Figure 7]. 13 TCF Tight gas 10 Unconventional Natural Gas 57 TCF Lower 48 onshore conventional The growing amount of accessible 5 Alaska Lower 48 offshore unconventional gas resources will Coalbed methane increase natural gas production in 0 1990 2000 2009 2015 2025 2035 both the WEC and the rest of North America. Shale gas is expected to Figure 7.Figure 6. be the most significant contribu- Established (conventional)U.S. natural gas production by source, 1990–2035. [12] tor to domestic production during reserves: 127 TCF. 7
  12. 12. We s t e r n E n e r g y C o r r i d o r Fossil Energy Resourcesdian reserves are found in Alberta North Dakota have proven reservesand British Columbia [Table 7]. of 510 BCF. This value is less thanProduction of CBM in the WEC is 1% of the U.S. proven reserve ofexpected to grow in the future. shale gas [Table 8]. In 2009, shale gas production in these states wasTight Gas 33 BCF. Estimates of the amountTight gas formations are distribut- of gas in place will almost certain-ed throughout the WEC. Estimates ly increase as previously neglectedof tight gas sands for individual shale formations are evaluated. Thestates are not readily available, but amount of gas that ultimately willa recoverable U.S. reserve estimate be recovered may depend more onis ~379 TCF [14]. In-place resourc- improvements in extraction tech-es of tight gas in British Columbia nology, market prices, and govern-are greater than 300 TCF [15]. ment regulation than the amount of gas in place. At this stage,Shale Gas proven reserves are a conservativeShale gas is extracted from true estimate of the amount of gas thatshales and mudstones, by far the can be recovered, and technicallymost common rocks in sedimenta- recoverable resource estimates arery basins. The gas content in these speculative.rocks varies widely, but it is likelythat important shale gas discover-ies will be made in the WEC. Newassessments of the technicallyrecoverable North American shalegas in the past few years have sub-stantially increased confidence thatthe domestic natural gas supplywill be sufficient to meet growingdemand for decades to come. Forexample, Colorado, Montana, and Figure 8. WEC natural gas reservoirs. [M3] 8
  13. 13. We s t e r n E n e r g y C o r r i d o r Fossil Energy ResourcesCanadian activity in shale gas is Coal The WEC’s vast coal resources Canada’s recoverable reserves areprimarily focused on the Montney [Figure 11] range in grade from located in the WEC [Table 9].and Horn River Basin plays of Coal supplies 45% of all U.S. lignite to anthracite. Recoverablenortheast British Columbia, which electricity and less than 20% of reserves (from active mines) in the In 2009, the WEC produced ap-has recoverable reserves of 69 and Canada’s electricity [18]. More WEC include 15 billion short tons proximately 620 million short132 TCF, respectively. The Horn than 30 states receive coal from (around 14 billion metric tons) tons (560 million metric tons) ofRiver and Cordova Embayment Wyoming, and several midwestern [Figure 9], approximately 63% of coal, which is about 8.2% of worldalone account for almost two thirds and southern states are highly or the total U.S. and Canadian recov- production and about 54% of theof currently defined shale gas in entirely dependent on Wyoming’s erable coal reserves. More than combined total production of theCanada. Another Canadian play, coal [19].Export of coking coal 54% of the recoverable U.S. coal U.S. and Canada [Table 10; Figurethe Colorado Group in Alberta from WEC jurisdictions to Asia, reserves and approximately 84% of 10]. Of the WEC states, Wyomingand Saskatchewan, has 61 TCF of primarily for use in steel produc-recoverable reserves and may be tion, is increasing. Alberta andCanada’s largest in-place reserve British Columbia comprise one WEC Recoverable Coal Reserves at Active Minesat 408 TCF. Note that there is an of the largest metallurgical coal 15.6 billion short tons (Bst)estimated 43.4 TCF of natural gas suppliers in the world and exportreserves in offshore British Colum- significant amounts of coal to Asia [20]. Wyoming and Montana are U.S. Demonstrated: 486 Bst Canada Demonstrated: NAbia; however, a federal moratorium U.S. Recoverable: 260 Bst U.S. WEC Canada Recoverable: NA now exploring ways to access ship- 9.5 Bston drilling currently prevents any U.S. Recoverable Active Mines: 17.5 Bst Canada Recoverable Active Mines: 7.2 Bst WEC Recoverable Coal Reserves Canada WEC WEC Recoverable Coal Reservesproduction activity there [16,17]. ping terminals along the U.S. West 6.1 Bst Coast to do the same.. Figure 9. The sum of recoverable U.S. and Canada coal resources. 9
  14. 14. We s t e r n E n e r g y C o r r i d o r Fossil Energy Resourcesmaintains the greatest production than 42% of all coal mined in theat 431 million short tons (about U.S. Approximately 51% of U.S.390 million metric tons) in 2009. coal production [21] and nearly allThe Powder River Basin, most of Canadian coal production occurs inwhich lies in northeastern Wyo- WEC states and provinces [22].ming, is the largest coal producingregion in both the WEC and the An example of a novel approachU.S. The region accounts for more to coal-based electrical generationFor the next 3 to 4 decades, coal will continue to play afoundational role within North America, greatly contributingto the generation of relatively low-priced, base-load electricity. World: 7,514 MMst U.S. and Canada: 1,144 MMst WEC: 620 MMst Figure 11.Figure 10. Distribution of coal resources inCoal production. the WEC. [M4] 10
  15. 15. We s t e r n E n e r g y C o r r i d o r Fossil Energy Resourceswithin the WEC is found as part ofthe Swan Hills project in Alberta.The project will use an in-situ coalgasification (ISCG) process to ac-cess coal seams that are consideredtoo deep to mine. The coal seams,located about 1,400 meters (4,593feet) beneath the earth’s surface,will be accessed through wells thatare similar to conventional oil andgas wells. The ISCG wells willbe used to convert the coal under-ground in its original seam into syn-gas. The syngas will be piped to theWhitecourt area to fuel new high-efficiency, combined-cycle powergeneration for Alberta’s electricitymarket, providing about 300 MW More than 30 states receive coal from Wyoming, and severalof generation capacity [23]. Midwestern and southern states are highly or entirely dependent on Wyoming’s coal supply 11
  16. 16. We s t e r n E n e r g y C o r r i d o r Renewable Energy ResourcesS ignificant renewable energy Hydropower resources in the WEC in- clude energy derived from Extensive river systems in thewater (including rivers and ocean WEC make hydropower a sig- nificant resource for electricitycurrent/tidal/wave), wind, sun, generation. These systems consistgeothermal, and biomass. Re- of several major North Ameri-newable energy sources generate can rivers [Figure 12], includingelectricity, provide heating, and the North Saskatchewan, Peace,produce transportation fuels, as Athabasca, Slave, Missouri, Co-well as provide feedstocks for a lumbia, Snake, Mackenzie, andhost of other products from meth- Colorado rivers, whose head-ane to plastics. Renewable energy waters are contained within thesources can lessen dependence WEC. In the WEC, over 88,000on imported and non renew- GWh of electricity was generatedable resources, and many can from hydropower in 2009, whichhelp reduce the environmental represents approximately 24% ofimpacts of overall energy gen- the WEC’s total electricity gen-eration. The Western Renewable eration that year from all sources.Energy Zones (WREZ) initia- This power was produced by 374tive, a collaboration between the hydropower plants having a totalWestern Governors’ Association installed capacity of 21 GW. Inand the U.S. DOE (along with British Columbia, the greatestother stakeholders) is designed to annual hydropower generation sofacilitate development and deliv- far, 64,000 GWh occurred in 2007ery of renewable energy within [24]. Hydropower generation inthe Western Interconnect and has British Columbia, Idaho, and Southa wealth of renewable energyinformation. Figure 12. Major waterways in the WEC. [M5] 12
  17. 17. We s t e r n E n e r g y C o r r i d o r Renewable Energy ResourcesDakota produce large percentages two 500-MW generating unitsof total in-state/province electricity into existing dam infrastructure atgeneration [Table 11]. the Mica Generating Station [24]. According to a recent report [25],The WEC has approximately 60 major hydro projects in AlbertaGW of untapped hydropower may be developed in the next 30potential capacity, which is three years and could capture almosttimes the current installed capac- 20% of Alberta’s over 53,000 GWhity and translates to a potential of hydropower potential per year.over 265,000 GWh of additional Also, 28% of proposed pumpedannual electricity generation. The storage projects in the U.S. aremajority of this potential lies in the sited in WEC states [26].north side of the WEC. Althoughfull hydropower potential may Windnever be realized, state/provincegeneration potentials range from Wind energy is abundant through-160% (Montana) to 3800% (Al- out the WEC [Figure 13] with aberta) above their 2009 generation total wind power potential of over[Table 11]. A significant portion of 3,700 GW. Within the Corridor,the additional hydropower resource Montana leads in wind energy pro-would come from small facilities duction potential at 944 GW, fol-and micro-hydro and would require lowed closely by South Dakota andnew transmission to successfully North Dakota [Table 12]. Northharvest the resource, especially in Dakota, Wyoming, and ColoradoBritish Columbia. lead the WEC in installed wind generation. Although the WEC hasSeveral planned projects — the very high wind power potential,majority in northern Canada —would increase the WEC’s hy-dropower capacity. For example, Figure 13.British Columbia plans to install Wind energy potential in the WEC. [M6] 13
  18. 18. We s t e r n E n e r g y C o r r i d o r Renewable Energy Resourcesthe realized potential is relatively tops and the remote northwest of MW of wind power capacity is lumbia is working to advance thelow. For example, despite Mon- British Columbia. For areas that from on-shore operations. province’s coastal wind energy po-tana’s high generation potential, in- could be reasonably developed, the tential with a project that, if built,stalled capacity was only 375 MW major constraint is transmission. will involve up to 110 turbines andas of 2009 [Table 12]; however, The low capacity factor results in a potential capacity of up to 1,750 MW [29].Wind, geothermal, solar, and ocean/tidal continue to grow and offer a promising future, Recent increases in WEC wind power capacity have been stronglyeven more so when used in combination with other energy forms – hybrid energy systems. driven by energy pricing and regulations/policies, subsidies,significant increases in installed ca- Wind power generation is increas- and other incentives. For example,pacity in Alberta and Montana will ing at a rapid rate. Wind plants production tax credits and renew-be feasible with completion of the have a much shorter planning and able portfolio standards havenew Montana Alberta Tie Limited building schedule than conven- boosted wind industry develop-transmission line. tional power technologies. Some ment [30]. As the scale of wind examples of planned or in-process power increases, the wind powerThe intermittent nature of wind WEC wind projects include a industry can no longer be confi-makes integration into the elec- 300–700 MW in Montana, 500– dent that current subsidies willtrical grid challenging if trans- 700 MW in Idaho, and several hun- continue, which may slow growthmission, firming resources, and dred MW of wind farms planned in of wind power generating capac-distribution of wind resources are Wyoming and other northwestern ity. Wind resources tend to beinsufficient or unavailable This and western states. In British Co- located in remote areas, requiringchallenge becomes more severe lumbia, projects totaling over 710 a confluence of transmission andas wind capacity increases rela- a high capital cost per unit output, MW of wind capacity are planned, wind resources coupled to popula-tive to other power sources. The although the fuel (wind) is free. while in Alberta new transmission tion centers to effectively integratemajor reason that realized wind The first off-shore project, with infrastructure that can accom- and serve the markets. A possiblepotential is low is that much of the a potential wind power capacity modate up to 2,700 MW of wind answer that deserves study is howwind resource is located in areas of 396 MW, just received federal generation in Southern Alberta is to cost-effectively fuel electricitythat cannot be developed or are not approval in British Columbia [27], under construction [28]. NaiKun growth in the region using botheasily accessible, such as mountain but the province’s existing 248 Wind Energy Group in British Co- wind and natural gas, both low 14
  19. 19. We s t e r n E n e r g y C o r r i d o r Renewable Energy Resourcescarbon sources. Separately, neither ergy (DOE) is funding a project inis ideal. But together, they offer Utah designed to facilitate at leastincreased reliability and generation 10 MW (or an additional 10,000with low price volatility and low solar PV systems) of new solar PVoverall carbon emissions. installations by 2015 [32].Solar Currently, the capital cost of pho- tovoltaic and solar thermal powerThe WEC has solar energy po- plants, relative to annual energytential, especially in its southern production, is extremely high.extreme [Figure 14]. The amount New technologies in solar energy,of solar energy in some parts of such as concentrator photovoltaicColorado, Utah, and Wyoming are (CPV) approaches, could reduceamong the highest in the U.S., with the cost and increase the adoptionlevels exceeding 6 kWh/m2 per rate [33]. Similarly, decreasingday. costs could increase the adoption at a household scale. AdditionalIn 2009, the installed solar electric cost reductions could come fromcapacity in WEC was less than 40 improvements in production,MW, most of which comes from manufacturing, and installationresidential installations. Colorado techniques.is the only jurisdiction with totalgrid connected photovoltaic (PV)installations exceeding 1 MW[Table 13]. Other efforts within theWEC are underway as well. Forexample, in Medicine Hat, Alberta,the first solar-powered steam gen-eration system in Canada will useparabolic dishes to focus sunlight Figure 14.to produce heat for a steam turbine Photovoltaic solar resources[31]. The U.S. Department of En- in the WEC. [M7] 15
  20. 20. We s t e r n E n e r g y C o r r i d o r Renewable Energy ResourcesBiomass ing uses. This is particularly true for grains, which are largely usedWithin the WEC, ample herba- for food and feed, and for straw,ceous and woody biomass resourc- which is in high demand for animales exist [Figure 15] that are suit- bedding. Potential also exists forable as feedstock for production growing dedicated energy cropsof electrical power, transportation that have no food value such asfuels, or heat. Biomass can be used poplar, miscanthus.in biochemical conversion process-es such as fermentation to produce Grain production is a major sourceethanol, or in thermochemical of WEC biomass and generatesconversion processes such as substantial agricultural residuesdirect combustion, gasification, or as a by-product. Grain is includedpyrolysis. In addition, transesterifi- as a biomass potential, becausecation, a chemical process in which technologies are already availableoil seeds are used to produce diesel for conversion of corn and wheatfuel, contributes to transportation to ethanol. Lignocellulosic residuesfuels. Potential bioenergy resourc- from food and feed grain crops canes in the WEC include grain and also be used to produce ethanolagricultural residues, forest bio- and other products, but there are,mass and woody residues, and mill as yet, no full scale commercialand urban wood waste, annually production facilities. Saskatch-generating over 170 million metric ewan, Alberta, South Dakota, andtons (~187 short tons) of material North Dakota are world-class grain[Table 14]. The Canadian prov- producers, and have a relativelyinces in the WEC have much more higher volume of agriculturalin total resources available than residues. A shift to integrated bio-the U.S., largely due to geographicdifferences. Furthermore, not allthe materials discussed would be Figure 15.readily available for bioenergy pro- WEC biomass feedstock potential.duction, as there may be compet- [M8] 16
  21. 21. We s t e r n E n e r g y C o r r i d o r Renewable Energy Resourcesrefining, rather than facilities The most effective conversion and favors the displacement of fos- for greater utilization of low-tem-producing a single product, may process depends on the nature of sil fuels with biofuels. Of note, the perature geoexchange for heatinghelp optimize the co-production of the biomass resource. For example, Alberta Government as well as the and cooling applications.food, energy, and other bio-based high-ash agricultural residues may Canadian government have placedproducts. damage thermochemical conver- a large investment in development Essentially, all geothermal power sion process equipment; however, of Triticale, a hybrid of wheat and plants within the WEC are locatedThe WEC also has significant certain woody biomass species rye, as an energy crop which can in areas having higher heat flows.forest resources with associated may have components that resist grow on marginal lands. These areas, combined with ad-quantities of residue — in particu- biological conversion processes equate ground water and availablelar, large quantities exist in British used for ethanol production. Trends Geothermal transmission, offer an opportunityColumbia and Alberta. In 2010, towards energy crops, which take for producing reliable, available,British Columbia produced one advantage of marginal lands, may The WEC has significant geother- high-value, low-carbon electricity.million bone dry metric tons (BDt) shift the distribution of biomass mal potential. A 2011 report of But not all potential sources areof wood pellets, most of which resources in WEC. the U.S. geothermal capacity [37] available — some are difficult towas exported to Europe for power indicated that the five WEC states access or within protected areasproduction. A potential source of The U.S. has historically focused included in the study have at least such as a national park. The pres-forest residue is pine beetle dam- its biomass program on the pro- 1,409 MW of near-commercial ence of cooler water at shallowaged timber. Natural Resources duction of biofuels in an effort developments and 4,398 MW of depths can mask the geothermalCanada (2011) estimates that the to move away from foreign oil initiated projects [Table 15]. Simi- potential of some resources (thecurrent rate of spread will kill dependency. However, recognizing lar estimates have not been made Cascades, for example) or compli-80% of mature pine trees in Brit- the large potential for biopower for other jurisdictions, so there is cate geothermal characterizationish Columbia by 2013 — over 1 electricity or process heat, the U.S. no definitive estimate for the entire (such as the Snake River plain).billion m3 (35 billion ft3) of trees. Government is supporting more WEC. However, British ColumbiaThe current beetle epidemic affects biopower development [36]. Can- alone has an estimated 3,000 MW Despite this, some geothermalmore than 8 million hectares (20 ada has not had the same incentive of geothermal electricity potential; potential has been realized in themillion acres) of forest in British to produce biofuels because it has Alberta and Saskatchewan have WEC. As of March 2011, in-Columbia [34,35] and may con- a smaller population and some of less potential. The greatest poten- stalled geothermal capacity in thetinue to affect Alberta’s northern the largest petroleum reserves in tial for WEC geothermal electricity WEC was 58 MW between Idaho,boreal forest. The infestation has the world. Canada does, however, production is in its western portion, Wyoming, and Utah [Table 15]also hit Colorado, Montana, Idaho, support the reduction of CO2 emis- as suggested in the heat flow map and geothermal projects are underand Wyoming. sions from fossil power generation shown in Figure 16. All jurisdic- development in Wyoming, Colo- tions in WEC have opportunities 17
  22. 22. We s t e r n E n e r g y C o r r i d o r Renewable Energy Resourcesrado, Utah, and Idaho. Of particu- sands mining operations [41]. Thelar note, the estimated resource Massachusetts Institute of Technol-under development in Idaho alone ogy’s 2006 estimate indicated thatis between 703 and 778 MW [37], potential power from the co-pro-illustrating the potential across the duced fluids could exceed 450 MWregion. Although no geothermal within the WEC [42].resources have been developed forpower production in Canada, the Geothermal energy may be anSouth Meager project in British economically viable resource,Columbia is being evaluated and but it requires sufficient tempera-could support up to 100 MW [38]. ture, water, and permeability atIncreasing interest in renewable economically retrievable depths.energy for non-electricity applica- Locating resources with these char-tions has led evaluation of several acteristics is the greatest challengegeothermal projects for develop- to developing geothermal energy.ment in British Columbia and Enhanced Geothermal SystemsAlberta. (EGS) technologies — which aim to enable the use of geothermalRecent efforts have explored other energy when heat is present butinnovative uses of geothermal water and/or permeability are notresources such as using the hot — could significantly expand geo-water co-produced with oil and thermal power in the WEC [41].gas to generate electrical power. Several technical and economicExamples include a 250-kW issues must be resolved before thisfacility recently made operational potential can be realized. The U.S.in Wyoming [39], and a 1 MW DOE is developing goals to pro-project being proposed in Alberta vide significant amounts of EGS[40]. Another opportunity is the power by 2030 and 2040; however,potential for zones beneath the Ca-nadian oil sands to pre-heat waterused to make steam for in-situ oil Figure 16. WEC geothermal potential. [M9] 18
  23. 23. We s t e r n E n e r g y C o r r i d o r Renewable Energy Resourcesdetails (including timeline) for the The cost of tidal and ocean energygoals have not been finalized. is highly influenced by geography, distance to grid, and water condi-Tidal/Ocean Energy tions (i.e., speed and volume of the current) [45]. Although waveBritish Columbia is the only area energy resembles wind generationin the WEC that has ocean wave in its intermittent nature, it is easierand tidal energy resource potential. to forecast and has a uniform avail-For the British Columbia coast, ability. Specifically, ocean wavesthe total deep water annual wave propagate at a constant speedpower potential is approximately with little attenuation, so they can37,000 MW, and total tidal current be detected several hours beforepower potential is approximately reaching a generator. Tidal and4,000 MW [43]. The best sites for ocean-current energy systems mustcapturing strong tidal currents are endure extreme weather conditionsin the Strait of Georgia and John- and corrosion, and maintenance isstone Strait as shown in Figure expected to be expensive.17, which offer the major benefitof proximity to the point of use.High-potential sites for ocean cur-rent may be farther away from land[44]. The number and capacity ofpotential tidal and ocean currentsites could increase as improvedtechnologies are developed.High cost and limited site avail-ability have traditionally plaguedtidal and other ocean-energyprojects. Tidal energy requires a Figure 17.confined location with sufficiently Wave power and tidal currenthigh tidal ranges or flow velocities. energy potential. [M10] 19
  24. 24. We s t e r n E n e r g y C o r r i d o r Uranium ResourcesT he WEC contains signifi- In 2010, the U.S., ranked 8th in cant quantities of uranium world uranium production, gen- [Figure 18], which is erating 1,830 short tons (1,660used to generate electricity in metric tons) of uranium [46], muchnuclear power plants. Canada’s of which came from mines insole uranium-producing area Colorado, Utah, New Mexico andis in Saskatchewan and is sec- Wyoming, with the latter two statesond in world production only to dominating[48]. According to aKazakhstan. In 2010, Saskatch- 2009 estimate, the U.S. has known recoverable resources of 228,000ewan produced 10,784 short tons short tons (207,000 metric tons) of(9,783 metric tons) of uranium — uranium [47]. In 2008, Wyomingjust over 18% of world produc- led the nation in total uraniumtion. Saskatchewan’s McArthur reserves; together, Wyoming andRiver Mine, which is the largest New Mexico contain about two-producing uranium mine in the thirds of the country’s estimatedworld, produced 8,437 short tons reserves [49]. An important note(7,654 metric tons) of uranium, in relation to British Columbia isor approximately 14% of the that in April 2008 a news releaseworld’s uranium output in 2010. indicated that the Province will notKnown recoverable uranium support the exploration and devel-resources in Saskatchewan are opment of uranium.estimated at 466,000 short tons(423,000 metric tons) of uraniumbased on a 2007 estimate [46],8% of the world’s known recov-erable resources [47]. Figure 18. Distribution of uranium resources in the WEC. [M11] 20
  25. 25. We s t e r n E n e r g y C o r r i d o r Uranium ResourcesHalf of the nuclear fuel cur- The WEC also contains significant energy in many countries includ- and abundant to meet current needsrently used in the U.S. is derived quantities of thorium, especially ing the U.S., Canada, Europe, [50]. Some countries (namely,from dismantled Russian nuclear in Idaho. Unlike uranium, thorium Japan, Russia, and India. Thorium India) may, however, favor tho-warheads. This program will be has not been used extensively has not been a major competitor rium over uranium as a fuel source,halted in 2013, which may result for nuclear energy production, with uranium for use as a nuclear depending upon local availabilityin increased demand for uranium although it has been successfully fuel because the world supply of and policy [47].resources within the WEC. used to experimentally generate uranium is sufficiently inexpensiveThe McArthur River Mine, located in Saskatchewan, is the largest producing mine in theworld with over 7,600 metric tons of uranium produced in 2009, approximately 14% ofthe world’s uranium production. 21
  26. 26. We s t e r n E n e r g y C o r r i d o r Electricity Power GenerationI n 2009, the WEC’s electric power generation capacity 15000 Pumped Storage was estimated at over 75,000 12500 OtherMW; Colorado led with 13,045 Other RenewablesMW, followed by Alberta at 1000012,996 MW. Figure 19 and Table 7500 Hydro16 show the generating capacity Other gasesby state/province and source. The 5000 Nat. GasWEC generation capacity is dom- Petroleum Figure 19. WEC electric power 2500inated by coal-fired infrastructure installed capacity by state/ Coalfollowed by hydropower and 0 province. o ho na ta ta ah ing ia a annatural gas, as shown in Figure ert ad mb ko ko ew nta Ut Ida om lor Alb Da Da olu tch Mo Co Wy N. S.20. Over 60% of WEC generation hC ska tis Sa Bricapacity is supplied by fossil en-ergy. Although renewable energy Figure X. Electric power totals by location (MW)production capacity is increas-ing, outside of hydropower, its 32500 30000sources make up less than 10% of 27500 Saskatchewanthe total capacity and are led by British Columbia 25000wind power investments [Table Alberta 2250021]. No commercial nuclear 20000 Wyoming Utahpower plants (NPPs) exist within 17500 15000 S. Dakotathe WEC, but there are emerg- 12500 N. Dakotaing interests in their inclusion. 10000 MontanaTotal electrical energy genera- 7500 Idahotion within the WEC in 2009 was 5000over 370 million MWh. Of this, 2500 Colorado Figure 20. WEC electric power installed capacity by source.more than 70% came from fossil 0energy plants (primarily from al m as ses dro les er e rag Co Oth leu t. G ab ga Hy sto tro ew Na ercoal and natural gas), 24% from Pe ed Oth ren mp er Pu Oth Figure X. Electric power totals by source (MW) 22
  27. 27. We s t e r n E n e r g y C o r r i d o r Electricity Power Generationhydropower, and approximately Comanche (850 MW) and Wygen term within the WEC. New coal refined lignite, will produce nearly4% from other renewable [Table II (110 MW) plants, located in plants are continuing to be intro- 100 MW during peak demands,17]. The low capacity factor of Colorado and Wyoming, respec- duced, especially in Wyoming, and will provide steam to a nearbywind power plants results in a far tively [51]. North Dakota, and Alberta. An ex- malting plant [52]. However,smaller contribution to annual ample of a new plant construction Environmental Protection Agencyelectric generation than to gener- Coal is estimated to continue play- is the combined heat and coal-fired (EPA) and state regulations on airating capacity. ing a foundational role by provid- power plant (Spiritwood Station) emissions, coal ash, and water are ing base load power in the long in North Dakota. It uses dried and expected to drive retirement ofCoal-Fired Electric PowerGeneration Given the abundant natural gas, coal, and hydropower resources within the WEC, the region isIn 2009, coal-fired plants were able to supply some of the most reliable and lowest priced electricity in North America.estimated to make up approxi-mately 40% of the electricitygeneration capacity within the certain existing coal-fired genera-region — approximately 30,500 tion plants. For example, ColoradoMW. Alberta has the largest utilities are being directed to retirecapacity (5,971MW) followed by or retrofit coal capacity and replaceWyoming and Colorado [Table it with natural gas or renewable16]. Since 1999, the WEC’s overall energy resources to comply withcapacity from coal-fired plants has new state Clean Air-Clean Jobs Actchanged very little with the excep- [53]. Another trend is the pursuit oftion of Montana, which has lost higher efficiency in power produc-approximately 20% of its coal-fired tion while reducing environmen-electrical generation capacity over tal impact. Enabling clean coalthe last 10 years. British Colum- technologies include CO2 capturebia generates no electricity from and sequestration, undergroundcoal. It should be noted that 2010 gasification, integrated gasificationactually represents the largest build combined cycle (IGCC), and oxy-of coal-fired plants since 1985 fuel combustion (coal gasification).within the U.S., which included the 23

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