Learning by Doing fosters creative and critical thinking: We don’t learn the Linux techincal operating principles to start operating a computer – we navigate the software Every child a scientist Constructivism Learning always occurs individually and in an experience-based way The creation of knowledge cannot be solely initiated by a teacher, it is the responsibility of learners as well Social exchange is a key part of learning processes and should be promoted Problem-oriented learning is desirable and contributes to development of application-oriented knowledge New learning contexts should always build on individual previous knowledge so teaching something first in Malay/Chinese and then doing the same in Engish is doomed to failure Traffic Signals CLIL methodologies also serve this purpose Trilingualism – very interesting in terms of metalinguistic awareness and concept formation. Erasing limitations and increasing opportunities for personal achievement
Converging technologies drives integration Broadband access outside the classroom must be utilized – often a hidden potential now acknowledged Ride the waves of young people’s activities ex-curricular Mindset Change
David Marsh: Benefits of bilingualism
Benefits of BilingualismInsights from the Neurosciences
Loaded Words: BilingualAn individual able to use two or more languagesto a greater or lesser extent.
Research Research conducted in largely non-laboratory contexts (outside brain), and through anecdotal reporting, is at a cross roads with research conducted in laboratory settings (inside brain). There are sets of indicators which form evidence clusters.Page 3
The clusters suggest that individuals knowing different languagescan extend creative conceptual boundaries more effectively thanmonolingual individuals
Neuro-circuitryLanguage Learning affects the neuro-circuitry of the brainand can have a profound impact on brain structures throughneuroplasticity.Changes in the brain’s electrical activity may occur muchearlier than previously thought.
Languages & Experience 1st 2nd language Language Early 2nd Language Adolescent AdultSource: Simos et al. Journal of Neurosurgery 95
Memory Superior functioning in relation to episodic and semantic memory Episodic memory describes the memory of events linked to episodes (times, places, feelings, and other phenomenon which can be explicitly stated). Semantic memory describes more general knowledge which, though unrelated to specific experiences or events, is used to help interpret these.Page 9
Learning across the Curriculumin Any enhanced memory function has bearing on the learning of other subjects in the education curriculum, and on learning in generalPage 10
Problem-solvingBetter in problem-solving that is cognitively demanding
Perception & Thinking SkillsSeeing the world through different lenses
Filtering informationBeing able to interpret information and solve problems involvesnot only deciding what to give attention to, but also what not togive attention to.Inhibitory control acts like a filter which enables a person toignore distracting and irrelevant stimuli.
Interpreting InformationUnderstanding that words can have more than onemeaning, identifying ambiguity and sub-text in communication,translating words and interpreting concepts.
Digital LiteracyLiving in an age of widespread information andcommunication, and emerging literacies
Interpersonal SkillsImpact reported in terms of understanding and respondingto the communicative needs of others; contextual sensitivity;interactional competence in communication; and enhancedskills in differentiating languages in contextually sensitive ways.