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# Chapter 3

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This is an introduction of most common design structure.

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### Chapter 3

1. 1. CHAPTERCHAPTER THREE:THREE: FABRIC DESIGNFABRIC DESIGN
2. 2. 3.1 Fundamental3.1 Fundamental WeavesWeaves Weft or warp threads must have onlyWeft or warp threads must have only one warp or weft overlapping within theone warp or weft overlapping within the repeat.repeat.  The number of warp threads in aThe number of warp threads in a repeat must be equal to the numberrepeat must be equal to the number threads.threads.  There are 3 kinds of fundamentalThere are 3 kinds of fundamental weaves:weaves:  PlainPlain  TwillTwill  SateenSateen  Each weave is determined by 2Each weave is determined by 2 parameters:parameters:  The repeat, R of weave.The repeat, R of weave.  The shift, S of overlapping eitherThe shift, S of overlapping either vertical shift, Svertical shift, Sxx or Horizontal shift,or Horizontal shift, SSyy
3. 3. 3.1.2 Plain Weave3.1.2 Plain Weave  The simplest weave whereThe simplest weave where the threads interlace inthe threads interlace in alternate order and classifiedalternate order and classified as balanced and unbalanced.as balanced and unbalanced.  In trade, such terms as tabby,In trade, such terms as tabby, calico, batiste are applied tocalico, batiste are applied to plain weave fabrics.plain weave fabrics.
4. 4. 3.1.3 Twill Weaves3.1.3 Twill Weaves  The twill order ofThe twill order of interlacing producesinterlacing produces diagonal lines on thediagonal lines on the cloth.cloth.  The purpose is to makeThe purpose is to make cloth havier, closercloth havier, closer setting and bettersetting and better drapping.drapping.  The parameters: R ≥ 3The parameters: R ≥ 3 SSxx = S= Syy == ++ 11
5. 5. 3.1.4 Regular Sateen and3.1.4 Regular Sateen and Satin and Irregular SateenSatin and Irregular Sateen WeavesWeaves 3.1.4.1 Sateen Weaves3.1.4.1 Sateen Weaves  In pure sateen weaves the surface ofIn pure sateen weaves the surface of the cloth consists almost entirely ofthe cloth consists almost entirely of weft floats.weft floats.  The parameters of sateen weaves: RThe parameters of sateen weaves: R ≥ 5; 1 < S < (R – 1)≥ 5; 1 < S < (R – 1)  For regular sateen the shift (S) andFor regular sateen the shift (S) and repeat (R) must be expressed byrepeat (R) must be expressed by prime numbers, it’s called weft faceprime numbers, it’s called weft face fabric.fabric.  The sateen weave is denoted by aThe sateen weave is denoted by a fraction and the numerator of thisfraction and the numerator of this fraction is equal to the repeat offraction is equal to the repeat of weave.weave.  The denominator is equal to the shiftThe denominator is equal to the shift (S(Syy) of overlaps.) of overlaps.
6. 6. 3.1.4.2 Satin (Warp Face Fabric)3.1.4.2 Satin (Warp Face Fabric)  Usually constructedUsually constructed using the verticalusing the vertical shift (Sshift (Sxx).).  Satin has the warpSatin has the warp effect, and theeffect, and the density of warp isdensity of warp is much higher thanmuch higher than the density of weft.the density of weft. Sx=3
7. 7. 3.1.4.3 Irregular3.1.4.3 Irregular SateenSateen  Regular sateen cannot be constructedRegular sateen cannot be constructed with a repeat of four or six threads,with a repeat of four or six threads, because the repeat and shift cannot bebecause the repeat and shift cannot be expressed by mutually prime numbers.expressed by mutually prime numbers.  It is impossible to construct the regularIt is impossible to construct the regular sateen if R = 6, because among thesateen if R = 6, because among the possible values of shift found from thepossible values of shift found from the formula 1 < S < (R - 1), i.e. 1 < S < 5,formula 1 < S < (R - 1), i.e. 1 < S < 5, the number 2, 3, 4 have a commonthe number 2, 3, 4 have a common divisor with 6.divisor with 6.  In this case, we cannot choose aIn this case, we cannot choose a constant shift, but the sateen with aconstant shift, but the sateen with a variable shift can be constructed.variable shift can be constructed.  This sateen is called irregular sateen.This sateen is called irregular sateen.  4-shaft irregular sateen can be4-shaft irregular sateen can be constructed by using the shifts 1, 2, 3, 2constructed by using the shifts 1, 2, 3, 2 as shown aside.as shown aside.  6-shaft irregular sateen with constructed6-shaft irregular sateen with constructed shifts 2, 3, 4, 4, 3, 2 as shown aside.shifts 2, 3, 4, 4, 3, 2 as shown aside.
8. 8. 3.2 Derivatives of3.2 Derivatives of Fundamental WeavesFundamental Weaves ““Constructed by means of deriving fromConstructed by means of deriving from plain, twill and sateen weaves, and retainplain, twill and sateen weaves, and retain their structural features”their structural features”
9. 9. 3.2.1 Plain Weave3.2.1 Plain Weave DerivativesDerivatives  This group of structure comprises variousThis group of structure comprises various simple weave which are varieties of thesimple weave which are varieties of the plain weave and can be produced on twoplain weave and can be produced on two heald shafts.heald shafts.  Warp Rep Weaves:Warp Rep Weaves:  Denoted by a fraction.Denoted by a fraction.  The numerator shows theThe numerator shows the number of warp overlappingnumber of warp overlapping and the denominator, theand the denominator, the number of weft overlappingnumber of weft overlapping on the same thread withinon the same thread within repeat.repeat.  Extending the plain weaveExtending the plain weave vertically.vertically.
10. 10.  Weft Rep Weave:Weft Rep Weave:  Opposite to warp repOpposite to warp rep weave.weave.  Extending the plainExtending the plain weave horizontally.weave horizontally.  Denoted by a fraction.Denoted by a fraction.  Sum of the fractionSum of the fraction numerator andnumerator and  denominator equal to thedenominator equal to the warp repeat.warp repeat.
11. 11. Rug from Rep Weave:Rug from Rep Weave:
12. 12.  Hopsack Weaves:Hopsack Weaves:  Constructed by extending theConstructed by extending the plain weave both vertically andplain weave both vertically and horizontally.horizontally.  There are 2 or more warp threadsThere are 2 or more warp threads working in the same manner andworking in the same manner and 2 or more weft threads grouped2 or more weft threads grouped in the same shed.in the same shed.  It’s denoted by a fraction, theIt’s denoted by a fraction, the numerator is the number of warpnumerator is the number of warp overlapping, and the denominatoroverlapping, and the denominator is that of weft overlapping onis that of weft overlapping on each thread.each thread.  The sum of the numerator andThe sum of the numerator and denominator shows the repeat ondenominator shows the repeat on warp and weft.warp and weft.
13. 13. Fabric from Hopsack Weave:
14. 14. Fabric from Hopsack Weave:
15. 15. 3.2.2 Weaves Constructed on Twill3.2.2 Weaves Constructed on Twill BasesBases  Regular twill are often used as the basesRegular twill are often used as the bases for the construction of new weaves.for the construction of new weaves.  Reinforced Twills:Reinforced Twills:  Warp overlaps are added to theWarp overlaps are added to the single warp overlaps of the basicsingle warp overlaps of the basic weft-face twill.weft-face twill.  The simplest reinforced twill isThe simplest reinforced twill is twill 2/2 (widely used).twill 2/2 (widely used).  In producing this twill the sameIn producing this twill the same four shafts can be used forfour shafts can be used for making the selvedges on themaking the selvedges on the warp rep weave (necessary towarp rep weave (necessary to coordinate the operation ofcoordinate the operation of shedding and pickingshedding and picking mechanisms).mechanisms).  Retain the property of theRetain the property of the original twill.original twill.
16. 16. Reinforced twill 2/2 (left hand twill, Sy = -1)
17. 17.  Compound Twill:Compound Twill:  It is obtained in parallelIt is obtained in parallel construction of two or moreconstruction of two or more twill weaves on the sametwill weaves on the same area.area.  The number of shafts forThe number of shafts for producing compound twill isproducing compound twill is equal to its repeat.equal to its repeat.  Retain the property of theRetain the property of the original twill.original twill.
18. 18. Fabric from compound twill:
19. 19.  Angled Twill:Angled Twill:  Constructed by changing the sign of shift from plus toConstructed by changing the sign of shift from plus to minus, after an assigned number of threads.minus, after an assigned number of threads.  With the change of sign, the direction of twill diagonal is alsoWith the change of sign, the direction of twill diagonal is also changed.changed.  To construct:To construct: i. Calculate its repeati. Calculate its repeat ii. Weft repeat = Repeat of basic twillii. Weft repeat = Repeat of basic twill iii. Warp repeat can be determined by the formula,iii. Warp repeat can be determined by the formula, RRxx = 2K= 2Kxx - 2- 2 RRxx = repeat of warp= repeat of warp KKxx = number of warp threads after the sign of shift= number of warp threads after the sign of shift changes.changes. RRybyb = repeat of the basic twill= repeat of the basic twill KKyy = no of weft threads after the sign of shit changes= no of weft threads after the sign of shit changes
20. 20.  Example:Example: Construct the angled twill on the basis ofConstruct the angled twill on the basis of twill 2/4. The repeat of basis twill is 6.twill 2/4. The repeat of basis twill is 6. Answer:Answer: RRyy = R= Rybyb = 6= 6 RRxx = 2K= 2Kxx – 2 = 2 (6) – 2 = 10– 2 = 2 (6) – 2 = 10
21. 21.  Diagonal Twill:Diagonal Twill:  Construct the basic twill with an increased vertical shiftConstruct the basic twill with an increased vertical shift (to increase the inclination angle of the diagonal(to increase the inclination angle of the diagonal changes).changes).  The increase of the shift from one to two is equivalent toThe increase of the shift from one to two is equivalent to the doubling of warp density (practically the shift can bethe doubling of warp density (practically the shift can be accepted equal to two or three).accepted equal to two or three).  Can be constructed into 2 cases:Can be constructed into 2 cases: i. The repeat of basic twill can be divided by thei. The repeat of basic twill can be divided by the increased shift.increased shift. Warp repeat, RWarp repeat, Rxx = R ÷ S= R ÷ Soo Weft repeat, RWeft repeat, Ryy = R= R ii. The repeat of the basic twill cannot be divided by theii. The repeat of the basic twill cannot be divided by the increased shift.increased shift.
22. 22.  Example 1:Example 1: Construct a diagonal weave on the basisConstruct a diagonal weave on the basis of twillof twill 4 . 4 . 14 . 4 . 1 , if S, if Sxx = 2.= 2. 1 . 2 . 21 . 2 . 2 Answer:Answer: Warp repeat;Warp repeat; RRxx = R ÷ S= R ÷ Sxx R = 14R = 14 = 14 ÷ 2= 14 ÷ 2 SSxx = 2= 2 = 7= 7 Weft repeat;Weft repeat; RRyy = R= R = 14= 14  First warp constructed accordingFirst warp constructed according the basic twill.the basic twill.  Second warp constructedSecond warp constructed according to the same formula butaccording to the same formula but the shift equal to two, and so on.the shift equal to two, and so on.  If the repeat of the basis twill is nitIf the repeat of the basis twill is nit divided by the increased shift thedivided by the increased shift the diagonal weave will havediagonal weave will have repeatrepeat RRxx = R= R = R.= R.
23. 23.  Example 2:Example 2: Construct a diagonal weave on the basisConstruct a diagonal weave on the basis of twillof twill 5 . 1 . 15 . 1 . 1 , if S, if Sxx = 2= 2 1 . 2 . 11 . 2 . 1 Answer:Answer: In this case, RIn this case, Rxx = 11= 11 and Rand Ryy = 11= 11
24. 24. Fabric from diagonal twill:
25. 25.  Shaded Twill:Shaded Twill: Represent a gradual transition from twillRepresent a gradual transition from twill with weft effect to the twill with warp effectwith weft effect to the twill with warp effect and vice-versa.and vice-versa. Mostly used Jacquard weaving for large-Mostly used Jacquard weaving for large- pattern fabrics.pattern fabrics. The repeat on warp and weft for theThe repeat on warp and weft for the shaded twill is determined by the formula;shaded twill is determined by the formula; Warp repeat, RWarp repeat, Rxx = R= Rxbxb (R(Rxbxb – 1)– 1) Weft repeat, RWeft repeat, Ryy = R= Rybyb Only straight draft is used.Only straight draft is used.
26. 26.  Example:Example: Construct a shaded twill weave on the transitions of shaded twillConstruct a shaded twill weave on the transitions of shaded twill 11 toto 44 .. 4 14 1 Answer:Answer: RRxx = R= Rxbxb (R(Rxbxb – 1)– 1) = 5 (5 -1)= 5 (5 -1) = 5 X 4= 5 X 4 = 20= 20 RRyy = R= Rybyb = 5= 5
27. 27. Fabric from shaded twill:
28. 28. 3.2.3 Weaves3.2.3 Weaves Constructed on SateenConstructed on Sateen BasesBases In simple derivatives, a new design isIn simple derivatives, a new design is built up by using the original sateen asbuilt up by using the original sateen as the base and adding overlaps, asthe base and adding overlaps, as required to each base overlap.required to each base overlap.
29. 29.  Reinforced Sateen:Reinforced Sateen:  Similar to reinforced twill.Similar to reinforced twill.  If it is necessary to construct the reinforced sateen onIf it is necessary to construct the reinforced sateen on the basis of simple sateen 8/5.the basis of simple sateen 8/5.  One more overlap should be added to every overlapOne more overlap should be added to every overlap of the basis sateen.of the basis sateen.  Widely used in cotton weaving (additional overlaps inWidely used in cotton weaving (additional overlaps in the repeat make the fabricthe repeat make the fabric structure stronger).structure stronger).
31. 31. 3.3 Combined or Fancy3.3 Combined or Fancy WeavesWeaves ““These weaves are constructed onThese weaves are constructed on the basis of two or morethe basis of two or more fundamental weaves and theirfundamental weaves and their derivatives. Divided into groups ofderivatives. Divided into groups of crepe weaves, honeycomb weaves,crepe weaves, honeycomb weaves, corkscrew weaves, huckabackcorkscrew weaves, huckaback weaves, stripe and check weaves”weaves, stripe and check weaves”
32. 32. 3.3.1 Crepe Weaves3.3.1 Crepe Weaves Crepe weave are characterized by aCrepe weave are characterized by a pebbly or crinkle surface.pebbly or crinkle surface. The size of pebbles and theirThe size of pebbles and their arrangement on the fabric surfacearrangement on the fabric surface determine the type of crepe fabricdetermine the type of crepe fabric (crepe-de-chine, crepe-georgette and(crepe-de-chine, crepe-georgette and so on).so on).
33. 33. Georgette: Georgette describes a sheer silk (or silk-like) fabric with a dull, creped surface.
34. 34. Crepe-de-chine:
35. 35.  Construction of Crepe byConstruction of Crepe by Drawing One Weave Over theDrawing One Weave Over the Other:Other:  Choose at least two weaves (one of the weave is Sateen).Choose at least two weaves (one of the weave is Sateen).  Warp repeat determines the number of shafts (type of sheddingWarp repeat determines the number of shafts (type of shedding motion of the loom should be taken into consideration).motion of the loom should be taken into consideration).  It is common to choose the second weave with the same repeat asIt is common to choose the second weave with the same repeat as the first one. If the second weave is not equal the repeat of the crepethe first one. If the second weave is not equal the repeat of the crepe weave is found as the least common multiple of the repeats of baseweave is found as the least common multiple of the repeats of base weaves.weaves.
36. 36.  Construction of Crepe byConstruction of Crepe by Arranging the Warp OverlapsArranging the Warp Overlaps in Sateen Order:in Sateen Order:  Constructed on the basis of sateen weave by addingConstructed on the basis of sateen weave by adding the warp overlaps.the warp overlaps.  Different groups containing two or more shadedDifferent groups containing two or more shaded squares can be added at one of the sides of each ofsquares can be added at one of the sides of each of shaded squares arranged in sateen order.shaded squares arranged in sateen order.
37. 37.  Construction of Crepe byConstruction of Crepe by Rearranging WarpRearranging Warp  Twill weave can be chosen as basic weave.Twill weave can be chosen as basic weave.  The order of warp threads of the base weave should be changed.The order of warp threads of the base weave should be changed.  The warp repeat changed very often but the weft repeat remains.The warp repeat changed very often but the weft repeat remains. (These crepe weave can be produced on the same number of(These crepe weave can be produced on the same number of shaft).shaft).  The arrangement is done by changing the position of threads on theThe arrangement is done by changing the position of threads on the shafts and then constructing the weaving plan.shafts and then constructing the weaving plan.  The construction begins with the lifting plan, where the crosses areThe construction begins with the lifting plan, where the crosses are placed in the same manner as the shaded squares in the baseplaced in the same manner as the shaded squares in the base weave.weave.  The lifting plan determines the number of shafts in the draft.The lifting plan determines the number of shafts in the draft.  Arrange the warp threads on the shafts.Arrange the warp threads on the shafts.  No general rules for the arrangement of the warp threads becauseNo general rules for the arrangement of the warp threads because a variety of arrangements are possible (depends on the designer).a variety of arrangements are possible (depends on the designer).
38. 38.  Example:Example:
39. 39. 3.3.2 Honeycomb Weave or3.3.2 Honeycomb Weave or Cellular FabricsCellular Fabrics A group of weaves forms anA group of weaves forms an embossed cell-like appearance ofembossed cell-like appearance of fabric.fabric. Widely used for bathroom towels,Widely used for bathroom towels, bed covers, quilts, winter garment,bed covers, quilts, winter garment, etc.etc.
40. 40.  Example 1:Example 1:  The pointed draft should be drawn with theThe pointed draft should be drawn with the number of shafts from 4 to 8.number of shafts from 4 to 8.  The example used the number of shaftsThe example used the number of shafts equals 5, A.equals 5, A.  The number of crosses for lifting planThe number of crosses for lifting plan equal to the number of circles on the draftequal to the number of circles on the draft (the arrangement similar to the position of(the arrangement similar to the position of circles).circles).  The space under the lines of crosses isThe space under the lines of crosses is filled in with crosses is filled in with crossesfilled in with crosses is filled in with crosses leaving one row of squares between theleaving one row of squares between the space and the lines of crosses blank.space and the lines of crosses blank.  The third element, weave diagram areThe third element, weave diagram are formed by both element; drafting and liftingformed by both element; drafting and lifting plan.plan.  As a result when all the repeat combined aAs a result when all the repeat combined a hollow is formed in the centre part.hollow is formed in the centre part.
41. 41.  Example 2:Example 2:
42. 42. 3.3.3 Corkscrew3.3.3 Corkscrew WeavesWeaves  Kind of diagonal rib weaves.Kind of diagonal rib weaves.  Two types of corkscrew weaves:Two types of corkscrew weaves: 1.1. Warp CorkscrewWarp Corkscrew • Long warp floats on the face and on the wrongLong warp floats on the face and on the wrong side of the fabric.side of the fabric. • It has greater warp density compare to weft andIt has greater warp density compare to weft and the weave produces warp effect on both side ofthe weave produces warp effect on both side of the fabric.the fabric. 2.2. Weft CorkscrewWeft Corkscrew • It has a weft surface.It has a weft surface.
43. 43.  Warp CorkscrewWarp Corkscrew  Constructed on the basisConstructed on the basis of sateen weaves such as,of sateen weaves such as, 5/2, 7/2, 9/2, 13/2, i.e. with5/2, 7/2, 9/2, 13/2, i.e. with odd numbers of threads inodd numbers of threads in the repeat.the repeat.  It can be considered as aIt can be considered as a derivative of sateenderivative of sateen weave.weave.  Constructed by adding theConstructed by adding the marks on the fundamentalmarks on the fundamental sateen weave.sateen weave.
44. 44.  Weft CorkscrewWeft Corkscrew  Constructed by turning warpConstructed by turning warp corkscrew into weft corkscrewcorkscrew into weft corkscrew weave by rotating the weaveweave by rotating the weave diagram by 90º and then bydiagram by 90º and then by substituting the warp overlapssubstituting the warp overlaps with the weft ones, and vicewith the weft ones, and vice versa, A.versa, A.  The direction of diagonal ribsThe direction of diagonal ribs of the weave can be changed,of the weave can be changed, if necessary, by rearrangingif necessary, by rearranging the weft threads in thethe weft threads in the reverse order.reverse order.
45. 45. 3.3.4 Huckaback3.3.4 Huckaback weavesweaves  Contains, on one hand, aContains, on one hand, a number of warp and weftnumber of warp and weft threads with long floatsthreads with long floats which make the fabric softwhich make the fabric soft and moisture absorbent,and moisture absorbent, and on the other hand, theand on the other hand, the plain weave threads whichplain weave threads which ensure the firmness of theensure the firmness of the structure.structure.  Used for bathroom towels,Used for bathroom towels, glass cloths, and forglass cloths, and for counterpanes.counterpanes.  Constructed on the basis ofConstructed on the basis of plain weave.plain weave.
46. 46.  Example 2:Example 2:  The use of long floats in eachThe use of long floats in each quarter of repeat.quarter of repeat.  If there are long warp floats inIf there are long warp floats in the left bottom and right topthe left bottom and right top quarters, the long weft floatsquarters, the long weft floats are constructed in the left topare constructed in the left top and right bottom quarters.and right bottom quarters.  The long warp floats on theThe long warp floats on the threads 2, 4, 9 and 11 on thethreads 2, 4, 9 and 11 on the face of the weave.face of the weave.  4 long weft floats are placed4 long weft floats are placed on the threads 3, 5, 8 and 10on the threads 3, 5, 8 and 10 where the weft thread in thewhere the weft thread in the place of float passes over 5place of float passes over 5 warp threads.warp threads.
47. 47. 3.4 Compound Weaves3.4 Compound Weaves ““Compound weave fabric are ofCompound weave fabric are of a specific structure, thereforea specific structure, therefore special methods andspecial methods and mechanisms used in theirmechanisms used in their production”production”
48. 48. 3.4.1 Back Warp3.4.1 Back Warp WeavesWeaves It is applies when it isIt is applies when it is necessary to increase thenecessary to increase the thickness or the mass ofthickness or the mass of the fabric by adding warpthe fabric by adding warp system.system.
49. 49. Construction: 1.Choose the weave of the face (the warp- faced weaves is chosen as the base weaves). Example twill 3/1, A (the base weave must have long weft floats on the back side. 2.The warp and weft repeat of this weave equals 4. 3.The roman digits used to mark the threads of the face weave. 4.The section cut through the warp at the weft thread 1. 5.The section for warp threads are represented circles of the upper row, and back warp by the circles of the lower row. 6.Weft thread 1, is placed below warp threads 1, 2, 3 and above 4. 7.To bind, the suitable thread is warp thread II because the point of binding is in the middle of long float of the fabric (it is also for better appearance). 8.The weft thread 1 has to be interlaced with the warp threads of both systems. 9.The interlacing of the weft thread 1 with the back warp at B can be transferred to the diagram C.
50. 50. 10.10.The face and back warpThe face and back warp threads are arrangedthreads are arranged alternately or in thealternately or in the proportion of one faceproportion of one face thread to one thread, D.thread to one thread, D. 11.11.The cross section of theThe cross section of the fabric through the weftfabric through the weft thread 1 is representedthread 1 is represented at E.at E. 12.12.The longitudinal sectionThe longitudinal section of the fabric through theof the fabric through the warp threads 1 and I iswarp threads 1 and I is shown at F.shown at F.
51. 51. 13.13.The weaving plan isThe weaving plan is shown at G (divided draftshown at G (divided draft is suitable in this case).is suitable in this case). 14.14.4 front heald shafts are4 front heald shafts are used for a face warp andused for a face warp and 4 other shaft for a back4 other shaft for a back warp.warp. 15.15.The ratio of the face andThe ratio of the face and back warps is 1:1, 2back warps is 1:1, 2 warp threads should bewarp threads should be drawn in one dent of thedrawn in one dent of the reed (the face and backreed (the face and back threads).threads).
52. 52. 3.4.2 Back Weft3.4.2 Back Weft WeavesWeaves To increase either theTo increase either the thickness or mass of thethickness or mass of the fabric.fabric. 2 systems of weft and one2 systems of weft and one system of warp.system of warp.
53. 53. Construction:Construction: 1.1. Choose either warp-faced or weft-Choose either warp-faced or weft- faced weave.faced weave. 2.2. Long warp overlaps are necessaryLong warp overlaps are necessary on the back side of the weave foron the back side of the weave for binding the back weft to the fabrics.binding the back weft to the fabrics. 3.3. Weft-face weave should beWeft-face weave should be chosen.chosen. 4.4. Example, weft-faced twill 1/3,A.Example, weft-faced twill 1/3,A. 5.5. The longitudinal section of theThe longitudinal section of the fabric at warp 1 is shown at B (weftfabric at warp 1 is shown at B (weft threads are arranged in 2 verticalthreads are arranged in 2 vertical rows).rows). 6.6. There is a long float of the warpThere is a long float of the warp thread on the back side of thethread on the back side of the weave.weave. 7.7. The most suitable point of bindingThe most suitable point of binding is the middle of the long float.is the middle of the long float. 8.8. The interlacing of the warp and theThe interlacing of the warp and the back weft, C.back weft, C.
54. 54. 9.9. In this double weftIn this double weft weave, the face andweave, the face and back weft threadsback weft threads alternate with eachalternate with each other, D.other, D. 10.10.The longitudinalThe longitudinal section of thesection of the weave is, F and theweave is, F and the cross section at thecross section at the weft threads 1 and I,weft threads 1 and I, at E.at E.
55. 55. 11.11.The weaving plan isThe weaving plan is shown at G. Theshown at G. The warp repeat of thiswarp repeat of this weave is 4, so the 4weave is 4, so the 4 heald shaft areheald shaft are sufficient. Thesufficient. The straight draft isstraight draft is used.used.
56. 56. 3.4.3 Terry Toweling3.4.3 Terry Toweling WeavesWeaves  Characterized by the formation of loops which areCharacterized by the formation of loops which are raised above the surface of the fabric either onraised above the surface of the fabric either on one or both sides.one or both sides.  Used for toweling, bath mats, bed covers andUsed for toweling, bath mats, bed covers and dress (posses good wet ability, hygroscopisity anddress (posses good wet ability, hygroscopisity and heat conductivity).heat conductivity).  Two systems of warp threads and one system ofTwo systems of warp threads and one system of weft threads are usually used.weft threads are usually used.  One warp interlacing with weft forms the groundOne warp interlacing with weft forms the ground structure.structure.  The second warp is used for forming the loopsThe second warp is used for forming the loops which are firmly held in the ground structure.which are firmly held in the ground structure.
57. 57. A  Construction:Construction: 1.1. There should be two weaver’s beamsThere should be two weaver’s beams (difference tension during weaving).(difference tension during weaving). 2.2. The ground warp has a great tension. TheThe ground warp has a great tension. The warp is loosely held in the loom.warp is loosely held in the loom. 3.3. The loom equipped with a special slayThe loom equipped with a special slay motion, where the first two strokes of reedmotion, where the first two strokes of reed are shot, but the third one is normal.are shot, but the third one is normal. 4.4. The loop threads, marked by Arabic digits,The loop threads, marked by Arabic digits, alternate with ground threads which arealternate with ground threads which are marked by roman digits.marked by roman digits. 5.5. Two warp repeats and four weft repeats, BTwo warp repeats and four weft repeats, B and C.and C. 6.6. The simple base weave used to constructThe simple base weave used to construct this terry weave.this terry weave. 7.7. The interlacing of weft threads with theThe interlacing of weft threads with the ground warp threads is shown at B, andground warp threads is shown at B, and that with loop warp threads at C.that with loop warp threads at C. 8.8. Four heald shafts are sufficient forFour heald shafts are sufficient for producing this weave. The divided draft isproducing this weave. The divided draft is preferable.preferable. 9.9. The longitudinal section of this weave isThe longitudinal section of this weave is shown at D.shown at D.
58. 58. Fabric in which the loops are distributed on face surface
59. 59. 3.5 Jacquard3.5 Jacquard WeavesWeaves Large patterns fabrics using severalLarge patterns fabrics using several hundreds warp threads interlacinghundreds warp threads interlacing with the same number of weftwith the same number of weft threads in the repeat equipped withthreads in the repeat equipped with a particular type of shedding motiona particular type of shedding motion called Jacquard machine.called Jacquard machine.