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# Chapter 2

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# Chapter 2

This chapter introduce how to develope weaving plan and application to weaving machine.

This chapter introduce how to develope weaving plan and application to weaving machine.

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### Chapter 2

1. 1. CHAPTERCHAPTER TWO:TWO: WEAVING PLANWEAVING PLAN
2. 2. 2.1 Methods of Weave2.1 Methods of Weave RepresentationRepresentation  Divided into 2 type:Divided into 2 type: 1.1. Warp overlapWarp overlap 2.2. Weft overlapWeft overlap  2 methods of weave representation:2 methods of weave representation: 1.1. Linear MethodLinear Method 2. Canvas Method2. Canvas Method 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
3. 3. 2.2 Repeat of Weave and2.2 Repeat of Weave and ShiftShift  The repeat of weave is a complete element of theThe repeat of weave is a complete element of the weave.weave.  Shift or move is the distance from a painted square onShift or move is the distance from a painted square on one horizontal space to the corresponding paintedone horizontal space to the corresponding painted square on the next horizontal spacesquare on the next horizontal space 10 9 8 7 6 5 Ry 4 3 2 1 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Warp repeat, Rx = 5 Weft repeat, Ry = 5 Sy = Horizontal Shift Sx = Vertical Shift Fundamental weave: 5/2 sateen Rx Sy
4. 4. 2.3 Draft2.3 Draft  Technically it shows the sequence of raising and lowering theTechnically it shows the sequence of raising and lowering the healdframes or healdshaft, a set called harness for the weavehealdframes or healdshaft, a set called harness for the weave formation.formation.  The type of weave to be produced depends on the draft.The type of weave to be produced depends on the draft.  The basic data for constructing the draft is the weave.The basic data for constructing the draft is the weave.  The draft is usually shown at the top of the weave diagram.The draft is usually shown at the top of the weave diagram.  Drafts can be classified as follows:Drafts can be classified as follows: 1.1. Straight draftStraight draft 2.2. Skip draftSkip draft 3.3. Pointed draftPointed draft 4.4. Broken draftBroken draft 5.5. Divided draftDivided draft 6.6. Grouped draftGrouped draft 7.7. Curved draftCurved draft 8.8. Combined draftCombined draft
5. 5. 2.3.1 Straight draft2.3.1 Straight draft  The simplest draft, forms the basis for many drafts.  Each successive yarn is drawn on successive shaft, the first warp yarn on the first shaft, the second shaft, and so on. The number of shafts equals the warp repeat, Draft repeat, Rd = Warp repeat, Rx = 5 (example above).
6. 6. 2.3.2 Skip draft2.3.2 Skip draft  Used in weaving the fabrics with a high density of warp threads.  Possible to use a number of shafts two or more times greater than the warp repeat and than the minimal necessary number of shafts for this weave.  The density of healds on each shaft decreases, and friction thread against thread, and thread against heald reduces.
7. 7. 2.3.3 Pointed draft2.3.3 Pointed draft  This draft is used in weaving the fabrics with a symmetrical design, when theThis draft is used in weaving the fabrics with a symmetrical design, when the straight draft cannot be applied because of a large warp repeat.straight draft cannot be applied because of a large warp repeat.  The pointed draft can be considered as a combination of straight drafts, constructedThe pointed draft can be considered as a combination of straight drafts, constructed first in one direction and then in the other.first in one direction and then in the other.  The change of direction takes place on the first and last shafts of the draft, whichThe change of direction takes place on the first and last shafts of the draft, which are the points of reversal.are the points of reversal.  These shafts contains only one heald each number of shafts used is about twoThese shafts contains only one heald each number of shafts used is about two times less than the warp repeat of the weave: Ntimes less than the warp repeat of the weave: Nss = R= Rxx/2 + 1./2 + 1.  A variety of derived twills, and also the diamond designs, which are symmetricalA variety of derived twills, and also the diamond designs, which are symmetrical about their vertical and horizontal axes.about their vertical and horizontal axes.
8. 8. 2.3.4 Broken draft2.3.4 Broken draft  This draft can be considered as a modified pointed draft.This draft can be considered as a modified pointed draft.  A combination of straight drafts with different directions of constructing.A combination of straight drafts with different directions of constructing.  The direction is reversed not on the last or the first shaft.The direction is reversed not on the last or the first shaft.  When the direction is reversed the first threads of the next group isWhen the direction is reversed the first threads of the next group is started higher or lower than the last thread of the preceding group.started higher or lower than the last thread of the preceding group.  This small modification changes considerably the design by breaking theThis small modification changes considerably the design by breaking the axis of symmetry.axis of symmetry.  The broken draft is applied for producing hearringbone twills, diaperThe broken draft is applied for producing hearringbone twills, diaper designs and some other designs.designs and some other designs.
9. 9. 2.3.5 Divided draft2.3.5 Divided draft  This draft is employed for derived weaves, double-warp weaves,This draft is employed for derived weaves, double-warp weaves, two ply weaves, pile weaves, and some others.two ply weaves, pile weaves, and some others.  The shafts are divided into two or more groups.The shafts are divided into two or more groups.  A suitable type of draft is chosen for each group.A suitable type of draft is chosen for each group.
10. 10. 2.3.6 Grouped draft2.3.6 Grouped draft  This draft is employed for production of check andThis draft is employed for production of check and stripe designs, in which the stripes have differentstripe designs, in which the stripes have different weaves or their combinations.weaves or their combinations.  The draft is used for producing the fabric with twoThe draft is used for producing the fabric with two different stripes containing 15 and 12 threads,different stripes containing 15 and 12 threads, respectivelyrespectively..
11. 11. 2.3.7 Curved draft 2.3.8 Combined2.3.7 Curved draft 2.3.8 Combined draftdraft  Curved drafts are irregular andCurved drafts are irregular and cannot be classified.cannot be classified.  These draft are applied for fancyThese draft are applied for fancy weaves having a large warpweaves having a large warp repeat with the purpose ofrepeat with the purpose of reducing the number of shafts.reducing the number of shafts.  The minimal number of shaftsThe minimal number of shafts equals the numbers of threads inequals the numbers of threads in warp repeat with different orderwarp repeat with different order of interlacing.of interlacing.  The drawing-in is done applyingThe drawing-in is done applying the rule: all warp threads whichthe rule: all warp threads which work alike are drawn on the samework alike are drawn on the same shaft.shaft.  Oral instructions cannot be givenOral instructions cannot be given to the drawer, as well as to theto the drawer, as well as to the weaver.weaver.  They should be supplied withThey should be supplied with drawings of the curved draft.drawings of the curved draft.  Various methods of drawing-Various methods of drawing- in can be combined in onein can be combined in one draft for producing a certaindraft for producing a certain type of fabric.type of fabric.  Two or more drafts describedTwo or more drafts described above can be appliedabove can be applied simultaneously, for example,simultaneously, for example, straight and skip, groupedstraight and skip, grouped and curved, and so on.and curved, and so on.  Combined draft is mostCombined draft is most complicated and can becomplicated and can be chosen only if there are somechosen only if there are some technological or economicaltechnological or economical reasons.reasons.  It can be done properly by theIt can be done properly by the designer having a greatdesigner having a great experience.experience.
12. 12. 2.4 Requirements to2.4 Requirements to Drawing-InDrawing-In  Studied first using a straight draft then the simplestStudied first using a straight draft then the simplest and suitable for the design.and suitable for the design.  The number of shafts should be as small asThe number of shafts should be as small as possible, but the density of healds is to be calculatedpossible, but the density of healds is to be calculated and should not exceed the standard value.and should not exceed the standard value.  The distribution of threads on different shafts shouldThe distribution of threads on different shafts should be as uniform as possible.be as uniform as possible.  Used the front shafts with minimal height of lifting forUsed the front shafts with minimal height of lifting for the threads with biggest number of intersections in thethe threads with biggest number of intersections in the weave repeat and for a weaker system of warpweave repeat and for a weaker system of warp threads.threads.
13. 13. 1.2 Weaving Plan1.2 Weaving Plan ““Weaving plan is a characteristic of processWeaving plan is a characteristic of process conditions of fabric production on the loom,conditions of fabric production on the loom, expressed in graphical form”expressed in graphical form”  Consists of 3 elements placed in certain order:Consists of 3 elements placed in certain order: 1.1. Repeat of weave, example plain, twill and sateenRepeat of weave, example plain, twill and sateen 2.2. Draft or drawing-inDraft or drawing-in 3.3. lifting plan - Determines the order of lifting andlifting plan - Determines the order of lifting and lowering the shafts in the process of forming thelowering the shafts in the process of forming the weave; cam, dobby and jacquard.weave; cam, dobby and jacquard.
14. 14. Example of straight draftExample of straight draft (arrangement of warp yarn on(arrangement of warp yarn on healdframe)healdframe) Shaft No. 4 Shaft No. 3 Shaft No. 2 Shaft No. 1 Healdwire No. 4 Healdwire No. 1 Healdwire No. 2 Healdwire No. 3 Repeat No. 1 Repeat No. 2 To warp beam To cloth roller
15. 15. Example of Weaving Plan Vs DobbyExample of Weaving Plan Vs Dobby Weaving MachineWeaving Machine Dobby Mechanism – controlling the healdframe/shaft to built the fabric design Weaving Plan; Lifting Plan Healdframe/Shaft – up and down motion for warp yarn to form shedding process Weaving Plan; Draft Fabric Formation – combination of warp and weft interlacing due to shedding motion (shaft), controlled by pattern controlled mechanism (dobby) Weaving Plan; Weave
16. 16. 2.6 Relation between2.6 Relation between Weave, Draft and LiftingWeave, Draft and Lifting Plan.Plan.In the draft, there are 5 horizontal spaces which represent the shafts There are 10 vertical spaces in the lifting plan, equal to the number of weft threads in the weave repeats
17. 17. 2.7 Elements2.7 Elements Arrangement onArrangement on Weaving PlanWeaving Plan C B Lifting Plan on Left Position
18. 18. Lifting Plan on Right Position
19. 19. Task 1: Construct a weavingTask 1: Construct a weaving Plan from a Given WeavePlan from a Given Weave
20. 20. Task 2:Task 2: Construct a WeaveConstruct a Weave from a Given Draft and Liftingfrom a Given Draft and Lifting PlanPlan
21. 21. Task 3:Task 3: Construct a DraftConstruct a Draft from a Given Lifting Plan andfrom a Given Lifting Plan and WeaveWeave