WEAVING PLANWEAVING PLAN
2.1 Methods of Weave2.1 Methods of Weave
Divided into 2 type:Divided into 2 type:
1.1. Warp overlapWarp overlap
2.2. Weft overlapWeft overlap
2 methods of weave representation:2 methods of weave representation:
1.1. Linear MethodLinear Method 2. Canvas Method2. Canvas Method
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
2.2 Repeat of Weave and2.2 Repeat of Weave and
The repeat of weave is a complete element of theThe repeat of weave is a complete element of the
Shift or move is the distance from a painted square onShift or move is the distance from a painted square on
one horizontal space to the corresponding paintedone horizontal space to the corresponding painted
square on the next horizontal spacesquare on the next horizontal space
2 1 2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Warp repeat, Rx = 5
Weft repeat, Ry = 5
Sy = Horizontal Shift
Sx = Vertical Shift
Fundamental weave: 5/2 sateen
2.3 Draft2.3 Draft
Technically it shows the sequence of raising and lowering theTechnically it shows the sequence of raising and lowering the
healdframes or healdshaft, a set called harness for the weavehealdframes or healdshaft, a set called harness for the weave
The type of weave to be produced depends on the draft.The type of weave to be produced depends on the draft.
The basic data for constructing the draft is the weave.The basic data for constructing the draft is the weave.
The draft is usually shown at the top of the weave diagram.The draft is usually shown at the top of the weave diagram.
Drafts can be classified as follows:Drafts can be classified as follows:
1.1. Straight draftStraight draft
2.2. Skip draftSkip draft
3.3. Pointed draftPointed draft
4.4. Broken draftBroken draft
5.5. Divided draftDivided draft
6.6. Grouped draftGrouped draft
7.7. Curved draftCurved draft
8.8. Combined draftCombined draft
2.3.1 Straight draft2.3.1 Straight draft
The simplest draft, forms the basis for many drafts.
Each successive yarn is drawn on successive
shaft, the first warp yarn on the first shaft, the
second shaft, and so on.
The number of shafts equals the warp repeat, Draft
repeat, Rd = Warp repeat, Rx = 5 (example above).
2.3.2 Skip draft2.3.2 Skip draft
Used in weaving the fabrics with a high density of warp
Possible to use a number of shafts two or more times
greater than the warp repeat and than the minimal
necessary number of shafts for this weave.
The density of healds on each shaft decreases, and
friction thread against thread, and thread against heald
2.3.3 Pointed draft2.3.3 Pointed draft
This draft is used in weaving the fabrics with a symmetrical design, when theThis draft is used in weaving the fabrics with a symmetrical design, when the
straight draft cannot be applied because of a large warp repeat.straight draft cannot be applied because of a large warp repeat.
The pointed draft can be considered as a combination of straight drafts, constructedThe pointed draft can be considered as a combination of straight drafts, constructed
first in one direction and then in the other.first in one direction and then in the other.
The change of direction takes place on the first and last shafts of the draft, whichThe change of direction takes place on the first and last shafts of the draft, which
are the points of reversal.are the points of reversal.
These shafts contains only one heald each number of shafts used is about twoThese shafts contains only one heald each number of shafts used is about two
times less than the warp repeat of the weave: Ntimes less than the warp repeat of the weave: Nss = R= Rxx/2 + 1./2 + 1.
A variety of derived twills, and also the diamond designs, which are symmetricalA variety of derived twills, and also the diamond designs, which are symmetrical
about their vertical and horizontal axes.about their vertical and horizontal axes.
2.3.4 Broken draft2.3.4 Broken draft
This draft can be considered as a modified pointed draft.This draft can be considered as a modified pointed draft.
A combination of straight drafts with different directions of constructing.A combination of straight drafts with different directions of constructing.
The direction is reversed not on the last or the first shaft.The direction is reversed not on the last or the first shaft.
When the direction is reversed the first threads of the next group isWhen the direction is reversed the first threads of the next group is
started higher or lower than the last thread of the preceding group.started higher or lower than the last thread of the preceding group.
This small modification changes considerably the design by breaking theThis small modification changes considerably the design by breaking the
axis of symmetry.axis of symmetry.
The broken draft is applied for producing hearringbone twills, diaperThe broken draft is applied for producing hearringbone twills, diaper
designs and some other designs.designs and some other designs.
2.3.5 Divided draft2.3.5 Divided draft
This draft is employed for derived weaves, double-warp weaves,This draft is employed for derived weaves, double-warp weaves,
two ply weaves, pile weaves, and some others.two ply weaves, pile weaves, and some others.
The shafts are divided into two or more groups.The shafts are divided into two or more groups.
A suitable type of draft is chosen for each group.A suitable type of draft is chosen for each group.
2.3.6 Grouped draft2.3.6 Grouped draft
This draft is employed for production of check andThis draft is employed for production of check and
stripe designs, in which the stripes have differentstripe designs, in which the stripes have different
weaves or their combinations.weaves or their combinations.
The draft is used for producing the fabric with twoThe draft is used for producing the fabric with two
different stripes containing 15 and 12 threads,different stripes containing 15 and 12 threads,
2.3.7 Curved draft 2.3.8 Combined2.3.7 Curved draft 2.3.8 Combined
Curved drafts are irregular andCurved drafts are irregular and
cannot be classified.cannot be classified.
These draft are applied for fancyThese draft are applied for fancy
weaves having a large warpweaves having a large warp
repeat with the purpose ofrepeat with the purpose of
reducing the number of shafts.reducing the number of shafts.
The minimal number of shaftsThe minimal number of shafts
equals the numbers of threads inequals the numbers of threads in
warp repeat with different orderwarp repeat with different order
of interlacing.of interlacing.
The drawing-in is done applyingThe drawing-in is done applying
the rule: all warp threads whichthe rule: all warp threads which
work alike are drawn on the samework alike are drawn on the same
Oral instructions cannot be givenOral instructions cannot be given
to the drawer, as well as to theto the drawer, as well as to the
They should be supplied withThey should be supplied with
drawings of the curved draft.drawings of the curved draft.
Various methods of drawing-Various methods of drawing-
in can be combined in onein can be combined in one
draft for producing a certaindraft for producing a certain
type of fabric.type of fabric.
Two or more drafts describedTwo or more drafts described
above can be appliedabove can be applied
simultaneously, for example,simultaneously, for example,
straight and skip, groupedstraight and skip, grouped
and curved, and so on.and curved, and so on.
Combined draft is mostCombined draft is most
complicated and can becomplicated and can be
chosen only if there are somechosen only if there are some
technological or economicaltechnological or economical
It can be done properly by theIt can be done properly by the
designer having a greatdesigner having a great
2.4 Requirements to2.4 Requirements to
Studied first using a straight draft then the simplestStudied first using a straight draft then the simplest
and suitable for the design.and suitable for the design.
The number of shafts should be as small asThe number of shafts should be as small as
possible, but the density of healds is to be calculatedpossible, but the density of healds is to be calculated
and should not exceed the standard value.and should not exceed the standard value.
The distribution of threads on different shafts shouldThe distribution of threads on different shafts should
be as uniform as possible.be as uniform as possible.
Used the front shafts with minimal height of lifting forUsed the front shafts with minimal height of lifting for
the threads with biggest number of intersections in thethe threads with biggest number of intersections in the
weave repeat and for a weaker system of warpweave repeat and for a weaker system of warp
1.2 Weaving Plan1.2 Weaving Plan
““Weaving plan is a characteristic of processWeaving plan is a characteristic of process
conditions of fabric production on the loom,conditions of fabric production on the loom,
expressed in graphical form”expressed in graphical form”
Consists of 3 elements placed in certain order:Consists of 3 elements placed in certain order:
1.1. Repeat of weave, example plain, twill and sateenRepeat of weave, example plain, twill and sateen
2.2. Draft or drawing-inDraft or drawing-in
3.3. lifting plan - Determines the order of lifting andlifting plan - Determines the order of lifting and
lowering the shafts in the process of forming thelowering the shafts in the process of forming the
weave; cam, dobby and jacquard.weave; cam, dobby and jacquard.
Example of straight draftExample of straight draft
(arrangement of warp yarn on(arrangement of warp yarn on
Shaft No. 4
Shaft No. 3
Shaft No. 2
Shaft No. 1
Repeat No. 1 Repeat No. 2
Example of Weaving Plan Vs DobbyExample of Weaving Plan Vs Dobby
Weaving MachineWeaving Machine
Dobby Mechanism – controlling the
healdframe/shaft to built the fabric
Weaving Plan; Lifting Plan
Healdframe/Shaft – up and
down motion for warp yarn to
form shedding process
Weaving Plan; Draft
Fabric Formation –
combination of warp
and weft interlacing due
to shedding motion
(shaft), controlled by
Weaving Plan; Weave
2.6 Relation between2.6 Relation between
Weave, Draft and LiftingWeave, Draft and Lifting
Plan.Plan.In the draft,
there are 5
There are 10
in the lifting
plan, equal to
the number of
weft threads in
2.7 Elements2.7 Elements
Arrangement onArrangement on
Weaving PlanWeaving Plan
Lifting Plan on Left Position