9. Pilot models of onion cultivation for adaptation to drought and salinity
EFFICIENCY AND LESSONS LEARNED FROM CBA PROJECTIN VINH CHAU- SOC TRANGDeveloping a community-based model of onion-basedcultivation crops to adapt to droughts and salineintrusion in Vinh Chau, Soc Trang Province(6/2010 - 9/2012)Funded by GEF- SGP/UNDP/CBA*******Ms. Tr n Th Ng c HuânVice Head of Agronomy – Mekong Delta Rice Research InstituteConsultant team leader for project
Vinh Chau Commune, Vĩnh Châu district, SocTrangEcosystem: coastal delta, coastal soil with sandCrop: Commercial red shallotsSalinization, drought, exploitation of water sourcesMethods of rotational and integrated farming with redshallots and other crops, sustainable use of land and water
PROJECT SITE (VINH CHAU - SOC TRANG)• Coastal length 43 km, most of theland from sea transgress eachyear from 50 - 80 m thebenefits development ofaquaculture, fisheries• Agriculture is difficult due tosaline intrusion, lack offreshwater for crops.• Farmer’s attention to thedevelopment of growing farmproduce, such as radishes,peanuts, mung beans, red pepper,etc. on soil mixed with sand, andpurple onions are the mainproduce.• Purple onions (shallots) grownmainly in 3 coastal communes ofVĩnh Châu, Vĩnh H i and L cHòa with over 5,000 hectares peryear.Fig 1:Vinh Chaucommune(Ward 2)
Project issues(1)Land degradation issevere due to droughtand saline intrusionimpacting theproductivity of mainplants and income offarmers.(2) Do not implementto improve soilfertility in case ofdrought and salinityintrusion:Farmers are Khmer ethnic minorityand poor.Cropping by farmers in the area:exploiting the land/ not trying toimprove and recover the land.Using chemicals for planting andinorganic fertilizer. Few use organicfertilizer so the land fertility isweakened.Profit sharing strategy no joining ofcommunities.Scientific and technical applicationcombined with traditional experiencehas not been promoted. This is also truewith application of the integrated cropmanagement (ICM) for soildegradation.
Exploiting exhaustion theunderground waterUnderground water has beendecreased seriously, impacting toirrigation requirements for onionsand vegetables
Climate Change Impacts in Soc Trang ProvinceSoc Trang has characterized by a tropical monsoon climate near equatorial and dividedinto two distinct seasonsDrought:- Dry season in Soc Trang begins in late Oct/mid-Nov each year, ends in late April/mid-May- From 2006 - 2010 the dry seasons have extended, with an increased prevalence ofdrought. Eg. In 2007, there were 3 incidence of drought (from 5/6 - 9/6, from 17/7-27/ 7and from 5/9 - 10/9In some localities: the wet and dry seasons alternated in the same season (dry season hascaused flooding and heavy rain in the rainy season there are droughts)Saline intrusion:-The slight slope of the river bed and the low-lying topology are favorable conditions forsalt water to intrude into the farming land. In dry season, the river flow is weaker. Plusthe strong northeast winds exacerbates saltwater intrusion to more than forecasted.-The inlet water in the whole Mekong river system, which is now 10 - 20cm less thanhistorical average level, has a weak river flow into to sea, which causes saltwaterintruding up to 40km inland. When the northeast wind blows during high tide the salineintrusion can be found as far as 80km inland.
UNPREDICTABILITY OF WEATHER IN VINH CHAU INFIVE DEMONSTRATION CROPS WHICH APPLIED ICM(1) Spring – Summer Crop in 2011: salinity and droughtappeared later, longer and more intensified, with unseasonalrains & storms early in June, making it difficult forproducers.(2) Summer – Autumn crop in 2011: More frequent heat wavesin the rainy season.(3) Main onion crop in 2011-2012: The later out-of-season rainsin 11-12/2011 impacted development, disease control andproductivity of shallots(4) Spring –summer crop in 2012: Rainy season came earlier,from the end of April with heavy rain, above annualaverage Affecting productivity of green beans.
Table 1: Economic efficiency of demonstration plots which applied ICM at VinhChau in the Main Onion crop of 2010-2011ItemsModelfarming (1)Localfarming (2)Difference(1 vs 2)Yield (tonne/ha) 20.83 19.53 1.30Total income (1,000 VND /ha) 1374873,0 351552,0 23321,0Seeds (1,000 VND/ha) 12303,0 12303,0 0,0Soil preparation (1,000 VND/ha) 4881,0 4881,0 0,0Making beds (1,000 VND/ha) 6550,0 6550,0 0,0Sowing (1,000 VND/ha) 5393,0 5393,0 0,0Mulching by rice straw (1,000 VND/ha) 2677,0 1041,0 1636,0Watering (1,000 VND/ha) 22610,0 24971,0 -2361,0Weeding (1,000 VND/ha) 4101,0 4465,0 -364,0Fertilizer (1,000 VND/ha) 13290,0 13920,0 -630,0Pesticides (1,000 VND/ha) 4518,0 5181,0 -663,0Harvesting (1,000 VND/ha) 8882,0 8882,0 0,0Drying and transport (1,000 VND/ha) 4991,0 4991,0 0,0Total costs (1,000 VND/ha) 90195,0 92579,0 -2384,0Profit (1,000 VND/ha) 284677,0 258973,0 25704,01Onions were sold from 17,000 VND/kg to 20,000 VND/kg depending on selling time, average price is18,000 VND/kg.
Demonstration plots which applied ICM in the Spring- Summercrop 2011 (Mung bean, radish, chili)
Table 2: Economic efficiency of demonstration plots which applied ICM atVinhchau in Mung bean Spring-Summer crop of 2011 .ItemsModelfarming (1)Localfarming (2)Difference(1 vs 2)Yield (tonne/ha) 2.09 1.79 0.30Total income (1,000 VND /ha) 155871,0 47842,0 8,029Seeds (1,000 VND/ha) 1563,0 1563,0 0,000Soil preparation (1,000 VND/ha) 2496,0 2496,0 0,000Making beds (1,000 VND/ha) 4124,0 4124,0 0,000Sowing (1,000 VND/ha) 1518,0 1518,0 0,000Mulching by rice straw (1,000 VND/ha) 1908,0 1542,0 0,366Watering (1,000 VND/ha) 4465,0 5386,0 -0,922Weeding (1,000 VND/ha) 1582,0 2374,0 -0,792Fertilizer (1,000 VND/ha) 4012,0 3351,0 0,662Pesticides (1,000 VND/ha) 1564,0 2136,0 -0,572Harvesting (1,000 VND/ha) 4434,0 4434,0 0,000Drying and transport (1,000 VND/ha) 3053,0 3053,0 0,000Total costs (1,000 VND/ha) 30720,0 31979,0 -1,259Profit (1,000 VND/ha) 25150,0 15862,0 9,2881Mung beans were sold from 21,000 VND/kg to 37,000 VND/kg depending on selling time.
Demonstration plots which applied ICM at Vinhchauin the Summer – Fall rice crop 2011
Table 3: Economic efficiency of demonstration plots which applied ICMat Vinhchau in the Summer – Autumn/season of 2011.ItemsModelfarming (1)Localfarming (2)Difference(1 vs 2)Yield (tonne/ha) 5.75 5.53 0.22Total income (1,000 VND /ha) 139586,6 38045,9 1540,7Seeds (1,000 VND/ha) 1604,0 1537,7 66,3Soil preparation (1,000 VND/ha) 1500,0 1500,0 0,0Sowing/transplanting (1,000 VND/ha) 2465,2 2465,2 0,0Re-transplanting (1,000 VND/ha) 858,2 789,7 68,6Watering (1,000 VND/ha) 500,8 628,3 -127,6Weeding (1,000 VND/ha) 475,6 492,0 -16,4Fertilizer (1,000 VND/ha) 4993,2 4816,2 177,0Pesticides (1,000 VND/ha) 1135,9 1308,6 -172,6Harvesting (Cutting & Threshing) (1,000VND/ha) 5565,2 5565,2 0,0Drying and transport (1,000 VND/ha) 1607,5 1607,5 0,0Total costs (1,000 VND/ha) 20705,7 20710,4 -4,7Profit (1,000 VND/ha) 18880,9 17335,5 1545,41Rice was sold from 6,500 VND/kg to 7,500 VND/kg depending on varieties and selling time.
Crop rotation/ intercropping (radish - chili, mung bean,onions) for seeds in the Spring-Summer crop 2012
Table 5: Economic efficiency of demonstration plots which appliedICM at Vinhchau in Radish Spring-Summer crop of 2012 .5,14997,338102,487Profit (Benefit) (1,000 VND/ha)-1,29249,51348,222Total costs (1,000 VND/ha)02,5002,500Drying and transporting (1,000 VND/ha)08,0008,000Harvesting (1,000 VND/ha)-453,2502,800Pesticides (1,000 VND/ha)-6425,9135,272Fertilizer (1,000 VND/ha)-2002,6002,400Weeding (1,000 VND/ha)-1,00011,00010,000Watering (1,000 VND/ha)1,0002,0003,000Mulching by rice straw (1,000 VND/ha)02,0002,000Sowing (1,000 VND/ha)02,0002,000Making beds (1,000 VND/ha)01,2501,250Soil preparation (1,000 VND/ha)090009,000Seeds (1,000 VND/ha)3,8500146,850150,708Total income (1,000 VND /ha) 11.0238.6539.66Yield (tonne/ha)Difference(1 vs 2)Local farming(2)Model farming(1)Items1Radish was sold from 3,500 VND/kg to 4,000 VND/kg, average price is 3,800 VND/kg
Table 6: The Efficiency of the farming model which applied adaptivemanagement practices/ICM in onion-based cropping system(Mean of 2 years)-12.5236Radish in Spring-Summer cropiv-9.1393Onion for Seeds in Spring-Summer cropiii- 10.2336Mung bean in Spring-Summer cropii-7.9481Onion in Main crop (Winter-Spring)iWater input saving ( m3 water/ha/crop)314.410.604Increased Profit (million VND/ha)2+4.05.75Rice in Summer-Autumn crop/Mua cropv+4.337.73Radish in Spring-Summer cropiv+6.812.35Onion for Seeds in Spring-Summer cropiii+12.91.93Mung bean in Spring-Summer cropii+5.419.20Onion in Main crop (Winter-Spring)iYield (tons/ha)1Difference vs Localfarming (%)ModelFarmingItemsNo.
2. LEARNED LESSONS2.1. Management and operationa.The organization and implementation of climate adaptation models of theproject is the result of the close link between the stakeholders: GEF,Executive Committee (Women Union of Vinh Chau town) and the Group ofExperts Consultants (Cuu Long Rice Research Institute ).b.Focus on location choice to deploy models: Choosing the right venue.Achieving consensus of local governments and households participating inthe project.c.Ensure selection criteria for households participating in the CBA project.d.Responsibilities and specific plans should be made clear at the beginningof each quarter, before implementation of project activities.e.The deployment of models is carried out properly based on the methods,technical and specialized requirements of project.
2.2. LESSONS LEARNED FROM TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS2.2.1. Selecting and successful application of the adaptive managementpractices/ICM in the model farming(1) Select the plant type of upland crops with low water requirement and short growthtime, such as mung beans instead of radishes which were the main crop in Spring-Summer season in previous years.(2) The proper increase of mulching by rice straw for upland crops (purple onions,radishes, mung beans, etc.)(3) Supplementary use of organic fertilizer and lime, reduced use of chemical fertilizers,especially nitrogen fertilizer, helping crops to stand unusual heat in early and midgrowth and increase capacity to resist pests and diseases.(4) Use of specific pesticides, bio - pesticides, alternative use of chemical pesticides formain diseases that are highly pesticide-resistant on each crops, quick response tosituations when the growth and productivity of farm produce was affected.(5) Application of strict measures in disease prevention before sowing, namely,cleaning the field, drying the soil, lime treatment, applying chemicals to preventfungus disease and other harmful diseases developing quickly in high humidity andheavy rain, such as (Spodoptera litura, Spodoptera exigua , purple blotch/spot-Alternaria porri, Sclerotium cepivorum )(6) Adoption of rice varieties that can stand droughts, salinity and have short growthduration such as OM5451,OM6377,...
2.2. LESSONS LEARNED FROM TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS2.2.2. Harmonious Combination between the Indigenous Knowledgeof Vinhchau Farmers with the new technologies and betweeneconomic efficiency with environmental benefit.• Increase use of rice straw mulching to save input water in onion-based croppingsystems (mung bean, radish, onion for seeds, chili, etc.)• Application of irrigating techniques using underground water for upland crops indrought and high salinity conditions of Vinhchau.• Mixing of loamy soil with sandy soil: After 2-3 years of cultivation of onion andother upland crops (radish, mung bean, chili, manioc, etc. ), farmers of Vinhchaubought loamy soil from other places to mix with sandy soil (about 10 m3 /1000m2# the added layer is 20-30cm) in order to supply nutrients for the degraded soildue to continuous upland crops, especially onion and radish without applyingorganic fertilizers.
Strengthening planting beds with strawUnderground tank with barrel/ pipeirrigation by Vinh Chau
2.2. LESSONS LEARNED: TECHNICAL2.2.2. Harmonious Combination between the Indigenous Knowledge of VinhchauFarmers with the New technologies and between economic efficiency withenvironmental benefit.(4) Improved fields: To limit the impact of rainy season, lower quantity of rotten onionsand radishes by elevating ground about 10-20 cm more.(5) Onion Preservation: frequency/time of watering and fertilizing affect the shelf life.- Reduce watering in the afternoon at 50-55 days of age- Limit excess chemical fertilizers- Use a nylon tarpaulin to shield onion plants during the Northeast monsoon(6) Diversifying crop rotations / intercropping of crops such as radish, green beans,chilli, ... in Spring –Summer crop to increase profits and contribute to addressingsustainable livelihoods.(7) Proactive measures to support timely response to erratic weather changes
CONCLUSION1. Efficiency of the project:The project brings many benefits to communitya. In an area of 165.5 ha of 5 Demonstration plots which applied ICM to prevent soildegradation due to drought and salinity, crop rotation approach of purple onionshas met and exceeded adaptation indicators for the project- 6 solutions adaptedsuccessfully.b. The adaptive management practices which applied ICM helped minimize theadverse effects of climate change on agricultural production of the communitydespite the evolution of climate change and erratic weather trend worsening.c. Contribute to solving the problem of water-saving irrigation for onions and othercrops in drought conditions. Water savings from 6.2% to 18.4% depending on thecrop and crop cultivation.d. Contribute to the protection and improvement of environment farming, preventingland degradation, drought and salinity.
e. Economic efficiency is improved: Increasing profit by ICMin 5 crops at 1,755 billion on 165.5 hectares. Average is10,604 VND / ha (14.4%).f. The project contributed to the adaptativ capacity of the localcommunityCONCLUSION
2. The results of the technical demonstration project isconcluded - transfer and replication of modelThere have been many lessons useful to the community inthe management, operation and application of technicalsolutions to adapt to climate change and replication isapplicable to areas with similar conditions Vinh Hai , HoaLac (Vinh Chau, Soc Trang) and other coastal provincesin the Mekong Delta.3. There were four policy recommendations proposed to localgovernment, which contribute to poverty reduction andsustainable livelihoods of the Khmer community in VinhChau in response to the worsening effects of climatechange.CONCLUSION
UNDP GEF SGP Viet NamCBA Viet NamNguy n Th Kim Anh, UNDP Viet Nam24
251. CBA Viet Nam portfolio• Objective: to enhance local adaptive capacity to addressCC adverse impact to promote sustainable agriculture.• a diversified project portfolio of 12 projects - toexperiment adaptation models which strengthen resilienceof ecosystems and vulnerable communities in the face ofCC.• rural poor farmers, 2 projects - indigenous peoples(Muong and Khmer).
27CBA projects• Demonstration projects, adopting integratedapproaches - 3 key components, including awarenessraising, capacity building and model building.• Key characteristics: natural resource management,disaster risk reduction, community development,poverty reduction/ sustainable livelihoods, in the face ofclimate change.
28Adaptation methods:• Testing salinity and drought tolerant varieties of rice and othercrops;• Integrated and sustainable use of natural resources, includingbiodiversity, land and water;• Rainwater harvesting;• Micro watershed management inupland areas (building contourditches and planting forest toreduce impact of flash flood);
29• Integrated farming techniques (sustainableland and water management, fertilizing,shifting crop calendar, …);• Documentation and utilization of traditionalknowledge;• Protecting and planting mangroves;• Diversification of income/livelihood activities(off farm income).
302. Lessons Learned• Common community definition of CC adaptation: to be proactive indeveloping readiness for coping with extreme weather events• Local expectations on CBA projects:What kind of CC impacts for their localities?What are the appropriate andshort term adaptation measuresto promote sustainable livelihoodsin the context of CC?• Local communities and people havealready taken adaptive measures,but this has been passive and themeasures adopted have been limitedto those available with their indigenousknowledge, skills and resources.
31Effective adaptation requires:• giving the development of capacity for localcommunities the highest priority.• address simultaneously:• the short-term impacts on livelihoods andthe longer-term impacts on ecosystems andnatural resources• the impacts of development (non climaticreasons) and of climate change (climaticreasons)
32• Combining traditional knowledge withadvanced technologies in adaptationmeasures - to proactively responding to CCimpacts in a flexible manner.• the adoption of flexible adaptation measures.• appropriateness for the specific community –taking into account the local cultural,environment and natural resources.
33Conservation and sustainable use of natural resources is aneffective adaptation strategy as:•Those poor communities facing environmental degradation andliving in a prone disaster area are the most vulnerable to CC,heavily depending on natural resources for livelihoods.•CC adaptation measures need to bebased on the use of more environment-ally friendly technologies and methodspromoting conservation andsustainable use of biodiversity, waterand land resources.•Hard measures (communityinfrastructure) are needed foreffective adaptation.
34• All CBA project areas suffered from unfavorable weatherduring the project implementation. In the context of CC,there is a real need for the experimentation of theadaptation measures in a number of years/crops so as toconfirm its adaptability toCC impact.• Diversification of income,promoting off farm-incomegeneration to reduce theClimatic risks in agricultureDevelopment and overexploit-ation of natural resources.
35The effectiveness of SPG for VietnamAt the programme level:•CBA project implementation benefits from the existingmechanism of SGP and its lessons learned.•The technical assistance from the NSC members, especiallythe ones who have CC expertise, is very helpful to the CBAimplementation.•CBA provides a very good learning opportunity for SGPViet Nam to experience in a new area of CC adaptationwhich highly meets its stakeholders.•There is a critical need for advocacy on CBA to maximiseCBA impact and influence policy at the national level.
363. Conclusion• CC is real and there is a critical need for adaptation - highon the government agenda of Viet Nam, at the national andlocal levels – promoting CBA.• Effective implementation and management of CBAprogramme requires:• CBA strategy - a clear strategic focus (thematic andgeographic), adaptation measures (short term and longterm, cost effective, socio – economic andenvironmental benefits, development/additionalimpact of CC)• existing SGP mechanism to deliver funding on CBA
37• CBA - a strategic niche for SGP - target bothCC adaptation - mainstream CC adaptationin SGP programme and projects(urban and rural poor, the Central Coast andMekong delta, mainstreaming in local andnational programmes/ policy influence andsynergy with big projects for sustainability,replication and up-scaling, knowledgemanagement and advocacy on CBA).