11. Real-time salinity monitoring systems in Can Tho and opportunities for expanding in the Mekong Delta
Real-time Salinity monitoringsystem in Can Tho andopportunities for expanding inthe Mekong deltaHuy Nguyen, PhDTechnical Specialist
ISET – introduction• Who we are?– Institute for Social and Environmental Transition-International (ISET)is a non-governmental research organization consisting of a networkof offices and associates in the U.S.A., Thailand, India, Vietnam andCanada.• What we do?– supports adaptive responses to social and environmental change,especially as related to climate, urbanization, and natural hazards.– collaboratively with local organizations to generate new knowledgethat informs global scientific issues– delivers practical innovations for local development practice.– leading in the global dialogue on climate change and adaptation,– providing key conceptual guidance as well as practical tools andmethods.• Where we work?– ISET works primarily in Vietnam, Nepal, India, Indonesia, Pakistan andThailand.
On-going projects managed by ISET VietnamISET’s current projects cover adaptationand resilience to climate change, aswell as strategic approaches to waterresources management, studies ofurban and peri-urban systems anddisaster risk management.
Why Real-time Salinity monitoring system in CanTho and the Mekong delta?• Before 1980, every year, agricultural areas in the Mekongdelta were aﬀected by salinity, amounting to 1.7–2.1 millionha out of 3.5 million ha.• In the 1980’s and 1990’s, a number of salinity controlprojects were implemented, leading to closure dams andsluice gates in the navigation canals connecting the branchesof the delta.• Nowadays, salinity aﬀects around 0.8 million ha every year.However, the fresh water intakes along the estuary branchesare usually aﬀected by high salinity yearly.• Every year, these intakes have to be closed for considerableperiods of time from some weeks to one or two months toprevent salt intrusion. (Nguyen and Savenije, 2006; Chu, T. H.,2012).
Trend of salinity intrusion in Mekong delta inthe past ten yearsFigure: Saline intrusion in the Mekong Delta in 2002 (left) (Yamashita, 2003), and in2010 (right)
Why need a Real-time Salinity monitoringsystem in Can Tho and the Mekong delta?• Stronger sea tide and saline intrusion are results of sea levelrise and changing Mekong river flow in the dry season.• In Can Tho, the number of households using piped water isonly 32-33% for the city, and 52% for its 5 urban districts =>vulnerability in case of Salinity intrusion• Can Tho’s stakeholders are concern about salinity intrusionand planning for response,• There is no any data source for decision making• DONREs has recorded salinity data only twice per year.• Scientific information based is importance for the planningprogress and decision making=> Monitoring salinity intrusion became an urgent issue
Goal of the project• The goal of this project is to enhance Can ThoCity resilience in response to salinization ofthe surface water resources caused by climatechange.
Objectives• Develop a network of real-time salinitymonitoring stations in Can Tho City formonitoring and prompt warning of salineintrusion into the city;• Raise awareness of Can Tho people, especiallythe poor, of the impacts and situations of salineintrusion;• Identify saline concentration thresholds andpropose solutions to respond when salinityreaches those thresholds;
Arm of the real-time salinitymonitoring system• Provide real-time data of salinity intrusion todifferent sectors in Can Tho city.• Provide salinity data in Can Tho to thescientists and researchers.• Send SMS alerts to local authorities and localpeople, private sector who need salinity datafor their daily living and livelihoods.
What we need for a salinity system?• 1 sensors for 1 station (we have 8 stations), forrecording the saline water (g/lit)• 1 server for 1 system (the capacity of our server isenough for the whole Mekong delta• Software for analyzing data and transferring• Web-base:Technologies required to develop the web-based system:+ Programming language: ASP.NET+ Database Management System: SQL server.+ Web browsers compatibility: Internet Explorer, Mozilla Fire Fox, Chrome,Safari…• Need involvement of Media
How the system works?(1)ServerSEBA software(2)Data in text(3)Data Auto-transferring (4)Station(5)ServerWebsite(6)DatatransferringDataoutputExcel, TextReadingTransferringDataoutputUSB 3GSending SMSEarly warningsystem9(8)(7)Television,News List of cellphoneregisters (user)
Result from the systemVisit http://thunghiem.nhiemmanct.vn/ for Information
Model for transferring information tothe usersSensors/ stationsSensors/ stationsServerWebsiteWebsite SMSSMSMediaMediaCommunityCommunityScientistscommunityScientistscommunityPrivatesectorsPrivatesectorsSectorialdepartmentsSectorialdepartmentsEvery30mins24/7Every30mins24/7
Opportunities for replicating thissystem in the Mekong delta• We now have:– 1 sensors for 1 station (we have 8 stations), for recording thesaline water (g/lit)– 1 server for 1 system (the capacity of our server is enough forthe whole Mekong delta– Software for analyzing data and transferring– Web-base:• We can collaborate to set up ONE system for Mekongdelta.– We need more station installed in the downstream for earlywarning– We need to share these information into the database of MRCso that every one can assess
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