Ch2

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Ch2

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Cognitive Neuroscience
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Exploring the Brain </li></ul><ul><li>21 st Century – Brain Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Central Nervous System </li></ul><ul><li>Cortical Functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Two Hemispheres </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Neuroscience </li></ul><ul><li>The Neuroscientists’ Toolbox </li></ul>
  3. 3. Exploring the Brain <ul><li>New ways to study Cognitive Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Human brain – Next frontier </li></ul><ul><li>The brain is small but vast </li></ul><ul><li>Basic brain geography already known </li></ul><ul><li>Now map out specific regions and functions and relate them to cognitive processes </li></ul>
  4. 4. 21 st Century – Brain Science <ul><li>Cognitive Neuroscience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive psychology + neuroscience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Study the brain, learn about the mind </li></ul>
  5. 5. Mind-Body Issues <ul><li>Physical versus mental world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do these worlds co-exist? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws and objects (incl. brain) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological World </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws and thoughts (cognition) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Central Nervous System (CNS) <ul><li>CNS: Brain and spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>The Neuron </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dendrites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Axon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presynaptic terminals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synapse </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Neuron Copyright 2002 Allyn & Bacon
  8. 8. Anatomy of the Brain <ul><li>Cerebral cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Corpus callosum </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Pituitary gland </li></ul><ul><li>Thalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Midbrain </li></ul><ul><li>Pons </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebellum </li></ul><ul><li>Medulla </li></ul>
  9. 9. Anatomy of the Brain <ul><li>Cerebral cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory-motor areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contralaterality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lobes of the cerebral cortex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal lobes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporal lobes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parietal lobes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occipital lobes </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Cortical Functioning <ul><li>Phrenology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bumps = Character, personality, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pseudoscience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.quackwatch.com/01QuackeryRelatedTopics/pseudo.html </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Localization </li></ul><ul><li>Phantom Limbs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ramachandran </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Tale of Two Hemispheres <ul><li>Contralaterality of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Corpus callosum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebral commissurotomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anatomy of visual pathway </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Split brain research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sperry & Gazzaniga </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brief visual presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only one hemisphere can process </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 17. Cognitive Neuroscience <ul><li>Cognitive + Neuroscience </li></ul><ul><li>These two disciplines help each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical evidence for theoretical structures of the mind </li></ul><ul><li>Relate their findings to comprehensive models of cognition </li></ul><ul><li>Correlate brain pathology and behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Build models of the mind that include neurological functions </li></ul><ul><li>Simulate human cognition with computer models of neurological functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Imaging techniques reveal structure and process </li></ul>
  13. 18. Neuroscientists’ Toolbox <ul><li>EEG </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Record neuron events </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CT Scans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>180 degree X-ray </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PET Scans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radioactive tracer shows glucose use in the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MRI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electromagnets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>fMRI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electromagnets ( www.csulb.edu/~cwallis/482/fmri/fmri.html ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure and function </li></ul></ul>                                                                                   Spin-spin relation time T2                                                    Spin-spin relation time T2                                                    Spin-spin relation time T2                                                    Spin-spin relation time T2
  14. 24.                                
  15. 25. Neuroscientists’ Toolbox <ul><li>MEG </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic fields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TMS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used with EEG or MEG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects of changes in brain electrical activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Micro CT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses CT to scan via microscope 3D images of very small structures </li></ul></ul>

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