Psychological Science and Research Methods<br />
Purpose of psychological research<br />Psychology is a “soft science” and “social science” – humans are not predictable or...
Goals of psychological research<br />Describe (objectivity)<br />Understand (why?)<br />Predict (the past predicts the fut...
How do we do research?<br />Inductive Reasoning                    Deductive Reasoning<br />(bottom-up)(top-down)<br />
Scientific method<br />Observation : identify<br />Hypothesis<br />Design <br />Results<br />Conclusion<br />Communication...
Scientific method contd.<br />A theory is a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations<br />A hypo...
Types of research<br />Descriptive<br /><ul><li>naturalistic observation, case study,  surveys/questionnaires/interviews</...
Features of Experimental Design<br />Temporal precedence of IV : IV must come before the DV<br />Establishment of cause-an...
Threats/Biases in Experimental Research<br />Sampling bias/Selection bias<br />		 – affects reliability and validity<br />...
Countering biases in experimental design<br />Random sampling<br />Random assignment to groups and equal treatment of grou...
Evaluating experimental research<br />Advantages: <br />Scientific<br />Standardized and controlled<br />Causal relationsh...
Issues to consider<br />Reliability  - replicability<br />Validity – generalizability<br />Internal/experimental validity ...
Psychological Science and Research Methods
Psychological Science and Research Methods
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Psychological Science and Research Methods

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Psychological Science and Research Methods

  1. 1. Psychological Science and Research Methods<br />
  2. 2. Purpose of psychological research<br />Psychology is a “soft science” and “social science” – humans are not predictable or reliable (individual differences)<br />Psychologists do research to:<br />Study development and environmental factors and the role they play in individuals' mental health.<br />Study people with specific psychological disorders, symptoms, or characteristics.<br />Develop tests to measure specific psychological phenomenon.<br />Develop treatment approaches to improve individuals' mental health<br />Basic and applied research<br />
  3. 3. Goals of psychological research<br />Describe (objectivity)<br />Understand (why?)<br />Predict (the past predicts the future)<br />Control (manipulation/intervention)<br />Improve<br />Compare<br />
  4. 4. How do we do research?<br />Inductive Reasoning  Deductive Reasoning<br />(bottom-up)(top-down)<br />
  5. 5. Scientific method<br />Observation : identify<br />Hypothesis<br />Design <br />Results<br />Conclusion<br />Communication<br /> CYCLICAL PROCESS<br />
  6. 6. Scientific method contd.<br />A theory is a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations<br />A hypothesis is a specific prediction or tentative explanation<br />Null hypothesis<br />Alternative hypothesis<br />Experiments are designed to test and disprove hypotheses and theories and advance knowledge and understanding.<br />
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  8. 8. Types of research<br />Descriptive<br /><ul><li>naturalistic observation, case study, surveys/questionnaires/interviews</li></ul>Correlational<br /><ul><li>relationship/connection between two or more variables</li></ul>Experimental<br /><ul><li>causal relationship between two or more variables</li></li></ul><li>Experimental Research<br />Most scientific – objective and reliable<br />Establish cause and effect relationship between two or more variables<br />Variables: (operationalization)<br /> IV – independent variable (manipulated)<br />  DV – dependent variable (“depends” upon IV)<br />  EV – extraneous variable, confounding variable<br />Participants (population and sample; experimental group and control group)<br />Settings (experimental control and standardization)<br />
  9. 9. Features of Experimental Design<br />Temporal precedence of IV : IV must come before the DV<br />Establishment of cause-and-effect relationship <br />No plausible alternative explanations (third variable problem)<br />Random assignment<br /> If any one of these is not present, the study becomes a quasi-experiment.<br />
  10. 10. Threats/Biases in Experimental Research<br />Sampling bias/Selection bias<br /> – affects reliability and validity<br />Placebo effect<br /> – influencing of performance due to the subject’s belief about the results <br />Experimenter bias<br />Social desirability bias <br />Hawthorne effect<br />Type I error<br />Type II error<br />
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  13. 13. Countering biases in experimental design<br />Random sampling<br />Random assignment to groups and equal treatment of groups<br />Controlled settings<br />Single-blind <br />Double-blind<br />Deception<br />Multiple observers<br />
  14. 14. Evaluating experimental research<br />Advantages: <br />Scientific<br />Standardized and controlled<br />Causal relationships<br />Replicable<br />High internal validity<br />Limitations:<br />Artificiality<br />Demand characteristics and evaluation apprehension<br />Low external validity<br />
  15. 15. Issues to consider<br />Reliability - replicability<br />Validity – generalizability<br />Internal/experimental validity vs. External/ecological validity<br />Experimental realism vs. mundane realism<br />Ethical issues<br />

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