The multi-store model (MSM)

Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)
In pairs
 A d s rib d g mo p to B
     e c e ia ra n
 B d wd g mw ut s e it.
     ra ia ra itho e ing
Multi-Store Model of Memory
                     Maintenance
                     Rehearsal
                              ...
The multi-store model
 An e la tio o ho m m ry p c s e w rk b s do
      xp na n f w e o ro e s s o a e n
 theid atha the...
Sensory memory (SM)
 SM ise uiva nt toa o o thes ns se . thee o
        q    le     ny ne f  e e .g       ye r
  e r.
   ...
Short-term memory (STM)
 Ha uniq c ra te tic in te so d tio c p c
    s    ue ha c ris s     rm f ura n, a a ity
  a e o ...
Short-term memory (STM)
 Inc a ingre a a le d to tra fe fro STM to LTM,
     re s    he rs l a s     ns r m
 them rere a ...
Long-term memory
 P te lly unlim d c p c a d tio s m ntic
   o ntia       ite a a ity nd ura n, e a
  e o ing
   nc d .
...
Evaluation: what are the Strengths
 1. Re e rc s p rt, e . s ie o d tio c p c a
       s a h up o .g tud s f ura n, a a i...
Evaluation: Limitations
 1. An o rs p a n, e . d e n’d ting h b tw e
         ve im lific tio .g o s t is uis e e n
  d r...
positron emission tomography
(PET)
Auditory pets
Research related to the   MSM
 Beardsley (1997), Squire et al. (1992)
  Findings: STM a s c te w a tivity in p fro l
    ...
HM
HM
 Suffe d b in d m g d
       re ra a a e uringa o e tio tohisb in to
                         n p ra n       ra
  re u...
Complete the case study
worksheet
 W t c nc io c n yo d w
   ha o lus ns a    u ra ?
Support for sensory store
 Yo w s eas rie o le rsa num e fo ave
    u ill e e s f tte nd     b rs r   ry
  lim d tim .
  ...
Ready?
4   9   b   S


L   f   6   5


g   7   t   3
Write answers
What does this tell us?
 Tha the isas ns ry m m ry s re
     t re       e o   e o to .
 Tha info a n in thes ns ry m m r...
And again this time
 Yo w s eas rie o le rsa num e fo ave
    u ill e e s f tte nd     b rs r   ry
  lim d tim .
     ite...
Ready?
Write answers
Research related to the   MSM
 Sperling (1960)
  Findings: W n a ke (a r 5 m e o s tore o a
               he s d fte 0 i...
Other research support
 Re d thro h thelis o e
    a      ug       t nc .
 Turn o r a w d w a m ny o thew rd a yo
      ...
Research related to the   MSM
 Glanzer and Cunitz (1966)
  Findings: P rtic a b s re e b r w rd fro s rt o
              ...
HW
 C n yo illus tethem d l, a re e rc s p rt w
   a u        tra    o e nd s a h up o ith
 minim l us o w rd ?
      a e...
Evaluating the multistore model
 The isre e rc s p rt.
      re    s a h up o
 It c n e la ho it iso a e (s ture thre s ...
weaknesses
  o rs p d hy?
    ve im lifie ..w
2. KF c s s y s g s tha STM d e m retha o
       a e tud ug e ts t     os o...
oversimplification
2 Sc c r e a 2 0 s g s tha LTM d e m retha
 . ha hte t l 0 0 ug e ts t     os o      n
   o thing
    n...
Oversimplification
3 Re a a is t theo w y.
 . he rs l n’     nly a
C ik a Lo kha fo
 ra nd c rt und d e p c s ingism re
  ...
oversimplification
 Ho s p ra a theSTM a LTM s re ?
    w e a te re          nd      to s
 Ruchkin 2 0 fo
           0 3...
validity
 Us o w rdlis
    e f o     ts
 P rtic a o n p yc lo y s e
   a ip nts fte s ho g tud nts
 La e e e ( d m nd c...
Investigator /Experimenter bias
 Anythingtheinve tig to d e w h ha a e c o a
                 s a r o s hic s n ffe t n
 ...
Demand characteristics
 Fe ture o a e e e tha ap rtic a
    a s f n xp rim nt t a ip nt,
  unc ns io ly, re p nd to w n s...
Laboratory experiment
   IV m nip te too s rvee c o DV, c ntro d
          a ula d         be     ffe t n    o lle .
   ...
To do
 Activity 3p27
 C m a a w rsp 2
   o p re ns e    8
 w w a r.o /re o e /s rie 15 htm
   w .le rne rg s urc s e s ...
review
 Us them s rem d l o m m ry o
    ing  ulti to o e f e o utlinehow
 info a n istra fe d fro STM to LTM. (2m rks
  ...
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  1. 1. The multi-store model (MSM) Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)
  2. 2. In pairs  A d s rib d g mo p to B e c e ia ra n  B d wd g mw ut s e it. ra ia ra itho e ing
  3. 3. Multi-Store Model of Memory Maintenance Rehearsal Elaborative rehearsal Stimuli Sensory Short Term Long Term Memory attention Memory Memory Retrieval
  4. 4. The multi-store model  An e la tio o ho m m ry p c s e w rk b s do xp na n f w e o ro e s s o a e n theid atha the a thre s p ra s re (SM, STM, e t re re e e a te to s LTM)
  5. 5. Sensory memory (SM)  SM ise uiva nt toa o o thes ns se . thee o q le ny ne f e e .g ye r e r. a  Info a n firs a rm tio t rrive a thes ns s if a ntio is s t e e ; tte n fo us d o it, it istra fe dto STM. c e n ns rre Attention Rehearsal Sensory  Short-term  Long-term store store store
  6. 6. Short-term memory (STM)  Ha uniq c ra te tic in te so d tio c p c s ue ha c ris s rm f ura n, a a ity a e o ing nd nc d .  Info a n ism inta din STM thro h re a a rm tio a ine ug he rs l, o rw eit w d c y. It a o m y b d p c d b ne the is ill e a ls a e is la e y w info a n. rm tio
  7. 7. Short-term memory (STM)  Inc a ingre a a le d to tra fe fro STM to LTM, re s he rs l a s ns r m them rere a a theb tte it isre e b re . o he rs l e r mm e d Attention Rehearsal Sensory  Short-term  Long-term store store store
  8. 8. Long-term memory  P te lly unlim d c p c a d tio s m ntic o ntia ite a a ity nd ura n, e a e o ing nc d .  La tingm m ry c a db re a a s e o re te y he rs l. Attention Rehearsal Sensory  Short-term  Long-term store store store
  9. 9. Evaluation: what are the Strengths  1. Re e rc s p rt, e . s ie o d tio c p c a s a h up o .g tud s f ura n, a a ity nd e o ing nc d .  2 Ma he c m o e ep rc p n o m m ry. . tc s o m ns ns e e tio f e o
  10. 10. Evaluation: Limitations  1. An o rs p a n, e . d e n’d ting h b tw e ve im lific tio .g o s t is uis e e n d re STM s re (s ew rkingm m ry) a d re iffe nt to s e o e o nd iffe nt LTM s re (e is d a p c d l m m ry). to s p o ic nd ro e ura e o  2 Re a a d e n’e la a LTM m m rie . . he rs l o s t xp in ll e o s
  11. 11. positron emission tomography (PET)
  12. 12. Auditory pets
  13. 13. Research related to the MSM Beardsley (1997), Squire et al. (1992)  Findings: STM a s c te w a tivity in p fro l s o ia d ith c re nta c rte a tive LTM a s c te w LTM. o x c , s o ia d ith  Conclusions: Sho stha s re a d tinc w t to s re is t.
  14. 14. HM
  15. 15. HM  Suffe d b in d m g d re ra a a e uringa o e tio tohisb in to n p ra n ra re uc thes ve e ile s hes re . d e e re p p y uffe d  Hisp rs na a inte c re a dinta t, b hec uld e o lity nd lle t m ine c ut o no fo ne lo te m m rie . t rm w ng rm e o s
  16. 16. Complete the case study worksheet  W t c nc io c n yo d w ha o lus ns a u ra ?
  17. 17. Support for sensory store  Yo w s eas rie o le rsa num e fo ave u ill e e s f tte nd b rs r ry lim d tim . ite e  Yo w b a ke to re a a ite s u ill e s d c ll ll m .
  18. 18. Ready?
  19. 19. 4 9 b S L f 6 5 g 7 t 3
  20. 20. Write answers
  21. 21. What does this tell us?  Tha the isas ns ry m m ry s re t re e o e o to .  Tha info a n in thes ns ry m m ry s red e n’la t t rm tio e o e o to o s t s ve lo . ry ng
  22. 22. And again this time  Yo w s eas rie o le rsa num e fo ave u ill e e s f tte nd b rs r ry lim d tim . ite e  Yo w b a ke to re a theto lineif yo he r ahig u ill e s d c ll p u a h to , m d lineif yo he r am to a b tto lineif ne id le u a id ne nd o m yo he r ahig to . u a h ne
  23. 23. Ready?
  24. 24. Write answers
  25. 25. Research related to the MSM Sperling (1960)  Findings: W n a ke (a r 5 m e o s tore o a he s d fte 0 illis c nd ) p rt ll 12le rs ig re a w sp o r (5ite sre a d a o tte /d its c ll a o re m c lle , b ut 4 %) tha w n a ke to g o ro o (3ite s 2 n he s d ive ne w nly m re a d 75 c lle , %).  Conclusions: Thiss w tha info a n d c ysra id ho s t rm tio e a p ly in thes ns ry s re e o to .
  26. 26. Other research support  Re d thro h thelis o e a ug t nc .  Turn o r a w d w a m ny o thew rd a yo ve nd rite o n s a f o s s u c n re e b r in a o e a mm e ny rd r.  So thes m w there t o thelis . a e ith s f ts  C m le thene ha o o p te xt nd ut.
  27. 27. Research related to the MSM Glanzer and Cunitz (1966)  Findings: P rtic a b s re e b r w rd fro s rt o a ip nts e t m m e o s m ta f lis (primacy effect) a e o lis ( recency). t nd nd f t  Conclusions: C lle theserial position effect w h a d hic o c b c us firs w rd b s re a e a tra fe d c urs e a e t o s e t he rs d nd ns rre toLTM, la t w rd a in STM w n yo s rt re a s o s re he u ta c lling thelist.
  28. 28. HW  C n yo illus tethem d l, a re e rc s p rt w a u tra o e nd s a h up o ith minim l us o w rd ? a e f o s
  29. 29. Evaluating the multistore model  The isre e rc s p rt. re s a h up o  It c n e la ho it iso a e (s ture thre s re ) a xp in w rg nis d truc , e to s  It c n e la ho it w rks( p c s e , a ntio a a xp in w o ro e s s tte n nd re a a he rs l).  Ma sp d tio w h c n b te te . ke re ic ns hic a e s d
  30. 30. weaknesses  o rs p d hy? ve im lifie ..w 2. KF c s s y s g s tha STM d e m retha o a e tud ug e ts t os o n ne thing It c n re a vis l a ve a info a n . a c ll ua nd rb l rm tio d re iffe ntly.
  31. 31. oversimplification 2 Sc c r e a 2 0 s g s tha LTM d e m retha . ha hte t l 0 0 ug e ts t os o n o thing ne :  Kno le g ( s m nticm m ry) w de e a e o  Eve ( e is d m m ry) nts p o ic e o  Skills(p c d l m m ry) ro e ura e o  Re o nitio o fa ilia im g s(P cg n f m r a e RS)
  32. 32. Oversimplification 3 Re a a is t theo w y. . he rs l n’ nly a C ik a Lo kha fo ra nd c rt und d e p c s ingism re e p ro e s o m m ra letha s llo re e n. e o b n ha w p titio
  33. 33. oversimplification  Ho s p ra a theSTM a LTM s re ? w e a te re nd to s  Ruchkin 2 0 fo 0 3 undtha b th STM a LTM a t o nd re invo d w n c lve he hunking info a n in STM. Thisis rm tio b c us yo ne d to re a m a ea e u e c ll e ning g up o le rs ful ro s f tte w h a s re in LTM. hic re to s
  34. 34. validity  Us o w rdlis e f o ts  P rtic a o n p yc lo y s e a ip nts fte s ho g tud nts  La e e e ( d m nd c ra te tic , e e e r b xp rim nts e a ha c ris s xp rim nte b s w ll c ntro d ia , e o lle )
  35. 35. Investigator /Experimenter bias  Anythingtheinve tig to d e w h ha a e c o a s a r o s hic s n ffe t n p rtic a p rfo a ein as y, o r tha w t w s a ip nt's e rm nc tud the n ha a inte e . nd d  Thisinc e d c (inte c n) a ind c e c lud s ire t ra tio nd ire t ffe ts (d s n). e ig
  36. 36. Demand characteristics  Fe ture o a e e e tha ap rtic a a s f n xp rim nt t a ip nt, unc ns io ly, re p nd to w n s a hingfo c sa o o c us so s he e rc r lue b ut ho tob ha . w e ve  A confounding variable.
  37. 37. Laboratory experiment  IV m nip te too s rvee c o DV, c ntro d a ula d be ffe t n o lle .  (+) C n d wc us l c nc io a ra a a o lus n.  (+) C nfo ingva b sm o und ria le inim dize .  (+) C n b e s re lic te . a e a ily p a d  (-) Artific l, c ntrive s tio ia o d itua n.  (-) Inve tig to a p rtic a e c . s a r nd a ip nt ffe ts
  38. 38. To do  Activity 3p27  C m a a w rsp 2 o p re ns e 8  w w a r.o /re o e /s rie 15 htm w .le rne rg s urc s e s 0 l#
  39. 39. review  Us them s rem d l o m m ry o ing ulti to o e f e o utlinehow info a n istra fe d fro STM to LTM. (2m rks rm tio ns rre m a )

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