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  1. 1. Psychology An Introduction
  2. 2. AIMS OF LESSON To develop an understanding of what Psychology is and what Psychology isn’t To explore how Psychology has shaped our world To have some fun with some simple experiments
  3. 3. What is psychology? Psyche = Mind; Logos = Knowledge or Study Once defined as study of the mind Now broader definition to include behaviour too Psychologists study mind and behaviour scientifically
  4. 4. What is the Mind? Refers to experiences or the mental processes and experiences that cannot be directly observed. – any response that is internal or hidden from view and cannot be directly observed Psychology relies on inferences, or assumptions, about underlying processes on the basis of observable behaviour. – An inference is a logical conclusion which is based on available evidence.
  5. 5. What is behaviour?Behaviour refers to any observable action made by a living person or animal. is best described as any kind of response that can actually be seen and measured.Examples of behaviour include:  Eating  Sleeping  Sneezing  Watching T.V.  Running
  6. 6. What is Behaviour?Consider each activity listed below and state whether or not you think it is a behaviour. Experiencing butterflies in the stomach Dreaming Blinking Heartbeat Toothache Planning an excuse to get out of a date Singing a song aloud Writing a letter Experiencing an itch Reading the time on your watch
  7. 7. Ψ is the symbol for Psychology Ψ is the Greek letter psi and it is the international shorthand symbol for the word Psychology. You will often see it in text books or anything relating to the subject.
  8. 8. Is Psychology just common sense?Ψ It might be common sense to say that some football fans behave badly because they are hooligans….Ψ How do we know this?Ψ Do we have evidence for this explanation?Ψ Has anyone done any research on this topic? - effects of crowds/groups on individuals: deindividuation- Effects of alcohol on individuals
  9. 9. Scientific StudyScientific study refers to the approach which isused in psychology.Psychologists use the highly disciplined methods ofscience e.g. experimentation and carefullycontrolled observation.Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Psychology differin what they study, yet each uses the scientificmethod trying to achieve common goals of: description, prediction, explanation and control
  10. 10. What is Research?Ψ Research is a way of investigating something. We look at it in depth.There are several Research MethodsΨ Laboratory ExperimentΨ Field ExperimentΨ Natural ExperimentΨ ObservationΨ SurveyΨ CorrelationΨ Case Study
  11. 11. Some psychological research topics:  Importance of love in childhood  development of language  accuracy of eyewitness testimony  PRO SOciAL HELPING BEHAVIOUR  TREATMENT OF DEPRESSION  causes of ADDICTION
  12. 12. Say the colour of the words in the next slide.
  15. 15. The effect you experienced is the STROOP INTERFERENCE EFFECT. TO THINK ABOUT AND DISCUSS: Some behavior is AUTOMATIC. It’s impossible NOT to read color words. Would a person who cannot read experience the effect? WHEN MIGHT THIS BE A USEFUL TOOL TO USE?
  16. 16. Now we are going to do a simple activity involving letters of the alphabet.Based on your gut feelings, quickly write down:1.Your six FAVOURITE letters2.Your six LEAST FAVOURITE letters
  17. 17. Look over each list and circle all of the letters that occur in your own first name. Count the number of circled letters in each list.Which list included more of theletters from your own first name??
  18. 18. The preference for the letters in one’sown name is the name letter effect.TO THINK ABOUT: Would people bemore likely to purchase a product if the product resembled his or her name?
  19. 19. Which center circle is larger?
  20. 20. Here are the same circles again.
  21. 21. Do you see the flashing dots? The flashing is all in your
  22. 22. What do Psychologists do? They explain behaviour But how do they explain it? Many different APPROACHES or PERSPECTIVES to explaining behaviour
  23. 23. BEHAVIOURAL APPROACHΨ Perhaps we learn behaviour….Ψ This explanation is called Learning Theory and is based on ConditioningΨ There are two types of ConditioningΨ Classical ConditioningΨ Operant Conditioning
  24. 24. Classical Conditioning. Ivan PavlovUnconditioned stiumulus ucs (food)Unconditioned response ucr (salivation)Conditioned stimulus cs (bell)Conditioned response cr (salivation)ucs (food) +cs (bell) ucr (salivation) cs (bell) cr (salivation)
  25. 25. The dog sees the food and salivates. Then the dog sees the food at the same time as abell is rung. It salivates. Then the dog hears the bell, associates it with the food, andsalivates. The dog has been conditioned to salivate at the sound of the bell.
  26. 26. Have you been classically conditioned? At the dentist …are you frightened as you walk through the door? As you sit in the chair? Going to the dentist is associated with pain – you expect pain whenever you go to the dentist
  27. 27. Operant Conditioning B F SkinnerThe rat’s behaviour is ‘shaped’ until it ‘learns’ that it will be reinforced (rewarded) if it presses the food lever!
  28. 28. Why Operant? When an animal performs a behaviour, it operates on the environment.Possible consequences of behaviourΨ positive reinforcement..pleasurable reward, so behaviour will be repeatedΨ negative reinforcement..performing a behaviour that will stop an unpleasant stimulusΨ punishment .. an unpleasant response which will stop the behaviour
  29. 29. Little Albert
  30. 30. Is your behaviour conditioned or learned?Ψ What do you do when you hear a bell ring?Ψ Could you touch a spider?Ψ Have you ever been rewarded for a behaviour?
  31. 31. Psychoanalytic TheoryΨ Sigmund Freud’s theory of personality (Psychoanalytic Theory) and treatment for abnormal behaviour called Psychoanalysis.Ψ The theory explains human development in terms of an innate drive (something we are born with e.g. pleasure) and early experience (the extent to which the desires were gratified)
  32. 32. Structure of the Freudian PersonalityΨ Freud assumed that the mind is divided into 3 parts: Id, Ego and Superego
  33. 33. Defence MechanismsΨ Repression: Keep threats out of consciousness.Ψ Displacement: Move target of emotions e.g. aggression to someone/something else.Ψ Projection: Attribute undesirable characteristics to someone else..”it’s not me it’s you”.Ψ Denial: Refuse to accept the reality of an event.Ψ Intellectualisation: Remove emotions from a threatening event.Ψ Examples?
  34. 34. Cognitive /Information Processing TheoryCognitive Psychologists believe it is internal, mental processes that can explain behaviour Began in the 1950s around the time of the first computers
  35. 35. Examples of processes Memory Attention Schemas Thinking Attribution Perception Information processing Social cognition
  36. 36. Biological Approach All behaviour normal and abnormal, is based in physiological processes, especially the brain but also including other parts of the nervous system and the endocrine (glandular) system. THIS IS UNDOUBTEDLY TRUE !! What behaviour can you attribute to biology???
  37. 37. Examples Brain structure – link between Broca’s and Wernicke’s area and language; the pineal gland and biological rhythms Brain function: electrical activity – EEG stages of sleep Brain function: neurotransmitters – increase in dopamine activity in schizophrenia, decrease in serotonin in depression, increase in pleasure/euphoria ? Physiological arousal – skin conductance responses, heart rate, increase with arousal state; hormones (adrenaline)
  38. 38. Functional MRI (fMRI) Applies MRI technique to blood flow in the brain. So can picture the brain ‘in action’, e.g. look for variations in brain activity across different areas during speech and other behaviours Good spatial resolution (3 mm), no injections or radioactivity; but strong magnetic field, so any metal interferes
  39. 39. Positron Emission Tomography PET: injection of e.g. radioactive glucose; taken up by most active areas, emits radioactivity which can be recorded and built into a picture of brain activity Uses injections and radioactivity, so number of scans limited and only adults used. Spatial resolution not as good as fMRI
  40. 40. Compare and Contrast In pairs … Choose two perspectives from your text book and read relevant sections Think about how they are similar and how they are different – make notes Fill in the Compare and Contrast document