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  1. 1. Methodology Unit 2Approach Type of Evaluation in Evaluation in Evaluation in Evaluation in Evaluation in Evaluation in Evaluation in methodology terms of terms of terms of terms of terms of terms of terms of used validity reliability subjectivity/ scientific generalisability credibility ethical issues objectivity naturePsychodynamic Case studies Produce valid Not replicable The analysis The The results Freud’s work Confidentiality data because… because… has to interpret unconscious is might not be is and privacy… Examples the data so not true of other unbelievable Little Hans Can’t be therefore… measurable situations so… because… Dibbs tested for so… reliability… Qualitative Rich… If data is from Gathered by Unscientific Hard to data different one individual because… generalise sources is so… because… similar… Drawing out themes can be subjective… Correlational How is the Rating scales Levels of Correlational Correlational Strengths Weaknesses designs data give… measurement designs are designs look collected? are… not… for… Repeated Little measures, manipulation of variables Longitudinal Description Strengths Weaknesses Examples - Follow a set of participants over Difficult to keep all the participants… time… Cross Description Strengths Weaknesses sectional design More ethical than longitudinal studies because…
  2. 2. Approach Type of Describe Evaluate (twin studies and adoption studies together) Methodology used Twin studies MZ twins Strengths: Good for testing genetic causes of behavior because…Biological DZ twins Studying MZ twins reared apart… Concordance rates Weaknesses: Nature/nurture Even twins separated at birth share… Adoption Nature/nurture studies Twins who are adopted and rarely separated often share… Genes MRI Describe Magnetic Resonance Imaging X-ray scanner PET Describe Radioactive tracer Working brain Lab Issues of validity Issues of reliability Issues of Evaluate Evaluate ethical Evaluate practical experiments generalisability credibility issues issues using animals Animals are more Animals and Large samples can likely to be naïve humans are be bred in a short participants so… different period so… therefore…
  3. 3. Approach Methodology Describe Evaluate used
  4. 4. Observation Structured Structured can be useful because…Learning Structured Naturalistic Naturalistic Naturalistic may not be seen as reliable because… Overt Covert Overt Naturalistic obs are valid because… Non- participant Covert A strength of overt obs is that informed consent can be gained… and participant Non-participant Overt obs might lead to unnatural behavior and so therefore… Participant Participant obs have validity because… An advantage of non-participants obs is... Inferential Describe Levels of Reasons for Compare observed and critical values to judge significance tests Measurement choosing Mann- Interval/ratio Whitney U data Spearman’s Correlation Ordinal data Chi-squared Nominal data Independent measures Laboratory Describe Evaluate experiments (animals and An IV is manipulated Tend to be reliable because… humans) Usually have experimental and control group Not ecological valid therefore… Extraneous variables are controlled so… Fairly generalisable because… Sampling is careful to avoid… Lack credibility in so far as… Ethical issues must be adhered to… Ethical Describe Assess guidelines Informed consent…Right to withdraw…Deceit Bandura et al – did they meet the ethical guidelines? (humans) Debriefing…Competence Little Albert?