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  1. 1. Biological Approach Revision Booklet Useful Websites: 1
  2. 2. Useful Texts to read and make notes on: (You can make bullet point notes on these texts and then get these marked to show your understanding) You must read Pages 118-158 of your core textbook – Angels on psychology for Edexcel AS Level - Jarvis, Russell and CollinsPages 177-189 of advanced subsidiary Psychology- Approaches and methods – Brain Pages 45-54 and 58-59 of Psychology: the science of mind and behaviour (4th Ed) – Gross Pages 72-77, 105-106 and 113-114 of Psychology: The science of behaviour – Carlson, Buskist and Martin Pages 279-283 of Psychology: for A level – CoxPages 92-96 and 103-131 of Psychology for A level – Cardwell, Clark and Meldrum 2
  3. 3. The next sections of this booklet with supply you with activities to complete and be marked by your teacher:Label the correct parts of this picture of a neuron and then define what they are under the diagram. Part of Neuron: Definition: Myelin Sheath AxonTerminal Button/synaptic knob Dendrites Cell body 3
  4. 4. Label the diagram of the synapse using the words below, and then describe what happens at a synapse in the box below. Neurotransmitters Impulse Terminal Button/Synaptic Knob Synapse Receptor What happens at a synapse? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________Neurotransmitter: (not all words will be used- find the correct words for thegaps)This is a chemical released at the end of a neuron to pass an _____________________ to another neuron, a muscle or a gland. An example of aneurotransmitter is ____________, which is involved in the regulation ofmood. People who suffer from _____________ have __________amounts of the serotonin _______________ being passed through thesynapse, due to ___________ levels of re-uptake, or the receptors beingblocked.Words: electrical message, chemical message, Serotonin, Dopamine,depression, Schizophrenia, low, high, neurotransmitter, hormone, higher,lower, blocked, activated 4
  5. 5. The Central Nervous System (CNS):This consists of the brain and the spinal cord. Our nerves in our body areconnected to this and carry information to and from the brain.For example: We touch a hot panSensory neuron detects heat information and sends it to our ___________ _________________sends a message to the ___________ neurons Motor neuron tells the muscles to ____________ Move hand _____________ from hot pan Words: CNS, Motor, away, contract, CNSThe brain: (Label the lobes of the brain and explain their function in the boxesprovided.) 5
  6. 6. Brain scanning techniques: (match the correct definitions and texts to thecorrect scanning technique.) Use a powerful magnetic field. As our brain emits different amounts of radio waves, the differences are seen as different shades of grey on the image. It involves injecting a radioactive tracer into the blood stream. The tracerMRI fades after 10-15 minutes. It produces a record of brain activity in the scanner. It is a structural technique, used to compare functioning of brains – if they are normal or abnormal. Participant gets scanned in two conditions- when moving and after being involved in an activity.PET Participant lies down in narrow tube scanner and must be very still. It is very noisy. It is a functional technique which allows psychologists to see events that are actually happening in the brain. 6
  7. 7. Twin studies: (Fill in the gaps and then complete the aim, method, results,conclusion, and evaluation of the study.)Identical twins are called ________________. They share_____________ of their genes. Non-identical twins arecalled________________ and they share ______________ of their genes.There are two main types of twin study; comparing _______ and_______ twins, and ___________ twin studies. The first compares thedifference in _________ between the two types of twin who have beenbrought up in the same _________________. If the behaviour wasentirely sue to genes then we would expect the ____________ twins toboth show characteristics of the behaviour over the _________ twins.The other type of twin study is to compare ___________ twins living ineither the __________ or different environments. If the twins who werebrought up together in the ________ environment were more alike inbehaviour, then it gives support for ______________ influences overbiological. If twins are still alike but where brought up ____________,then it gives support for genes.Gottesman and Shields (1966) study:(comparing MZ and DZ twins)Aim:Method:Results: 7
  8. 8. Conclusion:Evaluation:Evaluation of twin studies: (Come up with 3 points that support twin studiesand 3 points that are weaknesses of twin studies,) Strengths: Weaknesses:+ -+ -+ - 8
  9. 9. Adoption studies: (Fill in the gaps and then come up with 2 points that supportadoption studies and 2 points that are weaknesses of adoption studies.)This is the most direct way of _______________ the influence of genesand the ______________. The children who have been adopted will havethe ____________ of their biological parents, but will be in the____________ of their adoptive parents.If the child has many more _______________ with their biologicalparents then it will give support for the role of _____________. While ifthe child shares many more characteristics with their________________parents then there would be more support for the role of the_______________. Strengths: Weaknesses:+ -+ - 9
  10. 10. Gender development:Genetics:Fill in the table below and the gaps: Sex chromosomes from the father X YSex Xchromosomesfrom the mother XChildren with XX will be __________________, and those with XY willbe ________________.In the embryo the ____________ begin to develop. These produce sex___________. If an individual only inherits one chromosome (X) thenthey will develop ________________ syndrome. These individualsdevelop female internal and external genitalia, but cannot produce__________.After birth the testes and __________ are important, especially during______________. The hormone which is produced by the testes in men is_________________, and the hormone which is produced by the ovariesin women is _____________. These help in the development of sexualcharacteristics.Brain lateralisation:(Complete the diagrams for both the male and female brain) Male Brain Female Brain Men use only one side of their Women use both sides of their brain at a time; this is usually brain at a time; this makes them the _________ hemisphere. ___________________. This makes them Unilateral. This hemisphere is responsible This hemisphere is responsible for:_______________________ for:_______________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ 10 __
  11. 11. Key study which supports biological approach to gender development:Money. J (1975) study:(normal male infant sex-reassignment as a girl))Aim:Method:Results:Conclusion:Evaluation: Describe and evaluate the biological explanation for gender development. (12 marks) 11
  12. 12. Comparing gender development explanations:(Fill in the table below and answer the following questions) Psychodynamic Psychodynamic Learning compared compared with compared with with biological biological learningSimilaritiesDifferencesCompare one or more biological explanations of gender developmentwith one explanation from one of the other approaches (4 marks)________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12
  13. 13. Explain two ways in which the biological approach differs from thepsychodynamic approach explanation of gender development (4 marks)_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Explain two similarities and two differences between the biologicalapproach and the psychodynamic approach. (6 marks)______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Key Issue: (answer the following question by structuring it in the box below andthen writing it out in essay format.)Describe one key issue of relevance to today’s society and applyconcepts, theories and/or research from the biological approach to explainthe issue: Debate to whether transgender operations are ethical. Description of key issue Application of concepts/studies/theories 13
  14. 14. Research methods and your experiment: (fill in the table.)Write an example of each type of hypothesis, the independent variableand the dependant variable from the experiment you conducted:Comparison of test scores from males and females on verbal andspatial abilityTwo-tailed hypothesisOne-tailed hypothesisNull hypothesisIndependent variableDependant variable 14
  15. 15. Match up the levels of measurement and their definition:Nominal Fixed units of equal distances between all points of a scale. Does not have a zero base line (so can go into minus numbers)Ordinal Weakest level of measurement and categorises data into named groupsInterval Scores are placed in rank order, so we can state which score is better than another scoreRatio Fixed units of equal distances between all points in a scale. Has a zero base-line (so cannot go into minus numbers)Choosing statistical tests: (fill in the gaps in the table) Tests to find a difference: Tests to find a relationship:Level of Independent Repeated Correlation:measurement: measures: measures or matched pairsNominal Sign test Mann-Whitney Wilcoxon signed U test ranksInterval/ratio Unrelated t-test Related t-test Pearson’s correlation Complete the ‘what do I know?’ questions on page 159 of your text book (angles) 15
  16. 16. Biological Multiple Choice Questions: 1. Brain Lateralisation involves □ A The way intelligence Quotient (IQ) is scored □ B The way functions are located in different halves of the brain □ C The way neurotransmitters work in the brain □ D The way learning and memory processing takes place in the brain 2. The biological approach could explain gender differences in which of the following ways □ A Hormones alter levels of aggression during adolescence □ B Children relate to their parents differently and model their behaviour on the same sex parent □ C There are differences in the levels of neurotransmitters between boys and girls □ D Boys are encouraged to be more independent and aggressive than girls even as babies 3. Alison and Zach have just had a new baby boy called James. James has a big sister called Julie. They both get half their chromosomes from each parent. This includes the 23rd pair that determines their sex. Identify the two statements that describe which parent contributes which chromosome to each child. □ A James has an X chromosome from his mother and a Y chromosome from his father □ B James has an X chromosome from his mother and an X chromosome from his father □ C James has a Y chromosome from his mother and a Y chromosome from his father □ D Julie has an X chromosome from her mother and a Y chromosome from her father □ E Julie has an X chromosome from her mother and an X chromosome from her father □ F Julie has a Y chromosome from her mother and an X chromosome from her father □ G Julie has a Y chromosome from her mother and a Y chromosome from her father 16
  17. 17. 4. Nerve cells are called □ A Neurons □ B Synapses □ C Neurotransmitters □ D Genes5. Which two of the following brain activities are more noticeable in male brains than in female brains □ A Verbal tasks are more lateralised to the left hemisphere □ B Verbal tasks are more lateralised to the right hemisphere □ C Spatial tasks are more lateralised to the left hemisphere □ D Spatial tasks are more lateralised to the right hemisphere □ E Verbal tasks are more equal in both hemispheres □ F Spatial tasks are more equal in both hemispheres6. Rachel carried out a psychology practical. She decided to use the same participants in both experimental conditions. What experimental design is this? □ A Independent groups □ B Repeated measures □ C Correlational □ D Matched pairs7. The 1986 Animals Act provides ethical principles to protect animals in research. Bearing this in mind, the advantage of using non-human animals in experiments instead of human participants is □ A Any animal can be used in any situation □ B It does not matter if the animals are harmed in any way □ C We can do things to animals that we cannot do to humans □ D animals are more likely to show demand characteristics8. Which two of the following statements are strengths of the laboratory experimental method? □ A There are tight controls so cause and effect can be established □ B Due to the controlled environment behaviour is more likely to be natural □ C There is little chance of demand characteristics □ D The laboratory environment ensures good ecological validity □ E The controls make the laboratory experiment replicable 17
  18. 18. Past exam paper questions: (Use a separate sheet of paper to answer thesequestions and you can hand them in to get marked.)1. (11 marks)2. (4 marks)3. (12 marks) # 18
  19. 19. 4. (3 marks) (2 marks) (1 mark)5. (6 marks) 19