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Ethics and Skills for Psychologist as Supervisor: Post-Doctoral Supervision in PA

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This is the first in a 3-part series to help psychologists obtain requisite continuing education to function as a post-doctoral supervisor in Pennsylvania

As of December 15, 2015, psychologists acting as post-doctoral supervisors must complete either doctoral-level university coursework on supervision or 3 hours of continuing education on supervision.

This program may be helpful for post-doctoral supervisees to understand the supervision process.

Published in: Healthcare
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Ethics and Skills for Psychologist as Supervisor: Post-Doctoral Supervision in PA

  1. 1. Ethics and Skills for Psychologist as Supervisor: Post-Doctoral Supervision in Pennsylvania Part 1 Podcast Episode 21 John D. Gavazzi, PsyD ABPP John A. Mills, Ph.D., ABPP
  2. 2. Overview • This is the first in a 3-part series to help psychologists obtain requisite continuing education to function as a post-doctoral supervisor in Pennsylvania • As of December 15, 2015, psychologists acting as post-doctoral supervisors must complete either doctoral-level university coursework on supervision or 3 hours of continuing education on supervision. • This program may be helpful for post-doctoral supervisees to understand the supervision process.
  3. 3. Overview • Definitions, including supervision • Focus on requirements of the Pennsylvania Licensing Law, specifically the Supervisor requirements • Enumerate qualities that make up a good supervisor-supervisee relationship • Differentiate between supervision and psychotherapy
  4. 4. Learning Objectives At the end of the podcasts/presentations, the participant will be able to: 1. Describe essential factors involved in ethically sound and effective supervision; and, 2. List or identify the State Board of Psychology requirements for post doctoral supervision. 3. Explain ways to improve supervisees level of competence, self-reflection, and professionalism; and, 4. Identify strategies to comply with the Pennsylvania State Board of Psychology regulations on supervision of post- doctoral trainees.
  5. 5. Guest Introduction
  6. 6. Supervision of psychologists-in-training is a specialty area Just because you are trained as a psychologist does not mean you are prepared to supervise psychologists-in-training
  7. 7. Supervision is a distinct professional practice employing a collaborative relationship that has both facilitative and evaluative components, that extends over time, which has the goals of enhancing the professional competence and science-informed practice of the supervisee, monitoring the quality of services provided, protecting the public, and providing a gatekeeping function for entry into the profession. Henceforth, supervision refers to clinical supervision and subsumes supervision conducted by all health service psychologists across the specialties of clinical, counseling, and school psychology. Guidelines for Clinical Supervision in Health Service Psychology Approved by APA Council of Representatives, 2014
  8. 8. There are many models of supervision • Competency Based • Treatment Based • Developmental Approach • Integrated Model This presentation will not suggest that one model of supervision is superior to any other model.
  9. 9. CHAPTER 41. STATE BOARD OF PSYCHOLOGY § 41.33. Supervisors Hyperlink is here
  10. 10. Supervisor Requirements (1) Be currently licensed while providing supervision. (2) Be qualified by training and experience to practice in the psychology resident’s areas of supervised practice. (3) Own, be an employee of, or be in contract status with the entity employing the psychology resident. (4) Review issues of practice and ethics with the psychology resident.
  11. 11. Supervisor Requirements (5) Meet individually face-to-face with the psychology resident for an average supervisory total of at least 2 hours per week. (6) Maintain notes or records of scheduled supervisory sessions until the psychology resident obtains a license or for at least 10 years, whichever is greater. (7) Ensure that the psychology resident’s status is made known to client/patients and to third-party payors. (8) Prepare written evaluations/progress reports at least quarterly delineating the psychology resident’s strengths and weaknesses. These evaluations/reports must be included with the applicant’s application for licensure.
  12. 12. Supervisor Prohibitions (1) Be subject to the psychology resident’s control or influence. (2) Be related to the psychology resident by blood or marriage. (3) Be involved in a dual relationship, as defined in the Code of Ethics (next slide), with the psychology resident.
  13. 13. Multiple Relationship § 41.61. Code of Ethics. Principle 6. Welfare of the consumer. (b) Psychologists are continually cognizant of their own needs and their inherently powerful position vis a vis clients, students and subordinates, in order to avoid exploiting their trust and dependency. Psychologists make every effort to avoid dual relationships with clients or relationships which might impair their professional judgment or increase the risk of exploitation. Examples of dual relationships include treating employes, supervisees, close friends or relatives. Sexual intimacies with clients are unethical.
  14. 14. Supervisor Prohibitions (4) Treat or have treated the psychology resident. (5) Be the subject of an active suspension or revocation by a licensing board. In the event that disciplinary action is taken against the supervisor during the supervisory period, the supervisor shall immediately notify the psychology resident and assist the psychology resident in immediately obtaining a new supervisor. (6) Accept fees, honoraria, favors or gifts from the psychology resident.
  15. 15. Additional Responsibilities (1) Beginning December 1, 2015, complete either a course in supervision from a psychology doctoral degree program or 3 hours of continuing education in supervision. (2) Develop with the psychology resident objectives to be achieved during supervision. (3) Be accessible to the psychology resident for consultation and to clients/patients of the psychology resident to answer questions and respond to concerns. (4) Be responsible to each client/patient for psychology services provided by the psychology resident.
  16. 16. Additional Responsibilities (5) Be authorized to interrupt or terminate the services being provided by the psychology resident to a client/patient and, if necessary, to terminate the supervisory relationship. (6) Observe client/patient sessions of the psychology resident or review verbatim recordings of these sessions on a quarterly basis. (7) At least quarterly, in supervisory meetings, evaluate and apprise the psychology resident about areas of progress and needed improvement, recommend applicable professional literature and assist the resident in gaining a level of skill necessary for independent practice. (8) Assist the psychology resident in working with professionals in other disciplines as indicated by the needs of each client/patient and periodically observe these cooperative encounters.
  17. 17. Additional Responsibilities (9) Ensure that the psychology resident has access to multidisciplinary consultation, as necessary. (10) Monitor the supervision provided by any delegated supervisor. (11) At the conclusion of the period of supervision, evaluate the psychology resident’s level of professional competence and theoretical knowledge in the areas of assessment, diagnosis, effective interventions, consultation, evaluation of programs, supervision of others, strategies of scholarly inquiry, cultural/individual diversity and professional conduct. This evaluation must be signed and included as part of the verification of post doctoral experience submitted to the Board with the applicant’s application for licensure.
  18. 18. The Supervisory Relationship What relationship characteristics make for good supervision?
  19. 19. Relationship Issues 1. Collaborative relationship that seeks to enhance the supervisee’s competence 2. Trust and rapport 3. Honesty and transparency 4. Interesting mix of teaching, evaluation, monitoring, and gatekeeping functions
  20. 20. Relationship Issues Contextual Factors • Supervisee’s clinical/personal maturation • Supervisor’s skill level as supervisor • Clinical settings and organizational policies • Match or mismatch with theoretical orientation • Both supervisor and supervisee open to learning
  21. 21. Differentiating Supervision from Psychotherapy Different reasons, procedures, time tables and outcomes
  22. 22. Supervision vs. Psychotherapy Supervision Psychotherapy Purpose Enhance competence Protect public Monitor service quality Function as gatekeeper Work on emotional & behavioral concerns Personal growth Outcome Becoming licensed Emotional health Time Table Fixed number of hours Based on needs Sessions 2x/weekly As needed Interaction Learning objectives Teaching skills Evaluating performance Providing feedback Treatment plan Listening/reflecting Diagnosing High degree of patient self-disclosure
  23. 23. Wrap up on first hour Remember to go to Podcasts 2 and 3

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