What is ADHD? Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders that affects 3-...
Symptoms: Inattention <ul><li>Are easily distracted, miss details, forget things, and frequently switch from one activity ...
<ul><li>Have trouble completing or turning in homework assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t pay attention </li></ul><ul><li...
Symptoms: Hyperactivity <ul><li>Fidget and squirm in their seats </li></ul><ul><li>Talk nonstop </li></ul><ul><li>Jump aro...
<ul><li>Very impatient </li></ul><ul><li>Blurt out random things, show their emotions without restraint, and act without r...
According to Dr. Russell A. Barkley, a Research Professor in the Department of Psychiatry at the State University of New Y...
<ul><li>In fact, he says that heredity/genetics makes the largest contribution to the expression of the disorder in the po...
<ul><li>Barkley looked into several twin studies in regards to ADHD  </li></ul><ul><li>He found that the probability of bo...
Dizygotic twins, on the other hand, were found to have about the same chance as two, normal siblings -  around 30 percent ...
<ul><li>In a study at the NIMH, multiple MRI snapshots were taken of children with ADHD throughout their life and compared...
Neurobiology - MRI Scans
In a separate study at the NIMH, researchers demonstrated a link between a person's ability to pay attention and the level...
Neurobiology - Pet Scans
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ADHD (For)

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ADHD (For)

  1. 1. What is ADHD? Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders that affects 3-7 percent of all American children. It is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. According to the DSM-IV, symptoms must be present for at least 6 months
  2. 2. Symptoms: Inattention <ul><li>Are easily distracted, miss details, forget things, and frequently switch from one activity to another </li></ul><ul><li>Have difficulty focusing on one thing </li></ul><ul><li>Become bored with a task after only a few minutes, unless they are doing something they think is fun </li></ul><ul><li>Have difficulty focusing attention on organizing and completing a task or learning something new </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Have trouble completing or turning in homework assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t pay attention </li></ul><ul><li>Daydream, and become easily confused </li></ul><ul><li>Have difficulty processing info as fast and accurately as others </li></ul><ul><li>Struggle to follow instructions. </li></ul>Symptoms: Inattention
  4. 4. Symptoms: Hyperactivity <ul><li>Fidget and squirm in their seats </li></ul><ul><li>Talk nonstop </li></ul><ul><li>Jump around, touch / play with whatever they see </li></ul><ul><li>Have trouble sitting still in places like school and need to be constantly in motion </li></ul><ul><li>Have a difficult time doing activities quietly. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Very impatient </li></ul><ul><li>Blurt out random things, show their emotions without restraint, and act without regard for consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Have difficulty waiting for their turn </li></ul><ul><li>Often interrupt conversations or others activities. </li></ul>Symptoms: Impulsivity
  6. 6. According to Dr. Russell A. Barkley, a Research Professor in the Department of Psychiatry at the State University of New York Upstate Medical University, and one of the leading experts in ADHD, biological factors are a strong contributor to its occurrence. Genetics
  7. 7. <ul><li>In fact, he says that heredity/genetics makes the largest contribution to the expression of the disorder in the population. </li></ul><ul><li>The heritability of ADHD averages approximately 80 percent meaning that genetic factors account for 80 percent of the differences among individuals in this set of behavioral traits. </li></ul><ul><li>If a parent has ADHD, the child has a 42-57% chance of also having it. </li></ul>Genetics
  8. 8. <ul><li>Barkley looked into several twin studies in regards to ADHD </li></ul><ul><li>He found that the probability of both monozygotic twins having ADHD was extremely high. </li></ul><ul><li>Sherman, McGue, and Iacono found 67% </li></ul><ul><li>Gilger, Pennington, and DeFries found 81% </li></ul><ul><li>Heffron, Martin, & Welsh found 100% </li></ul>Genetics: Twin Studies
  9. 9. Dizygotic twins, on the other hand, were found to have about the same chance as two, normal siblings - around 30 percent Genetics: Twin Studies
  10. 10. <ul><li>In a study at the NIMH, multiple MRI snapshots were taken of children with ADHD throughout their life and compared with those who were not diagnosed with ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>The MRI’s showed that the ADHD child had a brain that matured slower than the child without ADHD. </li></ul>Neurobiology - MRI Scans
  11. 11. Neurobiology - MRI Scans
  12. 12. In a separate study at the NIMH, researchers demonstrated a link between a person's ability to pay attention and the level of activity in the brain. Subjects were asked to learn a list of words. As they did, scientists used a PET scan (positron emission tomography) to take a look at the brain working. The researchers measured the level of glucose used by the areas of the brain that inhibit impulses and control attention. The investigators found big differences between people who have ADHD and those who didn‘t. For people with ADHD, the brain areas that control attention used less glucose, indicating that they were less active and thus cause inattention. Neurobiology - Pet Scans
  13. 13. Neurobiology - Pet Scans

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